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Indian chess is the name given to a variation of chess played in India in the 18th and 19th centuries. The more ancient forms are known as chaturanga, and spread to the west via Persia
Persia
in the 7th Century. There are several such variations, all quite similar to modern rules, with variants regarding castling, pawn promotion, etc. These variants were popular in India
India
until the 1960s.

Contents

1 Differences from Western chess 2 Names of the pieces 3 See also 4 References

Differences from Western chess[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)

The king is always placed to the right of the queen (as opposed to the left for Black). When only the king and pawns are left in play, the opponent may not give check, but he can win by stalemate. The two-step initial pawn move is absent in Indian chess; thus, en passant is also absent. Normal castling with rook and king is absent. The king can make a knight's move once in a game, known as Indian castling. On reaching the opposite end of the board, pawns promote to the piece of that square. If it promotes at the initial king's position, it promotes a queen. Underpromotion
Underpromotion
is not permitted. The queen can also make the knight's move in addition to the rook and bishop. It is thus more powerful than in the modern version. The last piece remaining may not be captured. The king may not move without being in check.

Names of the pieces[edit] The queen is called the Minister. The knight has been called a horse since chaturanga times, and is attested to in the iconography of the modern knight. The following table describes one version of Indian chess terminology for the various pieces (including Hindi/Urdu pronunciations):[1]

Name Western Hindi Urdu

King king Rājā or Bādshāh Bādshāh

Minister queen Mantrī or Wazīr Wazīr

Elephant rook Hāthī Hāthī

Horse knight Ghoṛā Ghora

Camel bishop ūṅṭ Ūnt

Infantry pawn Paidal or Pyādā Paidal or Pyādā

See also[edit]

Origins of chess Chaturaji, four-handed version of chaturanga Shatranj

References[edit]

^ Cazaux, Jean-Louis. "Indian Chess
Chess
Sets". Another view on Chess: Odyssey of Chess. Retrieved 25 No

.