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As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861-1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation. The term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the time before the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Indian Territory
Indian Territory
later came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were initially set by the Indian Intercourse Act
Indian Intercourse Act
of 1834, and was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri
Missouri
Territory after Missouri
Missouri
received statehood. The borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts
Organic Acts
were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States. The 1907 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
by combining Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory.

Contents

1 Description and geography 2 History

2.1 Indian Reserve and Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase 2.2 Relocation and treaties 2.3 Reductions of area 2.4 Civil War and Reconstruction 2.5 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, end of territories upon statehood

3 Tribes in Indian Territory

3.1 Tribes indigenous to Oklahoma 3.2 Tribes from the Southeastern Woodlands 3.3 Tribes from the Great Lakes and Northeastern Woodlands

3.3.1 Iroquois Confederacy

3.4 Plains Indian tribes 3.5 Plateau tribes

4 Government 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Primary sources

8 External links

Description and geography[edit]

Indian Country
Indian Country
1834 (in Red)

Indian Territory
Indian Territory
in 1885 (top) and 1891 (bottom)

Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States
United States
of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act
Indian Intercourse Act
of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts
Organic Acts
that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act
Organic Act
for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians (Johnson v. M'Intosh). Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; Indian tribes were largely self-governing, were suzerain nations, with established tribal governments and well established cultures. The region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War. Therefore, the geographical location commonly called Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was not a traditional territory.[1] After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States.[2] These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was reduced to what is now Oklahoma. The Organic Act
Organic Act
of 1890 reduced Indian Territory
Indian Territory
to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
and the Tribes of the Quapaw
Quapaw
Indian Agency (at the borders of Kansas
Kansas
and Missouri). The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory
Indian Territory
became the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory.

Gray's new map of Texas and Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(c. 1876)

The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
organic act applied the laws of Nebraska
Nebraska
to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, and the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(for years the federal U.S. Diatrict Court on the eastern borderline in Ft. Smith, Arkansas had criminal and civil jurisdiction over the Territory). History[edit] Indian Reserve and Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase[edit] Main article: Indian Reserve (1763) The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763
that set aside land for use by the Native American people. The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
that ended the American Revolutionary War, and land was ceded to the United States. The British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States
United States
further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country
Ohio Country
and were twice defeated. They finally defeated the Indian Western Confederacy
Western Confederacy
at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, and the lands that include present-day Chicago
Chicago
and Detroit, to the United States federal government. The period after the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States
United States
were called Indian country, which was not even an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty.

The Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
was one of several historical territorial additions to the United States.

In 1803 the United States
United States
of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana
Louisiana
for a total of $15 million (less than 3 cents per acre).[3] President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
would be acceptable to congress. The 3rd article stated, in part:[4]

the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States; and in the meantime they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and the religion which they profess. (8 Stat. at L. 202)

Which committed the US government to “the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission” of the territory as multiple states, and “postponed its incorporation into the Union to the pleasure of Congress”[4] After the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and his successors viewed much of the land west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River as a place to resettle the Native Americans, so that white settlers would be free to live in the lands east of the river. Indian removal became the official policy of the United States
United States
government with the passage of the 1830 Indian Removal
Indian Removal
Act, formulated by President Andrew Jackson.

When Louisiana
Louisiana
became a state in 1812, the remaining territory was renamed Missouri
Missouri
Territory to avoid confusion. Arkansas
Arkansas
Territory, which included the present State of Arkansas
Arkansas
plus most of the state of Oklahoma, was created out of the southern part of Missouri
Missouri
Territory in 1819. Originally the western border of Missouri
Missouri
was intended to extend due south to the Red River. However, during negotiations with the Choctaw
Choctaw
in 1820, Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
ceded more of Arkansas
Arkansas
Territory to the Choctaw
Choctaw
than he realized, resulting in a bend in the border between Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
at Ft. Smith, Arkansas. The General Survey Act of 1824, allowed a survey that established the western border of Arkansas
Arkansas
Territory well inside the present state of Oklahoma, where the Choctaw
Choctaw
and Cherokee
Cherokee
tribes had previously begun to settle. The two nations objected strongly, and in 1828 a new survey redefined the western Arkansas
Arkansas
border. Thus, the "Indian zone" would cover the present states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska
Nebraska
and part of Iowa. [5] Relocation and treaties[edit] Main articles: Indian Removal, American Indian Wars, and Treaty of St. Louis

Map of Indian territory 1836

Before the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act, much of what was called Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was a large area in the central part of the United States whose boundaries were set by treaties between the US Government and various indigenous tribes. After 1871, the Federal Government dealt with Indian Tribes through statute; the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act also stated that. “[n]o Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States
United States
shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation ...”.[6][7][8] The Indian Appropriations Act
Indian Appropriations Act
also made it a federal crime to commit murder, manslaughter, rape, assault with intent to kill, arson, burglary, and larceny within any Territory of the United States. The Supreme Court affirmed the action in 1886 in United States
United States
v. Kagama, which affirmed that the US Government has plenary power over Native American tribes within its borders using the rationalization that “The power of the general government over these remnants of a race once powerful... is necessary to their protection as well as to the safety of those among whom they dwell”[9] While the federal government of the United States
United States
had previously recognized the Indian Tribes as semi-independent, “it has the right and authority, instead of controlling them by treaties, to govern them by acts of Congress, they being within the geographical limit of the United States... The Indians [Native Americans] owe no allegiance to a State within which their reservation may be established, and the State gives them no protection.” [10] Reductions of area[edit] White settlers continued to flood into Indian country. As the population increased, the homesteaders could petition Congress for creation of a territory. This would initiate an Organic Act
Organic Act
which established a three-part territorial government. The governor and judiciary were appointed by the President of the United States, while the legislature was elected by citizens residing in the territory. One elected representative was allowed a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives. The federal government took responsibility for territorial affairs. Later, the inhabitants of the territory could apply for admission as a full state. No such action was taken for the so-called Indian Territory, so that area was not treated as a legal territory.[5]

Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota
Minnesota
Territories 1855

The reduction of the land area of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(or Indian Country, as defined in the Indian Intercourse Act
Indian Intercourse Act
of 1834), the successor of Missouri
Missouri
Territory began almost immediately after its creation with:

Wisconsin Territory
Wisconsin Territory
formed in 1836 from lands east of the Mississippi and between the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Missouri
Missouri
rivers. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
became a state in 1848

Iowa Territory
Iowa Territory
(land between the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Missouri
Missouri
Rivers) was split from Wisconsin Territory
Wisconsin Territory
in 1838 and became a state in 1846.

Minnesota Territory
Minnesota Territory
was split from Iowa Territory
Iowa Territory
in 1849 and part of the Minnesota Territory
Minnesota Territory
became the state of Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1858

Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
was organized in 1861 from the northern part of Indian Country
Indian Country
and Minnesota
Minnesota
Territory. The name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux
Sioux
tribes.

North Dakota
North Dakota
and South Dakota
South Dakota
became separate states simultaneously in 1889. Present-day states of Montana
Montana
and Wyoming
Wyoming
were also part of the original Dakota Territory

Indian Country
Indian Country
was reduced to the approximate boundaries of the current state of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
by the Kansas–Nebraska Act
Kansas–Nebraska Act
of 1854, which created Kansas
Kansas
Territory and Nebraska
Nebraska
Territory. The key boundaries of the territories were:

40° N the current Kansas– Nebraska
Nebraska
border 37° N the current Kansas
Kansas
Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(Indian Territory) border

Kansas
Kansas
became a state in 1861, and Nebraska
Nebraska
became a state in 1867. In 1890 the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Organic Act
Organic Act
created Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
out of the western part of Indian Territory, in anticipation of admitting both Indian Territory
Indian Territory
and Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
as a future single State of Oklahoma. Civil War and Reconstruction[edit] Main articles: Indian Territory
Indian Territory
in the American Civil War, Native Americans in the American Civil War, Choctaw
Choctaw
in the American Civil War, Cherokee
Cherokee
in the American Civil War, Reconstruction Treaties, Medicine Lodge Treaty, and Americanization of Native Americans At the beginning of the Civil War, Indian Territory
Indian Territory
had been essentially reduced to the boundaries of the present-day U.S. state
U.S. state
of Oklahoma, and the primary residents of the territory were members of the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
or Plains tribes
Plains tribes
that had been relocated to the western part of the territory on land leased from the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1861, the U.S. abandoned Fort Washita, leaving the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
and Choctaw
Choctaw
Nations defenseless against the Plains tribes. Later the same year, the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
signed a Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws. Ultimately, the Five Civilized Tribes and other tribes that had been relocated to the area, signed treaties of friendship with the Confederacy. During the Civil War, Congress gave the U.S. president the authority to, if a tribe was "in a state of actual hostility to the government of the United States... and, by proclamation, to declare all treaties with such tribe to be abrogated by such tribe"(25 USC Sec. 72). [11] Prior to the Civil War, the Pottawatomie massacre
Pottawatomie massacre
(May 24–25, 1856) was one of the many bloody episodes in Kansas
Kansas
preceding which came to be known collectively as Bleeding Kansas. Members of the Five Civilized Tribes, and others who had relocated to the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
section of Indian Territory, fought primarily on the side of the Confederacy during the American Civil War
American Civil War
in Indian territory. Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Confederate commander of the Cherokee Nation, became the last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War, near the community of Doaksville on June 23, 1865. The Reconstruction Treaties signed at the end of the Civil War fundamentally changed the relationship between the tribes and the U.S. government. The Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
played out differently in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
and for Native Americans than for the rest of the country. In 1862, Congress passed a law that allowed the president, by proclamation, to cancel treaties with Indian Nations siding with the Confederacy (25 USC 72).[12] The United States
United States
House Committee on Territories (created in 1825) was examining the effectiveness of the policy of Indian removal, which was after the war considered to be of limited effectiveness. It was decided that a new policy of Assimilation would be implemented. To implement the new policy, the Southern Treaty Commission was created by Congress to write new treaties with the Tribes siding with the Confederacy. After the Civil War the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
and providing land to resettle Plains Native Americans and tribes of the mid-west.[13] General components of replacement treaties signed in 1866 include:[14]

Abolition of slavery Amnesty for siding with Confederate States of America Agreement to legislation that Congress and the President "may deem necessary for the better administration of justice and the protection of the rights of person and property within the Indian territory." That the tribes grant right of way for rail roads authorized by Congress; A land patent, or "first-title deed" to alternate sections of land adjacent to rail roads would be granted to the rail road upon completion of each 20 mile section of track and water stations That within each county, a quarter section of land be held in trust for the establishment of seats of justice therein, and also as many quarter-sections as the said legislative councils may deem proper for the permanent endowment of schools Provision for each man, woman, and child to receive 160 acres of land as an allotment. (The allotment policy was later codified on a national basis though the passage of The Dawes Act, also called General Allotment Act, or Dawes Severalty Act of 1887) That a land patent, or "first-title deed" be issued as evidence of allotment, "issued by the President of the United States, and countersigned by the chief executive officer of the nation in which the land lies" That treaties and parts of treaties inconsistent with the replacement treaties to be null and void.

