INDIAN ENGLISH is any of the forms of English characteristic of India
. English is a _lingua franca _ of India.
* 1 English proficiency
* 2 Court language
* 3 Features of the dialect
* 4 History
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Vowels
* 5.2 Consonants
* 5.3 Spelling pronunciation
* 5.4 Supra-segmental features
* 6 Morphology and syntax
* 7 Numbering system
* 8 Vocabulary
* 9 Spelling and national differences
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
Though English is one of the two official languages of the Union
Government of India, only a few hundred thousand Indians have English
as their first language.
According to 2001 Census , English is known to 12.6% Indians in the
2001 census. An analysis of the 2001 Census of India, concluded that
approximately 86 million Indians reported English as their second
language, and another 39 million reported it as their third language.
No data was available whether these individuals were English speakers
According to the 2005
India Human Development Survey , of the 41,554
surveyed households reported that 72 percent of men (29,918) did not
speak any English, 28 percent (11,635) spoke at least some English,
and 5 percent (2,077, roughly 17.9% of those who spoke at least some
English) spoke fluent English. Among women, the corresponding
percentages were 83 percent (34,489) speaking no English, 17 percent
(7,064) speaking at least some English, and 3 percent (1,246, roughly
17.6% of those who spoke at least some English) speaking English
fluently. According to statistics of District Information System for
Education (DISE) of National University of Educational Planning and
Ministry of Human Resource Development ,
India , enrollment in English-medium schools increased
by 50% between 2008–09 and 2013–14. The number of English-medium
school students in
India increased from over 15 million in 2008–09
to 29 million by 2013–14.
India ranks 22 out of 72 countries in the 2016 EF English Proficiency
Index published by the
EF Education First . The index gives the
country a score of 57.30 indicating "moderate proficiency". India
ranks 4th out of 19 Asian countries included in the index. Among
Singapore (63.52), Malaysia (60.70) and the
Philippines (60.33) received higher scores than India.
In December 2015, the Supreme Court of
India ruled that English is
the only court language.
FEATURES OF THE DIALECT
Indian English generally uses the
Indian numbering system . Idiomatic
forms derived from Indian literary languages and vernaculars have been
absorbed into Indian English. Nevertheless, there remains general
homogeneity in phonetics, vocabulary, and phraseology between variants
Indian English dialect.
English language public instruction began in
India in the 1830s
during the rule of the East
India Company (
India was then, and is
today, one of the most linguistically diverse regions of the world ).
In 1835, English replaced Persian as the official language of the
Company. Lord Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and
western concepts to education in India. He supported the replacement
of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as
the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of
English-speaking Indians as teachers. Throughout the 1840s and 1850s,
primary-, middle-, and high-schools were opened in many districts of
India , with most high schools offering English language
instruction in some subjects. In 1857, just before the end of Company
rule, universities modelled on the
University of London
University of London and using
English as the medium of instruction were established in Bombay ,
Calcutta and Madras . During subsequent Crown Rule in India, or the
British Raj , lasting from 1858 to 1947,
English language penetration
increased throughout India. This was driven in part by the gradually
increasing hiring of Indians in the civil services . At the time of
India's independence in 1947, English was the only functional lingua
franca in the country.
After Indian Independence in 1947,
Hindi was declared the first
official language, and attempts were made to declare
Hindi the sole
national language of India. Due to protests from Tamil Nadu and other
non-Hindi-speaking states, it was decided to temporarily retain
English for official purposes until at least 1965. By the end of this
period, however, opposition from non-
Hindi states was still too strong
Hindi declared the sole language. With this in mind, the
English Language Amendment Bill declared English to be an associate
language "until such time as all non-
Hindi States had agreed to its
being dropped." This hasn't yet occurred, and it is still widely used.
For instance, it is the only reliable means of day-to-day
communication between the central government and the non-
The view of the
English language among many Indians has gone from
associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic
progress, and English continues to be an official language of India.
While there is an assumption that English is readily available in
India, available studies show that its usage is actually restricted to
an elite, because of inadequate education to large parts of the Indian
population. The use of outdated teaching methods and the poor grasp of
English exhibited by the authors of many guidebooks, disadvantage
students who rely on these books.
Indian accents vary greatly. Most Indians speak with a more
vernacular, native-tinted accent.
