INDIAN NUMERALS are the symbols representing numbers in India. These
numerals are generally used in the context of the decimal
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
DEVANAGARI NUMERALS AND THEIR HINDI AND SANSKRIT NAMES
Below is a list of the
० 0 śūnya (शून्य) śūnya (शून्य) shunna/shunne (Nepali ) shunno (Bengali , Sylheti )
१ 1 ek (एक) eka (एक) ek (Nepali ) yek (Persian ) æk (Bengali ) ekh (Sylheti )
२ 2 do (दो) dvi (द्वि) do (Persian )
dva (Russian ) due (Italian ) tveir (Old Norse ) dui (Bengali , Nepali , Sylheti )
३ 3 tīn (तीन) tri (त्रि) tri (Russian ) trè (Italian ) three (English ) tin (Bengali , Nepali , Sylheti ) drei (German )
४ 4 cār (चार) catur (चतुर्) chahar (Persian )
katër (Albanian ) quattro (Italian ) četiri (Serbian ) chetyre (Russian ) char (Bengali , Nepali ) sair (Sylheti ) ceathair (Irish Gaelic )
५ 5 pā͂c (पाँच) pañca (पञ्च) panj (Persian )
pyat' (Russian ) penki (Lithuanian ) pięć (Polish ) paach (Bengali ) panch (Nepali ) fas (Sylheti )
६ 6 chaḥ (छः) ṣaṣ (षष्) shesh (Persian )
shest' (Russian ) seis (Spanish ) seis (Portuguese ) chha (Nepali ) chhoy (Bengali ) soy (Sylheti )
७ 7 sāt (सात) sapta (सप्त) sette (Italian ) sept (French )
sete (Portuguese ) saat (Nepali ) shat (Bengali , Sylheti )
८ 8 āṭh (आठ) aṣṭa (अष्ट) hasht (Persian )
astoņi (Latvian ) acht (German ) åtte (Norwegian ) eight (English ) aat (Bengali , Sylheti ) aath (Nepali )
९ 9 nau (नौ) nava (नव) nau (Nepali ) naw (Welsh ) nove (Italian , Portuguese ) noh (Persian ) noy (Bengali , Sylheti )
OTHER NORTH INDIC SCRIPTS
The five Indian languages (
HINDU-ARABIC NUMERALS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ENGLISH
ARABIC-INDIC NUMERALS ٠ ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥ ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩ ARABIC
BENGALI-ASSAMESE digits ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯ Bengali and Assamese languages
SOUTH INDIC SCRIPTS
TAMIL and GRANTHA numerals
Tamil and Malayalam also have distinct forms for numerals 10, 100, 1000 as ௰, ௱, ௲ and ൰, ൱, ൲, respectively.
Main article: History of the
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
A decimal place system has been traced back to ca. 500 in India.
Before that epoch, the
Brahmi numeral system was in use; that system
did not encompass the concept of the place-value of numbers. Instead,
The Indian place-system numerals spread to neighboring
I will omit all discussion of the science of the Indians ... of their subtle discoveries in astronomy — discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians - and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description. I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs. If those who believe that because they speak Greek they have arrived at the limits of science would read the Indian texts they would be convinced even if a little late in the day that there are others who know something of value.
The addition of zero as a tenth positional digit is documented from
the 7th century by
Brahmagupta , though the earlier Bakhshali
Manuscript , written sometime before the 5th century, also included
zero. But it is in
As it was from the Arabs that the Europeans learned this system, the
Europeans called them
The significance of the development of the positional number system is probably best described by the French mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace (1749–1827) who wrote:
It is India that gave us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by the means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but its very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions, and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest minds produced by antiquity.
Tobias Dantzig had this to say in Number:
This long period of nearly five thousand years saw the rise and fall of many civilizations, each leaving behind a heritage of literature, art, philosophy, and religion. But what was the net achievement in the field of reckoning, the earliest art practiced by man? An inflexible numeration so crude as to make progress well nigh impossible, and a calculating device so limited in scope that even elementary calculations called for the services of an expert. man used these devices for thousands of years without contributing a single important idea to the system!
even when compared with the slow growth of ideas during the Dark Ages, the history of reckoning presents a peculiar picture of desolate stagnation. When viewed in this light, the achievements of the unknown Hindu, who some time in the first centuries of our era discovered the principle of position assumes the importance of a world event.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to INDIAN NUMERALS .
* ^ List of numbers in various languages * ^ Online Etymological Dictionary * ^ http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/PrintHT/Arabic_numerals.html * ^ Diller, Anthony (1996). New zeroes and Old Khmer (PDF). Australian National University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-20. * ^ The father of George Dantzig . * ^ Dantzig, Tobias (1954), Number / The Language of Science (4th ed.), The Free Press (Macmillan), pp. 29–30, ISBN 0-02-906990-4 * ^ Geometry By Roger Fenn, Springer, 2001
* Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers. John Wiley, 2000.