One component of assimilation would be the distribution of property held in-common by the tribe to individual members of the tribe.[15] The Medicine Lodge Treaty
Medicine Lodge Treaty
is the overall name given to three treaties signed in Medicine Lodge, Kansas
Kansas
between the US government and southern Plains Indian tribes who would ultimately reside in the western part of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(ultimately Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory). The first treaty was signed October 21, 1867, with the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche tribes.[16] The second, with the Plains Apache, was signed the same day.[17] The third treaty was signed with the Southern Cheyenne
Southern Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
on October 28.[18] Another component of assimilation was homesteading. The Homestead Act of 1862, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The Act gave an applicant freehold title to an area called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres (65 hectares or one-fourth section) of undeveloped federal land. Within Indian Territory, as lands were removed from communal tribal ownership, a land patent (or first-title deed) was given to tribal members. The remaining land was sold on a first-come basis (typically by land run, with settlers also receiving a land patent type deed. For these now former Indian lands, the General Land Office distributed the sales funds to the various tribal entities, according to previously negotiated terms. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, end of territories upon statehood[edit] The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
organic act of 1890 created an organized incorporated territory of the United States
United States
of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, with the intent of combining the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma. The citizens of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
tried, in 1905, to gain admission to the union as the State of Sequoyah, but were rebuffed by Congress and an Administration which did not want two new Western states, Sequoyah and Oklahoma. Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
then proposed a compromise that would join Indian Territory
Indian Territory
with Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
to form a single state. This resulted in passage of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Enabling Act, which President Roosevelt signed June 16, 1906.[19] empowered the people residing in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
and Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
to elect delegates to a state constitutional convention and subsequently to be admitted to the union as a single state. Citizens then joined to seek admission of a single state to the Union. With Oklahoma
Oklahoma
statehood in November 1907, Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was extinguished. Tribes in Indian Territory[edit] Tribes indigenous to Oklahoma[edit] Main articles: Southern Plains
Southern Plains
Villagers, Caddoan Mississippian culture, and Wichita people Main article: History of Oklahoma

Two Wichita women in summer dress, 1870

Indian Territory
Indian Territory
marks the confluence of the Southern Plains
Southern Plains
and Southeastern Woodlands
Southeastern Woodlands
cultural regions. Its western region is part of the Great Plains, subjected to extended periods of drought and high winds, and the Ozark Plateau
Ozark Plateau
is to the east in a humid subtropical climate zone. Tribes indigenous to the present day state of Oklahoma include both agrarian and hunter-gatherer tribes. The arrival of horses with the Spanish in the 16th century ushered in horse culture-era, when tribes could adopt a nomadic lifestyle and follow abundant bison herds.

Artist's conception of Spiro Mounds, a Caddoan Mississippian site, as seen from the west

Caddo
Caddo
village near Anadarko, 1870s

The Southern Plains
Southern Plains
villagers, an archaeological culture that flourished from 800 to 1500 CE, lived in semi-sedentary villages throughout the western part of Indian Territory, where they farmed maize and hunted buffalo. They are likely ancestors of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes. The ancestors of the Wichita have lived in the eastern Great Plains
Great Plains
from the Red River north to Nebraska
Nebraska
for at least 2,000 years.[20] The early Wichita people
Wichita people
were hunters and gatherers who gradually adopted agriculture. By about 900 CE, farming villages began to appear on terraces above the Washita River
Washita River
and South Canadian River in Oklahoma. Member tribes of the Caddo Confederacy
Caddo Confederacy
lived in the eastern part of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
and are ancestors of the Caddo
Caddo
Nation. The Caddo people speak a Caddoan language and is a confederation of several tribes who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana
Louisiana
and portions of southern Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma. The tribe was once part of the Caddoan Mississippian culture and thought to be an extension of woodland period peoples who started inhabiting the area around 200 BCE. In an 1835 Treaty [21] made at the agency-house in the Caddo
Caddo
nation and State of Louisiana, the Caddo Nation sold their tribal lands to the US. In 1846 the Caddo
Caddo
along with several other tribes signed a treaty that made the Caddo
Caddo
a protectorate of the US and established framework of a legal system between the Caddo
Caddo
and the US.[22] Tribal headquarters are in Binger, Oklahoma. The Wichita and Caddo
Caddo
both spoke Caddoan languages, as did the Kichai people, who were also indigenous to what is now Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and ultimately became part of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes. The Wichita (and other tribes) signed a treaty of friendship with the US in 1835.[23] The tribe’s headquarters are in Anadarko, Oklahoma. In the 18th century, prior to Indian Removal
Indian Removal
(the forced relocation by the US federal government) Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche
Comanche
people entered into Indian Territory
Indian Territory
from the west, and the Quapaw
Quapaw
and Osage entered from the east. During Indian Removal
Indian Removal
of the 19th century, additional tribes received their land either by treaty via land grant from the federal government of the United States
United States
or they purchased the land receiving fee simple recorded title. Tribes from the Southeastern Woodlands[edit] Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands

The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in North America before the arrival of Europeans.

Many of the tribes forcibly relocated to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
were from Southeastern United States, including the so-called Five Civilized Tribes or Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creeks, and Seminole, but also the Natchez, Yuchi, Alabama, Koasati, and Caddo
Caddo
people.

Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.[24]

Between 1814 and 1840, the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
had gradually ceded most of their lands in the Southeast section of the US through a series of treaties. The southern part of Indian Country
Indian Country
(what eventually became the State of Oklahoma) served as the destination for the policy of Indian removal, a policy pursued intermittently by American presidents early in the 19th century, but aggressively pursued by President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
after the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
in the South were the most prominent tribes displaced by the policy, a relocation that came to be known as the Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
during the Choctaw
Choctaw
removals starting in 1831. The trail ended in what is now Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma, where there were already many Indians living in the territory, as well as whites and escaped slaves. Other tribes, such as the Delaware, Cheyenne, and Apache
Apache
were also forced to relocate to the Indian territory.

The historic Choctaw
Choctaw
Capitol in Tuskahoma.

The Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
established tribal capitals in the following towns:

Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation – Tahlequah Chickasaw
Chickasaw
Nation – Tishomingo Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation – Tuskahoma (later moved to Durant) Creek Nation – Okmulgee Seminole
Seminole
Nation – Wewoka

These tribes founded towns such as Tulsa, Ardmore, Muskogee, which became some of the larger towns in the state. They also brought their African slaves to Oklahoma, which added to the black American population in the state.

Beginning in 1783 the Choctaw
Choctaw
signed a series of treaties with first the British and then the Americans. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was the first removal treaty carried into effect under the Indian Removal Act, ceding land in the future state of Mississippi
Mississippi
in exchange for land in the future state of Oklahoma, resulting in the Choctaw
Choctaw
Trail of Tears. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation
Muscogee (Creek) Nation
began the process of moving to Indian Territory with the 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson
Treaty of Fort Jackson
and the 1826 Treaty of Washington. The 1832 Treaty of Cusseta
Treaty of Cusseta
ceded all Creek claims east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the United States. The 1835 the Treaty of New Echota
Treaty of New Echota
established terms under which the entire Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation was expected to cede its territory in the Southeast and move to Indian Territory. Although the treaty was not approved by the Cherokee
Cherokee
National Council, it was ratified by the U.S. Senate and resulted in the Cherokee
Cherokee
Trail of Tears. The Chickasaw, rather than receiving land grants in exchange for ceding indigenous land rights, received financial compensation. The tribe negotiated a $3 million payment for their native lands (which was not fully funded by the US for 30 years). In 1836, the Chickasaw agreed to purchase land from the previously removed Choctaws for $530,000.[25] The Seminole
Seminole
People, originally from the present-day state of Florida, signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing
Treaty of Payne's Landing
in 1832, in response to the 1830 Indian Removal
Indian Removal
Act, that forced the tribes to move to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. In October 1832 a delegation arrived in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
and conferred with the Creek Nation tribe that had already been removed to the area. In 1833 an agreement was signed at Fort Gibson (on the Arkansas
Arkansas
River just east of Muskogee, Oklahoma), accepting the area in the western part of the Creek Nation. However, the chiefs in Florida did not agree to the agreement. In spite of the disagreement, the treaty was ratified by the Senate in April 1934.

Tribes from the Great Lakes and Northeastern Woodlands[edit]

Jennie Bobb, left, and her daughter, Nellie Longhat, both members of the Delaware Nation, Oklahoma, 1915

The Western Lakes Confederacy
Western Lakes Confederacy
was a loose confederacy of tribes around the Great Lakes region, organized following the American Revolutionary War to resist the expansion of the United States
United States
into the Northwest Territory. Members of the confederacy were ultimately removed to the present-day Oklahoma, including the Shawnee, Delaware (also called Lenape), Miami, and Kickapoo. The area of Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was used to resettle the Iowa tribe, Sac and Fox, Absentee Shawnee, Potawatomi, and Kickapoo tribes. The Council of Three Fires is an alliance of the Ojibwe, Odawa, and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
tribes. In the Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien
Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien
in 1829, the tribes of the Council of Three Fires ceded to the United States their lands in Illinois
Illinois
Michigan
Michigan
and Wisconsin. The 1833 Treaty of Chicago
Chicago
forced the members of the Council of Three Fires to move first to present-day Iowa, then to Kansas
Kansas
and Nebraska, and ultimately to Oklahoma.[26]

Peoria beaded moccasins, ca. 1860, collection of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History Center

The Illinois
Illinois
Potawatomi
Potawatomi
moved to present-day Nebraska
Nebraska
and the Indiana Potawatomi
Potawatomi
moved to present-day Osawatomie, Kansas, an event known as the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Trail of Death. The group settling in Nebraska
Nebraska
adapted to the Plains Indian culture but the group settling in Kansas
Kansas
remained steadfast to their woodlands culture. In 1867 part of the Kansas
Kansas
group negotiated the "Treaty of Washington with the Potawatomi" in which the Kansas
Kansas
Prairie Band Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation split and part of their land in Kansas
Kansas
was sold, purchasing land near present-day Shawnee, Oklahoma, they became the Citizen Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation.[27] The Odawa tribe first purchased lands near Ottawa, Kansas, residing there until 1867 when they sold their lands in Kansas
Kansas
and purchased land in an area administered by the Quapaw Indian Agency in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, becoming the Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma. The Peoria tribe, native to southern Illinois, moved south to Missouri then Kansas, where they joined the Piankashaw, Kaskaskia, and Wea tribes. Under stipulations of the Omnibus Treaty of 1867, these confederated tribes and the Miami tribe
Miami tribe
left Kansas
Kansas
for Indian Territory on lands purchased from the Quapaw.[28] Iroquois Confederacy[edit] Main article: Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma The Iroquois Confederacy
Iroquois Confederacy
was an alliance of tribes, originally from the upstate New York area consisting of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and, later, Tuscarora. In pre-revolutionary war days, their confederacy expanded to areas from Kentucky and Virginia north. All of the members of the Confederacy, except the Oneida and Tuscarora, allied with the British during the Revolutionary War, and were forced to cede their land after the war. Most moved to Canada after the Treaty of Canandaigua
Treaty of Canandaigua
in 1794, some remained in New York, and some moved to Ohio, joining the Shawnee. The 1838 and 1842 Treaties of Buffalo Creek were treaties with New York Indians, such as the Seneca, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Oneida Indian Nation, which covered land sales of tribal reservations under the US Indian removal
Indian removal
program, by which they planned to move most eastern tribes to Indian Territory. Initially, the tribes were moved to the present state of Kansas, and later to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
on to land administered by the Quapaw
Quapaw
Indian Agency. Plains Indian tribes[edit] Main articles: Plains Indians, Medicine Lodge Treaty, Treaty of St. Louis (1818), and Native American tribes in Nebraska