In general, the
Indian English has fewer peculiarities in its vowel
sounds than the consonants, especially as spoken by native speakers of
languages like Hindi, the vowel phoneme system having some
similarities with that of English. Among the distinctive features of
the vowel-sounds employed by some
Indian English speakers:
* Modern Indians, especially a minority of English students and
teachers along with some people in various professions like telephone
customer service agents, often speak with a non-rhotic accent. So,
_flower_ is pronounced as /flaʊ.ə/, _never_ as /nevə/, _water_ as
* Most South
Indian English speakers have the tail-tale split which
is unique to South Indians, affecting word pairs such as
_plain_/_plane_, _main_/_mane_ and _eight_/_ate_ (/plejn///pleːn/,
/mejn///meːn/ and /eɪʈ/, /eːʈ/, respectively)
Indian English speakers have the cot-caught merger and thus
do not make a clear distinction between /ɒ/ and /ɔː/.
* Most Indians have the trap–bath split of Received Pronunciation
, affecting words such as _class_, _staff_ and _last_ (/klɑːs/,
/stɑːf/ and /lɑːst/ respectively). Though the trap-bath split is
prevalent in Indian English, it varies greatly. Many younger Indians
who read and listen to
American English do not have this split. The
distribution is somewhat similar to
Australian English in Regional
Indian English varieties, but it has a complete split in Cultivated
Indian English and
Standard Indian English varieties.
Among the most distinctive features of consonants in Indian English
* Pronunciations vary between rhotic and non-rhotic; with
pronunciations leaning towards native phonology being generally
rhotic, and others being non-rhotic.
Hindi and most other vernaculars (except Punjabi ,
Marathi , Assamese and Bengali ) do not differentiate between /v/
(voiced labiodental fricative ) and /w/ (voiced labiovelar approximant
). Instead, many Indians use a frictionless labiodental approximant
for words with either sound, possibly in free variation with and/or
depending upon region. Thus, _wet_ and _vet_ are often homophones.
* Related to the previous characteristic, many Indians prefer to
pronounce words such as as , as opposed to , and as as opposed to .
* The voiceless plosives /p/, /t/, /k/ are always unaspirated in
Indian English, (aspirated in cultivated form) whereas in RP, General
American and most other English accents they are aspirated in
word-initial or stressed syllables. Thus "pin" is pronounced in
Indian English but in most other dialects. In native Indian languages
Dravidian languages such as Tamil ), the distinction
between aspirated and unaspirated plosives is phonemic, and the
English stops are equated with the unaspirated rather than the
aspirated phonemes of the local languages. The same is true of the
voiceless postalveolar afficate /tʃ/.
* The alveolar stops English /d/, /t/ are often retroflex , ,
especially in the South of India. In Indian languages there are two
entirely distinct sets of coronal plosives: one dental and the other
retroflex. Native speakers of Indian languages prefer to pronounce the
English alveolar plosives sound as more retroflex than dental, and
the use of retroflex consonants is a common feature of Indian English.
Devanagari script of Hindi, all alveolar plosives of English
are transcribed as their retroflex counterparts. One good reason for
this is that unlike most other native Indian languages,
Hindi does not
have _true_ retroflex plosives (Tiwari, 2001). The so-called
Hindi are actually articulated as apical post-alveolar
plosives, sometimes even with a tendency to come down to the alveolar
region. So a
Hindi speaker normally cannot distinguish the difference
between their own apical post-alveolar plosives and English's alveolar
plosives. However, languages such as Tamil have _true_ retroflex
plosives, wherein the articulation is done with the tongue curved
upwards and backwards at the roof of the mouth . This also causes (in
Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar ) the /s/ preceding alveolar /t/ to
allophonically change to ( /stɒp/ → /ʃʈap/). Mostly in south
India, some speakers allophonically further change the voiced
retroflex plosives to voiced retroflex flap , and the nasal /n/ to a
nasalised retroflex flap.
* Many speakers of
Indian English do not use the voiced postalveolar
fricative (/ʒ/). Some Indians use /z/ or /dʒ/ instead, e.g.
_treasure_ /ˈtrɛzəːr/, and in the south Indian variants, with
/ʃ/ as in , e.g. _treasure_ /ˈtrɛʃər/.
* All major native languages of
India (except Bengali) lack the
dental fricatives (/θ/ and /ð/; spelled with _th_). Usually, the
aspirated voiceless dental plosive is substituted for /θ/ in the
north (it would be unaspirated in the south) and the unaspirated
voiced dental plosive , or possibly the aspirated version , is
substituted for /ð/. For example, "thin" would be realised as
instead of /θɪn/ for North Indian speakers, whereas it would be
pronounced unaspirated in the south.
