Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of
India. English is the only official language in some states of
India and is a lingua franca in the country.
1 English proficiency
2 Court language
5.1 Phonological comparision with Received Pronounciation
18.104.22.168 Standard Indian English
5.2.1 Comparision with Received Pronounciation
22.214.171.124 Standard Indian English
5.3 Spelling pronunciation
5.4 Supra-segmental features
6 Morphology and syntax
7 Numbering system
9 Spelling and national differences
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Though English is one of the two official languages of the Union
Government of India, only a few hundred thousand Indians, or less than
0.1% of the total population, have English as their first
According to the 2001 Census, 12.6% of Indians know English. An
analysis of the 2001 Census of India concluded that approximately
86 million Indians reported English as their second language, and
another 39 million reported it as their third language. No data was
available whether these individuals were English speakers or users.
According to the 2005
India Human Development Survey, of the 41,554
surveyed, households reported that 72 percent of men (29,918) did not
speak any English, 28 percent (11,635) spoke at least some English,
and 5 percent (2,077, roughly 17.9% of those who spoke at least some
English) spoke fluent English. Among women, the corresponding
percentages were 83 percent (34,489) speaking no English, 17 percent
(7,064) speaking at least some English, and 3 percent (1,246, roughly
17.6% of those who spoke at least some English) speaking English
fluently. According to statistics of District Information System
for Education (DISE) of National University of Educational Planning
and Administration under Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Government of India, enrollment in English-medium schools increased by
50% between 2008–09 and 2013–14. The number of English-medium
school students in
India increased from over 15 million in 2008–09
to 29 million by 2013–14.
India ranks 22 out of 72 countries in the 2016 EF English Proficiency
Index published by the EF Education First. The index gives the country
a score of 57.30 indicating "moderate proficiency".
India ranks 4th
out of 19 Asian countries included in the index. Among Asian
Singapore (63.52), Malaysia (60.70) and the Philippines
(60.33) received higher scores than India.
In December 2015, the Supreme Court of
India ruled that English is the
only court language.
Indian English generally uses the Indian numbering system. Idiomatic
forms derived from Indian literary languages and vernaculars have been
absorbed into Indian English. Nevertheless, there remains general
homogeneity in phonetics, vocabulary, and phraseology between various
dialects of Indian English.
English language public instruction began in
India in the 1830s during
the rule of the East
India Company (
India was then, and is today, one
of the most linguistically diverse regions of the world). In 1835,
English replaced Persian as the official language of the Company. Lord
Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and western
concepts to education in India. He supported the replacement of
Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the
medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of
English-speaking Indians as teachers. Throughout the 1840s and
1850s, primary-, middle-, and high-schools were opened in many
districts of British India, with most high schools offering English
language instruction in some subjects. In 1857, just before the end of
Company rule, universities modelled on the
University of London
University of London and
using English as the medium of instruction were established in Bombay,
Calcutta and Madras. During subsequent Crown Rule in India, or the
British Raj, lasting from 1858 to 1947,
English language penetration
increased throughout India. This was driven in part by the gradually
increasing hiring of Indians in the civil services. At the time of
India's independence in 1947, English was the only functional lingua
franca in the country.
After Indian Independence in 1947,
Hindi was declared the first
official language, and attempts were made to declare
Hindi the sole
national language of India. Due to protests from Tamil Nadu and other
non-Hindi-speaking states, it was decided to temporarily retain
English for official purposes until at least 1965. By the end of this
period, however, opposition from non-
Hindi states was still too strong
Hindi declared the sole language. With this in mind, the
English Language Amendment Bill declared English to be an associate
language "until such time as all non-
Hindi States had agreed to its
being dropped." This has not yet occurred, and it is still widely
used. For instance, it is the only reliable means of day-to-day
communication between the central government and the non-
The view of the
English language among many Indians has gone from
associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic
progress, and English continues to be an official language of
While there is an assumption that English is readily available in
India, available studies show that its usage is actually restricted to
the elite, because of inadequate education to large parts of the
Indian population. The use of outdated teaching methods and the poor
grasp of English exhibited by the authors of many guidebooks,
disadvantage students who rely on these books.
Indian accents vary greatly. Most Indians speak with a more
vernacular, native-tinted accent.
Phonological comparision with Received Pronounciation
In general, the
Indian English has fewer peculiarities in its vowel
sounds than the consonants, especially as spoken by native speakers of
languages like Hindi, the vowel phoneme system having some
similarities with that of English. Among the distinctive features of
the vowel-sounds employed by some
Indian English speakers:
Standard Indian English
Modern Indians, especially a minority of English students and teachers
along with some people in various professions like telephone customer
service agents, often speak with a non-rhotic accent. Examples of this
include flower pronounced as /flaʊ.ə/, never as /nevə/, water as
Many North Indians have a sing-song quality as they speak English,
which perhaps, results from a similar tone used while speaking Hindi.