Tipis painted by George Catlin c. 1830

Western Indian Territory
Indian Territory
is part of the Southern Plains
Southern Plains
and is the ancestral home of the Wichita people, a Plains tribe. Additional indigenous peoples of the Plains entered Indian Territory
Indian Territory
during the horse culture era. Prior to adoption of the horse, some Plains Indian tribes were agrarian and others were hunter-gatherers. Some tribes used the dog as a draft animal to pull small travois (or sleighs) to help move from place to place; however, by the 18th century, many Southern Plains tribes
Plains tribes
adopted the horse culture and became nomadic. The tipi, an animal hide lodge, was used by Plains Indians
Plains Indians
as a dwelling because they were portable and could be reconstructed quickly when the tribe settled in a new area for hunting or ceremonies.

Plains Indians
Plains Indians
at time of European contact and current homelands.

Historically, the Arapaho
Arapaho
had assisted the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Lakota people in driving the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche
Comanche
south from the Northern Plains, their hunting area ranged from Montana
Montana
to Texas. Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche controlled a vast expanse of territory from the Arkansas
Arkansas
River to the Brazos River. By 1840 many plains tribes had made peace with each other and developed Plains Indian Sign Language
Plains Indian Sign Language
as a means of communicate with their allies.

Pre-contact distribution of the Western Siouan languages

The Kaw speak one of the Siouan languages
Siouan languages
and were originally from the Kansas
Kansas
area (with Kansas
Kansas
being derived from the name of the tribe.) The Kaw are closely related to the Osage Nation
Osage Nation
and Ponca
Ponca
tribes (who first settled in Nebraska), being from the same tribe before migrating from the Ohio valley in the mid-17th century. On June 4, 1873, the Kaw removed themselves from Kansas
Kansas
to an area that would become Kay County, Oklahoma, tribal headquarters is in Kaw City, Oklahoma. The Ponca
Ponca
speak one of the Siouan languages
Siouan languages
and are closely related to the Osage Nation
Osage Nation
and Kaw tribes. The Ponca
Ponca
tribe were never at war with the US and signed the first peace treaty in 1817.[29] In 1858 the Ponca
Ponca
signed a treaty, ceding part of their land to the United States in return for annuities, payment of $1.25 per acre from settlers, protection from hostile tribes and a permanent reservation home on the Niobrara River
Niobrara River
at the confluence with the Missouri
Missouri
River.[30] In the 1868 US- Sioux
Sioux
Treaty of Fort Laramie [31] the US mistakenly included Ponca
Ponca
lands in present-day Nebraska
Nebraska
in the Great Sioux
Sioux
Reservation of present-day South Dakota. Conflict between the Ponca
Ponca
and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by US law, forced the US to remove the Ponca
Ponca
from their own ancestral lands to Indian Territory in 1877, parts of the current Kay and Noble counties in Oklahoma. The land proved to be less than desirable for agriculture and many of the tribe moved back to Nebraska. In 1881, the US returned 26,236 acres (106.17 km2) of Knox County, Nebraska, to the Ponca, and about half the tribe moved back north from Indian Territory. Today, the Ponca
Ponca
Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
have their headquarters in Ponca
Ponca
City, Oklahoma.

The Otoe- Missouria
Missouria
Tribe of Indians, speak one of the Siouan languages and split away from the Ho-Chunk
Ho-Chunk
in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
prior to European contact. The tribe is made up of Otoe and Missouria
Missouria
Indians, is located in part of Noble County, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
with tribal offices in Red Rock, Oklahoma. Both tribes originated in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
by the 16th century had settled near the Missouri
Missouri
and Grand Rivers in Missouri.[32]

Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

The Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
Tribes of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
are a united tribe of the Southern Arapaho
Arapaho
and the Southern Cheyenne
Southern Cheyenne
people, headquartered in Concho, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(a rural suburb of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City.)

The Cheyenne
Cheyenne
were originally an agrarian people in present-day Minnesota
Minnesota
and speak an Algonquian language. In 1877, after the Battle of the Little Bighorn (in present-day Montana) a group of Cheyenne were escorted to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma). However, they were not used to the dry heat climate and food was insufficient and of poor quality. A group of Cheyenne
Cheyenne
left the territory without permission to travel back north. Ultimately, the military gave up attempting to relocate the Northern Cheyenne
Cheyenne
back to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and a Northern Cheyenne
Cheyenne
reservation was established in Montana The Arapaho
Arapaho
came from the present-day Saskatchewan, Montana, and Wyoming
Wyoming
area, and speak an Algonquian language.

Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan
Uto-Aztecan
languages

The Comanche
Comanche
lived in the upper Platte River
Platte River
in Wyoming
Wyoming
breaking off from the Shoshone
Shoshone
people in the late 17th century, and speak a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan
Uto-Aztecan
family. A nomadic people, the Comanche never developed the political idea of forming a single nation or tribe instead existing as multiple autonomous bands. The Comanche
Comanche
(and other tribes) signed a treaty of friendship with the US in 1835.[23] An additional treaty was signed in 1846.[22] In 1875, the last free band of Comanches, led by Quanah Parker, surrendered and moved to the Fort Sill reservation in Oklahoma. The Comanche
Comanche
Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.

The Pawnee speak a Caddoan language. Originally from the area around Omaha, Nebraska. In the 16th century Francisco Vásquez de Coronado had an encounter with a Pawnee chief. In the 1830s exposure to infectious diseases, such as measles, smallpox and cholera decimated the tribe. The 1857 Treaty with the Pawnee,[33] their range was reduced to an area around Nance County, Nebraska. In 1874 the tribe was relocated to land in the Cherokee
Cherokee
Outlet in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. Tribal Headquarters are in Pawnee, Oklahoma.

The Tonkawa
Tonkawa
speak a language isolate, that is a language with no known related languages. The Tonkawa
Tonkawa
seem to have inhabited northeastern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
in the 15th century. However, by the 18th century the Plains Apache
Apache
had pushed the Tonkawa
Tonkawa
south to what is now southern Texas. After Texas was admitted as a State, the Tonkawa
Tonkawa
signed the 1846 Treaty with the Comanche
Comanche
and other Tribes at Council Springs, Texas.[22] After siding with the Confederacy, acting as scouts for the Texas Rangers, the Tonkawa
Tonkawa
Massacre, occurring near Lawton, Oklahoma, killed about half of the tribe. In 1891 the Tonkawa
Tonkawa
were offered allotments in the Cherokee
Cherokee
Outlet near present-day Tonkawa, Oklahoma.

The Kiowa
Kiowa
originated in the area of Glacier National Park, Montana
Montana
and speak a Kiowa-Tanoan
Kiowa-Tanoan
language. In the 18th century the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Plains Apache
Plains Apache
moved to the plains adjacent to the Arkansas
Arkansas
River in Colorado
Colorado
and Kansas
Kansas
and the Red River of the Texas Panhandle and Oklahoma. In 1837 the Kiowa
Kiowa
(and other tribes) signed a treaty of friendship with the US that established a framework for legal system administered by the US. Provided for trade between Republics of Mexico and Texas.[34] Tribal headquarters are in Carnegie, Oklahoma The Plains Apache
Plains Apache
or " Kiowa
Kiowa
Apache", a branch of the Apache
Apache
that lived in the upper Missouri
Missouri
River area and speak one of the Southern Athabaskan languages. In the 18th century, the branch migrated south and adopted the lifestyle of the Kiowa. Tribal headquarters are in Anadarko, Oklahoma. The Osage Nation
Osage Nation
speak one of the Siouan languages
Siouan languages
and originated in present-day Kentucky. As the Iroquois moved south, the Osage moved west. By the early 18th century the Osage had become the dominant power in the Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri
Missouri
and Kansas, controlling much of the land between the Red River and Missouri
Missouri
River. From 1818 to 1825 a series of treaties reduced the Osage lands to Independence, Kansas. With the 1870 Drum Creek Treaty, the Kansas
Kansas
land was sold for $1.25 per acre and the Osage purchased 1,470,000 acres (5,900 km2) in Indian Territory’s Cherokee
Cherokee
Outlet, the current Osage County, Oklahoma. While the Osage did not escape the federal policy of allotting communal tribal land to individual tribal members, they negotiated to retain communal mineral rights to the reservation lands. These were later found to have crude oil, from which tribal members benefited from royalty revenues from oil development and production. Tribal headquarters are in Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

Plateau tribes[edit] After the Modoc War
Modoc War
from 1872 to 1873, Modoc people
Modoc people
were forced from their homelands in southern Oregon
Oregon
and northern California
California
to settle at the Quapaw
Quapaw
Agency, Indian Territory. The federal government permitted some to return to Oregon
Oregon
in 1909. Those that remained in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
became the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma.[35] The Nez Perce, a Plateau tribe from Washington and Idaho, were sent to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
as prisoners of war in 1878, but after great losses, they returned to their northwestern homelands in 1885.[36] Government[edit] During the Reconstruction Era, when the size of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
was reduced, the renegotiated treaties with the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
and the tribes occupying the land of the Quapaw Indian Agency contained provisions for a government structure in Indian Territory. Replacement treaties signed in 1866 contained provisions for:[14]

Indian Territory
Indian Territory
Legislature would have proportional representation from tribes over 500 members Laws take effect unless suspended by Secretary of the Interior or President of the United States No laws shall be inconsistent with the United States
United States
Constitution, or laws of Congress, or treaties of the United States No legislation regarding “matters pertaining to the legislative, judicial, or other organization, laws, or customs of the several tribes or nations, except as herein provided for” Superintendent of Indian Affairs (or appointee) is the presiding officer of the Indian Territory
Indian Territory
Legislature Secretary of Interior appoints secretary of the Indian Territory Legislature A court or courts may be established in Indian Territory
Indian Territory
with such jurisdiction and organization as Congress may prescribe: “Provided that the same shall not interfere with the local judiciary of either of said nations.” No session in any one year shall exceed the term of thirty days, and provided that the special sessions may be called whenever, in the judgment of the Secretary of the Interior, the interests of said tribes shall require it