* South Indians tend to curl the tongue (retroflex accentuation)
more for /l/ and /n/.
* Most Indian languages (except
Urdu varieties and Assamese ) lack
the voiced alveolar fricative /z/. A significant portion of Indians
thus, even though their native languages do have its nearest
equivalent: the unvoiced /s/, often use the voiced palatal affricate
(or postalveolar) /dʒ/, just as with a Korean accent. This makes
words such as and sound as and (the latter, especially in the
North). This replacement is equally true for Persian and Arabic
loanwords into Hindi. The probable reason is the confusion created by
the use of the
Devanagari grapheme < ज > (for /dʒ/) with a dot
beneath it to represent the loaned /z/ (as < ज़ >). This is common
among people without formal English education.
* Many Indians with lower exposure to English also may pronounce /f/
as aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive . Again note that in Hindi
(Devanagari) the loaned /f/ from Persian and
Arabic is written by
putting a dot beneath the grapheme for native < फ >: < फ़ >.
This substitution is rarer than that for , and in fact in many Hindi
/f/ is used by native speakers instead of /pʰ/, or the two are used
* Inability to pronounce certain (especially word-initial) consonant
clusters by people of rural backgrounds, as with some
Spanish-speakers. This is usually dealt with by epenthesis . e.g.,
* Sometimes, Indian speakers interchange /s/ and /z/, especially
when plurals are being formed, unlike speakers of other varieties of
English, who use for the pluralisation of words ending in a voiceless
consonant, for words ending in a voiced consonant or vowel, and for
words ending in a sibilant.
* Again, in Assamese and dialects like
Bhojpuri , all instances of
/ʃ/ are spoken like , a phenomenon which is also apparent in their
English. Exactly the opposite is seen for many Bengalis .
* In Assamese , /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ is pronounced as /s/; and /dʒ/ and
/ʒ/ is pronounced as /z/.
Retroflex and dental consonants are not
present and only alveolar consonants are used unlike other Indian
languages. Similar to Bengali , /v/ is pronounced as /bʱ/ and /β/ in
Assamese. For example; change is pronounced as , vote is pronounced as
and English is pronounced as .
* In case of the postalveolar affricates /tʃ/ /dʒ/, native
Hindi have corresponding affricates articulated from
the palatal region, rather than postalveolar, and they have more of a
stop component than fricative; this is reflected in their English.
* Whilst retaining /ŋ/ in the final position, many Indian speakers
add the sound after it when it occurs in the middle off a word. Hence
/ˈriŋiŋ/ → /ˈriŋɡiŋ/ (_ringing_).
* Syllabic /l/, /m/ and /n/ are usually replaced by the VC clusters
, and (as in _button_ /ˈbuʈʈən/), or if a high vowel precedes,
by (as in _little_ /ˈliʈʈil/). Syllable nuclei in words with the
spelling _er_/_re_ (a schwa in RP and an r-coloured schwa in GA ) are
also replaced VC clusters. e.g., _metre_, /ˈmiːtər/ →
Indian English uses clear in all instances like Irish English
whereas other varieties use clear in syllable-initial positions and
dark (velarised-L) in coda and syllabic positions.
A number of distinctive features of
Indian English are due to "the
vagaries of English spelling ". Most Indian languages, unlike
English, have a nearly phonetic spelling, so the spelling of a word is
a highly reliable guide to its modern pronunciation. Indians' tendency
to pronounce English phonetically as well can cause divergence from
Western English. For example, "jewellery" is pronounced
/dʒʋeləriː/ and "jewel" as /dʒʋel/ where Western Anglophones
might omit the final e and perhaps the second one as well, pronouncing
them as /dʒu(ə)lriː/ and /dʒuəl/ or /dʒuːl/.
* In words where the digraph represents a voiced velar plosive
(/ɡ/) in other accents, some
Indian English speakers supply a
murmured version , for example . No other accent of English admits
this voiced aspiration.
* Similarly, the digraph may be aspirated as or , resulting in
realisations such as , found in no other English accent. However,
this is somewhat similar to the traditional distinction between _wh_
and _w_ present in English, wherein the former is /ʍ/, whilst the
latter is /w/.
* In unstressed syllables, which speakers of
American English would
realise as a schwa , speakers of
Indian English would use the spelling
vowel, making sound as instead of . This trait is also present in
other South Asian dialects (i.e. Pakistani and
Sri Lankan English ),
and in RP , etc.Similarly, and can be heard as and instead of and
* Final is almost always pronounced as schwa /ə/ in other dialects
(exceptions include words such as ); but in
Indian English the ending
is pronounced as the long open central unrounded vowel /aː/ (as in )
instead of /ə/. So, is pronounced as /ˈɪnɖɪaː/ instead of
/ˈɪndɪə/, and as /ˈsoːfaː/ instead of /ˈsoʊfə/.
* The word "of" is usually pronounced with a /f/ instead of a /v/ as
in most other accents.
* Use of instead of for the "-ed" ending of the past tense after
voiceless consonants, for example "developed" may be instead of RP
* Use of instead of for the "-s" ending of the plural after voiced
consonants, for example may be instead of .
* Pronunciation of as in both the noun and the verb, instead of
as noun and as verb.
* The digraph is pronounced as or instead of (voicing may be
assimilated in the stop too), making sound like instead of .
* In RP, /r/ occurs only before a vowel. But some speakers of Indian
English, primarily in the South , use /r/ in almost all positions in
words using the letter 'r', similar to most American and some Irish
dialects. The allophone used is a mild trill or a tap. Indian speakers
do not typically use the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ for , which is
American English speakers.
* All consonants are distinctly doubled (lengthened) in most
Indian English wherever the spelling suggests so. e.g.,
* In certain words, especially Latinate words ending in _ile_, is
pronounced in America and in Britain. Indian English, like most
other Commonwealth dialects , will invariably use the British
pronunciation. Thus, would be pronounced as like the British, rather
than like the American; , on the other hand, use i, as like in
Britain, rather than like in America. Similar effects of British
colonisation are 're', 'ise', and 'our' spellings in words like
'metre', 'realise', and 'endeavour', respectively, which Americans
would spell as 'meter', 'realize' and 'endeavor'.
English is a stress-timed language , and both syllable stress and
word stress , where only certain words in a sentence or phrase are
stressed, are important features of received pronunciation. Indian
native languages are actually syllable-timed languages , like Latin
and French. Indian-English speakers usually speak with a syllabic
rhythm. Further, in some Indian languages, stress is associated with
a low pitch, whereas in most English dialects, stressed syllables are
generally pronounced with a higher pitch. Thus, when some Indian
speakers speak, they appear to put the stress accents at the wrong
syllables, or accentuate all the syllables of a long English word.
Certain Indian accents are of a "sing-song" nature, a feature seen in
a few English dialects in Britain, such as
Welsh English .
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (April 2014)_
Indian numbering system is preferred for digit grouping. When
written in words, or when spoken, numbers less than 100,000/100 000
are expressed just as they are in Standard English. Numbers including
and beyond 100,000 / 100 000 are expressed in a subset of the Indian
numbering system. Thus, the following scale is used:
IN DIGITS (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM)
IN DIGITS (INDIAN SYSTEM)
IN WORDS (LONG AND SHORT SCALES )
IN WORDS (INDIAN SYSTEM)
one hundred thousand
one lakh (from lākh लाख/لاکھ)
ten lakh (from lākh लाख/لاکھ)
one crore (from karoṛ करोड़/کروڑ)
Larger numbers are generally expressed as multiples of the above (for
example, one lakh crores for one trillion ).
Indian English, naturally, has words of Indian vernaculars that have
made their way into the English language, such as jungle , tank
(water, irrigation), bungalow , shampoo and verandah . It has
political, sociological, and administrative terms of modern India:
dharna , hartal , eve-teasing , vote bank , swaraj , swadeshi ,
scheduled caste , scheduled tribe , NRI ; it has words of Anglo-India
such as tiffin , hill station , gymkhana ; and it has slang.
Some examples unique to, or chiefly used in, standard written Indian
* _academic_ (noun) (also Canadian and U.S. English): In pl.:
Academic pursuits in contrast to technical or practical work.
* Example: 1991 _Hindu_ (Madras) 6 Dec. 27/2 For 14 years he
immersed himself in academics and was a fine achiever.
* _accomplish_ (verb, transitive), chiefly Indian English: To equip.
* Example: 1992 H. L. Chopra in V. Grover _Political Thinkers of
Modern India_ XVII. lxiii. 488 His insatiable thirst for knowledge
accomplished him with all modern standards of scholarship.
* _airdash_ (verb intransitive) Indian English, to make a quick
journey by air, especially in response to an emergency.