In a continuation of the new policy, the 1890 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
organic act extended civil and criminal laws of Arkansas
Arkansas
over the Indian Territory,[37] and extended the laws of Nebraska
Nebraska
over Oklahoma Territory.[38] See also[edit]

Historic regions of the United States Missouri
Missouri
Compromise

Parallel 36°30' north

Territorial evolution of the United States

Territories of Spain
Spain
that encompassed land that would later become part of Indian territory:

Nueva Vizcaya, 1562–1821 Tejas, 1690–1821 Luisiana, 1764–1803

U.S. territories
U.S. territories
that encompassed land that would later become part of Indian territory:

District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812

List of federally recognized tribes by state
List of federally recognized tribes by state
and List of federally recognized tribes alphabetic

Native American tribes in Iowa

Treaties

Treaty of Fort Clark
Treaty of Fort Clark
with the Osage. Osage Treaty (1825)

Cherokee
Cherokee
Commission Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War
the battle for Ohio Former Indian Reservations in Oklahoma

References[edit]

^ Everett, Dianna. " Indian Territory
Indian Territory
Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine.," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture, published by the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society (accessed October 17, 2013). ^ Pennington, William D. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. "Reconstruction Treaties." Retrieved February 16, 2012.[1] ^ "ACQUISITION OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN, 1781–1867, Table 1.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-02.  ^ a b "Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244 (1901)." Retrieved 2012-03-02.  ^ a b "Everett, Dianna. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. "Indian Territory."". Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2012-02-15.  ^ 25 U.S.C. § 71. Indian Appropriation Act of March 3, 1871, 16 Stat. 544, 566 ^ Congress’ plenary authority to “override treaty provisions and legislate for the protection of the Native Americans.” United States v. City of McAlester, 604 F.2d 42, 47 (10th Cir. 1979) ^ United States
United States
v. Blackfeet Tribe of Blackfeet Indian Reservation, 364 F.Supp. 192, 194 (D.Mont. 1973) (“[A]n Indian tribe is sovereign to the extent that the United States
United States
permits it to be sovereign – neither more nor less.”) ^ " United States
United States
v. Kagama, 118 U.S. 375 (1886), Filed May 10, 1886". Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ " United States
United States
v. Kagama – 118 U.S. 375 (1886)". Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ "Act of Congress, R.S. Sec. 2080 derived from act July 5, 1862, ch. 135, Sec. 1, 12 Stat. 528." Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-07.  ^ "Abrogation of treaties (25 USC Sec. 72) Codification R.S. Sec. 2080 derived from act July 5, 1862, ch. 135, Sec. 1, 12 Stat. 528." Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-07.  ^ Pennington, William D. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. "Reconstruction Treaties." Retrieved February 16, 2012. [2] ^ a b "Treaty of Washington United States- Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation-Chickasaw Nation, 14 Stat. 769, signed April 28, 1866".  ^ Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek: Hearings on H.R. 19213 Before the H. Subcomm. on Indian Affairs, at 24 (February 14, 1912) (statement of Hon. Byron P. Harrison) ("While the 1866 Treaty of Washington contemplated the immediate allotment in severalty of the lands in the Choctaw- Chickasaw
Chickasaw
country, yet such allotment in severalty to anyone was never made under such treaty, and has only been consummated since the breaking up of the tribal organization and preparatory to the organization of the State of Oklahoma.") ^ "Treaty with the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche, 1867 (15 Stats., 581) (Medicine Lodge Treaty #1)". Archived from the original on 2011-11-26.  ^ "Treaty with the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, 1867" (Medicine Lodge Treaty #2), (15 Stats. 589)". Retrieved 2012-02-29.  ^ "Treaty with the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho, 1867" (Medicine Lodge Treaty #3), (15 Stats. 593)". Retrieved 2012-02-29.  ^ "Enabling Act (Oklahoma) Public Law 234, HR 12797, Jun 16, 1906 (59th Congress, Session 1, chapter 3335". Retrieved 2012-01-30.  ^ Schlesier, Karl H. Plains Indians, 500–1500 CE: The Archaeological Past of Historic Groups. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1994: 347–348. ^ "TREATY WITH THE CADDO, July 1, 1835 (7 Stat., 470)". Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ a b c "Treaty with the Comanche, Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, etc., Wacoes, Keeches, Tonkaways, Wichetas, Towa-KarroesMay 15, 1846, (9 Stat., 844). The treaty established the US as a protectorate of the tribes and established legal procedures between tribes and the US, Signed at Council Springs, Texas". Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ a b "TREATY WITH THE COMANCHE, ETC., Aug. 24, 1835. (7 Stat., 474) Treaty of Friendship between US and Comanche
Comanche
and Witchetaw nations, and Cherokee
Cherokee
Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca and Quapaw
Quapaw
and established framework for legal system supervised by US. Signed on the eastern border of the Grand Prairie, near the Canadian river, in the Muscogee nation". Retrieved 2012-03-02.  ^ Moser, George W. A Brief History of Cherokee
Cherokee
Lodge #10 (retrieved 26 June 2009). ^ Burt, Jesse; Ferguson, Bob (1973). "The Removal". Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now. Nashville and New York: Abingdon Press. pp. 170–173. ISBN 0-687-18793-1.  ^ "1833 Treaty with the Chippewa, etc". Retrieved 2012-02-29.  ^ "Treaty of Washington with the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
1867". Retrieved 2012-02-29.  ^ Roberson, Glen (2009). "Peoria". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ "1817 Ponca
Ponca
Treaty with the US". Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ "1858 Ponca
Ponca
Treaty with the US". Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ "US- Sioux
Sioux
Treaty of 1868". Archived from the original on 2011-11-26. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "May, John D. Otoe-Missouria. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History & Culture". Archived from the original on 2010-07-20. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ "1957 Treaty with the Pawnee". Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ "TREATY WITH THE KIOWA, ETC, May 26, 1837 (7 Stat. 533). Treaty of friendship between US and Kioway, Ka-ta-ka, and Ta-wa-ka-ro nations and Comanche, Witchetaw, Cherokee
Cherokee
Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca and Quapaw
Quapaw
nations or tribes of Indians and provided for trade between Republics of Texas and Mexico, signed at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma". Retrieved 2012-03-02.  ^ Self, Burl E. "Modoc". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ Westmoreland, Ingrid. "Nez Perce". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ 26 Stat. 81, at 94-97 ^ "Organic Act, 1890, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History". Retrieved 2012-01-30. 

Further reading[edit]

Clampitt, Bradley R. The Civil War and Reconstruction in Indian Territory (University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press, 2015). viii, 192 pp. Confer, Clarissa W. The Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation in the Civil War (University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 2007) Gibson, Arrell Morgan. "Native Americans and the Civil War," American Indian Quarterly (1985), 9#4, pp. 385–410 in JSTOR Minges, Patrick. Slavery in the Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation: The Keetowah Society and the Defining of a People, 1855–1867 (Routledge, 2003) Reese, Linda Williams. Trail Sisters: Freedwomen in Indian Territory, 1850–1890 (Texas Tech University Press; 2013), 186 pages; STUDIES black women held as slaves by the Cherokee, Choctaw, and other Indians Smith, Troy. "The Civil War Comes to Indian Territory", Civil War History (September 2013), 59#3, pp. 279–319 online Wickett, Murray R. Contested Territory: Whites, Native Americans and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1865–1907 ( Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press, 2000)

Primary sources[edit]

Edwards, Whit. "The Prairie Was on Fire": Eyewitness Accounts of the Civil War in the Indian Territory
Indian Territory
( Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society, 2001)

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Indian Territory.

Twin Territories: Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
– Indian Territory Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture – Indian Territory High resolution maps and other items at the National Archives See 1890s photographs of Native Americans in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Territory hosted by the Portal
Portal
to Texas History TREATIES BY TRIBE NAME Vol. II (Treaties) in part. Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Indian Territory  Hawes, J. W. (1879). "Indian Territory". The American Cyclopædia.  Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Benjamin Harrison: "Proclamation 295 - Sioux
Sioux
Nation of Indians," February 10, 1890". The American Presidency Project. University of California
California
- Santa Barbara. Retrieved 17 January 2016.  Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Benjamin Harrison: "Proclamation 298 - Extinguishing Indian Title to Certain Lands," October 23, 1890". The American Presidency Project. University of California
California
- Santa Barbara. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 

v t e

History of Oklahoma

Prior to 19th century

Cooper Bison Kill (11th millennium BCE) Spiro Mounds
Spiro Mounds
(9th–15th century CE)

19th century

Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase Arkansas
Arkansas
Territory (1819−1824) Comanche–Mexico Wars
Comanche–Mexico Wars
(1821–1870s) Cutthroat Gap Massacre
Cutthroat Gap Massacre
(1833) Indian Removal Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(1834–1907) Antelope Hills Expedition
Antelope Hills Expedition
(1858) Civil War (1861–1865) Washita Massacre
Washita Massacre
(1868) Oklahoma Territory
Oklahoma Territory
(1890–1907) Land runs (1890s)

20th century

State of Sequoyah
State of Sequoyah
(1905) State of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(1907) Crazy Snake Rebellion
Crazy Snake Rebellion
(1909) Green Corn Rebellion
Green Corn Rebellion
(1917) Osage Indian murders
Osage Indian murders
(1920s) Tulsa
Tulsa
race riot (1921) Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
(1930s) Red River Bridge War (1931) Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City bombing (1995)

21st century

OU Bombing (2005)

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill
Fort Sill
Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee (Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere (Iowa and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wichita Wyandot Yuchi

v t e

 State of Oklahoma

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City (capital)

Topics

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Newspapers Radio TV

Sports Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Arklatex Central Cherokee
Cherokee
Outlet Cross Timbers Four State Area Flint Hills Green Country Kiamichi Country Little Dixie Northwestern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Metro Ouachita Mountains The Ozarks Panhandle South Central Southwestern Texoma Tulsa
Tulsa
Metro Western

Largest cities

Ardmore Bartlesville Bixby Broken Arrow Del City Duncan Edmond Enid Lawton Midwest City Muskogee Moore Norman Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Owasso Ponca
Ponca
City Shawnee Stillwater Tulsa Yukon

Counties

Adair Alfalfa Atoka Beaver Beckham Blaine Bryan Caddo Canadian Carter Cherokee Choctaw Cimarron Cleveland Coal Comanche Cotton Craig Creek Custer Delaware Dewey Ellis Garfield Garvin Grady Grant Greer Harmon Harper Haskell Hughes Jackson Jefferson Johnston Kay Kingfisher Kiowa Latimer Le Flore Lincoln Logan Love Major Marshall Mayes McClain McCurtain McIntosh Murray Muskogee Noble Nowata Okfuskee Oklahoma Okmulgee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Payne Pittsburg Pontotoc Pottawatomie Pushmataha Roger Mills Rogers Seminole Sequoyah Stephens Texas Tillman Tulsa Wagoner Washington Washita Wo

.