* Example: 1973 _Hindustan Times Weekly_ 25 Mar. 1 Governor B. K.
Nehru, who airdashed to Shillong yesterday, flew back to Imphal.
* _English-knowing_ (adjective) originally and chiefly Indian English
(of a person or group of people) that uses or speaks English.
* Example: 1941 J. Nehru _Toward Freedom_ vii. 40 The official and
Service atmosphere... set the tone for almost all Indian middle-class
life, especially the English-knowing intelligentsia.
* _freeship_, Indian English. A studentship or scholarship which
offers full payment of a student's fees.
* Example: 1893 _Med. Reporter_ (Calcutta) 1 Feb. 57/1 Two permanent
freeships, each tenable for one year and one of which is for the
second and the other for the third year class.
* Example: 2006 _Economic Times_ (India) (Nexis) 12 Oct., Private
institutions can only develop if they are allowed to charge reasonable
fees, while also providing need based freeships and scholarships for a
certain percentage of students.
* _matrimonial_ (noun) B. 3b. Chiefly Indian English. Advertisements
in a newspaper for the purpose of finding a marriageable partner.
* Example: 1999 _Statesman_ (Calcutta) 10 Feb., (Midweek section)
4/3 When I have a job I'll have to begin a whole new search for my
better half... Back to the newspaper matrimonials on Sundays.
* _press person_ n. (chiefly Indian English, frequently as one word)
a newspaper journalist, a reporter, a member of the press
* Example: 2001 _Hindu_ (Nexis) 20 June, The Prime Minister greeted
the presspersons with a ‘namaskar’ and a broad smile.
* _redressal_ (noun) now chiefly Indian English. = redress (noun)
* Example: 1998 _Statesman_ (India) (Nexis) 2 Apr., There is an
urgent need for setting up an independent authority for redressal of
telecom consumer complaints.
* Example: 2002 _Sunday Times of India_ 15 Sept. 8/4 Where does he
go for the redressal of his genuine grievances?
* _upgradation_ (noun) Indian English, the enhancement or upgrading
of status, value or level of something
* Example: 1986 _Business India_ 8 Sept. 153/1 (advt.) Our Company
lays great stress on technical training and knowledge upgradation.
SPELLING AND NATIONAL DIFFERENCES
Indian English generally uses the same
British English spelling as
Commonwealth nations such as
Australia , the United Kingdom
New Zealand , and
South Africa . Nowadays due to the growing usage
of internet, the
American English and its spelling is rapidly gaining
popularity in India. Most computers in
India use _en-us_ (American
Similarly, in common with most of the Commonwealth, the final letter
of the alphabet, Z is pronounced _zed_. In addition, the punctuation
mark at the end of a sentence is referred to as a "full stop " rather
* Languages portal
Indian English literature
Indian numbering system
* Languages with official status in
English as a lingua franca
Regional accents of English
Regional differences and dialects in Indian English
* ^ Sedlatschek 2009 , p. 1: Today many regional varieties of
English, or Englishes, exist around the globe and are slowly but
steadily gaining recognition.
Indian English (IndE) is one of the
* ^ Census of
India 's Indian Census Archived 14 May 2007 at the
Wayback Machine ., Issue 25, 2003, pp 8–10, (Feature: Languages of
West Bengal in Census and Surveys, Bilingualism and Trilingualism).
* ^ FAMILY-WISE GROUPING OF THE 122 SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED
LANGUAGES Archived 7 February 2013 at the
Wayback Machine . – 2001
* ^ Tropf, Herbert S. 2005.
India and its Languages Archived 8
March 2008 at the
Wayback Machine .. Siemens AG, Munich
* ^ For the distinction between "English Speakers," and "English
Users," please see: TESOL-
India (Teachers of English to Speakers of
India is World\'s Second Largest English-Speaking
Country. Their article explains the difference between the 350 million
number mentioned in a previous version of this article and
the current number:
India estimate of 350 million includes two categories
– 'English Speakers' and 'English Users'. The distinction between
the Speakers and Users is that Users only know how to read English
words while Speakers know how to read English, understand spoken
English as well as form their own sentences to converse in English.
The distinction becomes clear when you consider China's numbers. China
has over 200 million that can read English words but, as anyone can
see on the streets of China, only a few million are English speakers.
* ^ "These four charts break down India’s complex relationship
* ^ published in 2010
* ^ "
EF English Proficiency Index
EF English Proficiency Index - A comprehensive ranking of
countries by English skills". _www.ef.com_. Retrieved 29 November
* ^ Desai, Dubey; Joshi, Sen; Sharif, Vanneman (2010). "HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA" (PDF). _Oxford University Press_.
* ^ "Number of children studying in English doubles in 5 years".
* ^ "
EF English Proficiency Index
EF English Proficiency Index - India". _www.ef.com_. Retrieved
29 November 2016.
* ^ "Court language is English, says Supreme Court".
* ^ Mukesh Ranjan Verma and Krishna Autar Agrawal: _Reflections on
Indian English literature_ (2002), page 163: "Some of the words in
American English have spelling pronunciation and also pronunciation
spelling. These are also characteristic features of
Indian English as
well. The novels of Mulk Raj Anand, in particular, are full of
examples of ..."
* ^ Pingali Sailaja: _Indian English_ (2009), page 116: "So what
was Cauvery is now Kaveri. Some residual spellings left by the British
do exist such as the use of ee for /i:/ as in Mukherjee. Also, some
place names such as Cuddapah and Punjab"
* ^ Edward Carney: _Survey of English Spelling_ (2012), page 56:
"Not all distributional differences, however, have important
consequences for spelling. For instance, the ... Naturally enough,
Indian English is heavily influenced by the native language of the
area in which it is spoken."
* ^ _
Indian English Literature_ (2002), page 300: "The use of
Indian words with English spellings: e.g. 'Mundus,' 'raksha'; 'Ed
Cherukka,' 'Chacko Saar Vannu'"
* ^ Lalmalsawma, David (7 September 2013), _
India speaks 780
languages, 220 lost in last 50 years – survey_, Reuters
* ^ John MacKenzie, "A family empire," _BBC History Magazine_ (Jan
* ^ Annamalai, E. (2006). "India: Language Situation". In Brown,
Keith. _Encyclopedia of language & linguistics_. Elsevier. pp.
610–613. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0 . doi
:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04611-3 . Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay
summary (6 February 2015). – via
ScienceDirect (Subscription may
be required or content may be available in libraries.)
* ^ Chelliah, Shobhana L. (July 2001). "Constructs of Indian
English in language ‘guidebooks’". _World Englishes_. 20 (2):
161–178. doi :10.1111/1467-971X.00207 .
* ^ Wells, p. 627
* ^ Wells, pp. 627–628
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Wells, p. 628
* ^ Ball & Muller 2014 : The comments on retroflex consonants also
apply to southern Indian languages such as Tamil, Telugu ,
Kannada . Speakers of these languages tend to use their own
retroflex consonants in place of English alveolar It, d, n/. Although
these languages do have nonretroflex stops, these are dental, and it
seems that English alveolar stops are perceived as closer to the
retroflex stops than to the dental ones.
* ^ Ball & Muller 2014 , p. 289b: This use of retroflex consonants
is very characteristic of Indian English, and the retroflex resonance
is very pervasive ...
* ^ Sailaja 2007 , p. 252: 1.4 _Indian (Telugu) English_: All the
adults who participated in this study spoke a Telugu variety of Indian
English. Telugu pronunciation of English is heavily influenced by the
spelling. Two identical letters in a word are articulated as
geminates. The articulation is also mostly rhotic ... In place of the
alveolar stops, retroflex sounds are used. Some speakers would also
use a retroflex nasal in place of the alveolar nasal, and a retroflex
lateral in place of the alveolar lateral.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Wells, p. 629
* ^ Wells, p. 630
* ^ Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Cambridge
University Press, 1995), page 360
* ^ Archived 1 September 2006 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Varshney, R.L., "An Introductory Textbook of Linguistics and
Phonetics", 15th Ed. (2005), Student Store, Bareilly.
* ^ "Investors lose Rs 4.4 lakh crore in four days Business
Standard". Bsl.co.in. 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
* ^ "Corporate chiefs getting crores in salaries: 100 and counting!
– The Smart Investor". Smartinvestor.in. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
* ^ _academic (noun), 6_, Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition,
* ^ _accomplish (verb, transitive, 3A\\'_, Oxford English
Dictionary, Third Edition, December 2011
* ^ _airdash (in air, Compounds, C2) (verb, transitive_, Oxford
English Dictionary, Third Edition, December 2008
* ^ _English-knowing (adj). Compound, C2_, Oxford English
Dictionary, Third Edition, December 2008
* ^ "freeship". _
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