Indian English speakers and thus do not make a clear distinction
between /ɒ/ and /ɔː/ unlike RP i.e. have the cot-caught merger
Diphthong /eɪ/ is pronounced as /e:/
əʊ is pronounced as to /o:/
ɑː may be more front a
Most Indians have the trap–bath split of Received Pronunciation,
affecting words such as class, staff and last (/klɑːs/, /stɑːf/
and /lɑːst/ respectively). Though the trap-bath split is prevalent
in Indian English, it varies greatly. Many younger Indians who read
and listen to
American English do not have this split. The
distribution is somewhat similar to
Australian English in Regional
Indian English varieties, but it has a complete split in Cultivated
Indian English and
Standard Indian English varieties.
Most Indians have a hoarse-horse split.
The following are the variations in
Indian English resulting from
inability to articulate few vowels
Pronounciation of ɔ as o
Pronounciation of æ and ɛ as e
Pronounciation of ɔ and ɒ as a
Comparision with Received Pronounciation
Among the most distinctive features of consonants in Indian English
Standard Indian English
The following are the characteristics of dialect of indian english
most similar to RP
It is non rhotic
The voiceless plosives /p/, /t/, /k/ are always unaspirated in Indian
English, (aspirated in cultivated form) whereas in RP, General
American and most other English accents they are aspirated in
word-initial or stressed syllables. Thus "pin" is pronounced [pɪn] in
Indian English but [pʰɪn] in most other dialects. In native Indian
languages (except in
Dravidian languages such as Tamil), the
distinction between aspirated and unaspirated plosives is phonemic,
and the English stops are equated with the unaspirated rather than the
aspirated phonemes of the local languages. The same is true of the
voiceless postalveolar afficate /tʃ/.
The alveolar stops English /d/, /t/ are often retroflex [ɖ], [ʈ],
especially in the South of India. In Indian languages there are
two entirely distinct sets of coronal plosives: one dental and the
other retroflex. Native speakers of Indian languages prefer to
pronounce the English alveolar plosives sound as more retroflex than
dental, and the use of retroflex consonants is a common feature of
Indian English. In the
Devanagari script of Hindi, all
alveolar plosives of English are transcribed as their retroflex
counterparts. One good reason for this is that unlike most other
native Indian languages,
Hindi does not have true retroflex plosives
(Tiwari,  2001). The so-called retroflexes in
Hindi are actually
articulated as apical post-alveolar plosives, sometimes even with a
tendency to come down to the alveolar region. So a
normally cannot distinguish the difference between their own apical
post-alveolar plosives and English's alveolar plosives. However,
languages such as Tamil have true retroflex plosives, wherein the
articulation is done with the tongue curved upwards and backwards at
the roof of the mouth. This also causes (in parts of
Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar) the /s/ preceding alveolar /t/ to allophonically change to [ʃ]
(<stop> /stɒp/ → /ʃʈap/). Mostly in south India, some
speakers allophonically further change the voiced retroflex plosives
to voiced retroflex flap, and the nasal /n/ to a nasalised retroflex
All major native languages of
India (except Bengali) lack the dental
fricatives (/θ/ and /ð/; spelled with th). Usually, the aspirated
voiceless dental plosive [t̪ʰ] is substituted for /θ/ in the north
(it would be unaspirated in the south) and the unaspirated voiced
dental plosive [d̪], or possibly the aspirated version [d̪ʱ], is
substituted for /ð/. For example, "thin" would be realised as
[t̪ʰɪn] instead of /θɪn/ for North Indian speakers, whereas it
would be pronounced unaspirated in the south.
The following are the variations in Indian English
Pronunciations vary between rhotic and non-rhotic; with pronunciations
leaning towards native phonology being generally rhotic, and others
Most Indian languages (except Punjabi, Marathi, Assamese and Bengali),
including Standard Hindi, do not differentiate between /v/ (voiced
labiodental fricative) and /w/ (voiced labiovelar approximant).
Instead, many Indians use a frictionless labiodental approximant [ʋ]
for words with either sound, possibly in free variation with [v]
and/or [w] depending upon region. Thus, wet and vet are often
Related to the previous characteristic, many Indians prefer to
pronounce words such as <flower> as [flaː(r)], as opposed to
[flaʊə(r)], and <our> as [aː(r)] as opposed to [aʊə(r)].
South Indians tend to curl the tongue (retroflex accentuation) more
for /l/ and /n/.
Sometimes, Indian speakers interchange /s/ and /z/, especially when
plurals are being formed, unlike speakers of other varieties of
English, who use [s] for the pluralisation of words ending in a
voiceless consonant, [z] for words ending in a voiced consonant or
vowel, and [ɨz] for words ending in a sibilant.
In case of the postalveolar affricates /tʃ/ /dʒ/, native languages
Hindi have corresponding affricates articulated from the palatal
region, rather than postalveolar, and they have more of a stop
component than fricative; this is reflected in their English.
Whilst retaining /ŋ/ in the final position, many Indian speakers add
the [ɡ] sound after it when it occurs in the middle of a word. Hence
/ˈriŋiŋ/ → /ˈriŋɡiŋ/ (ringing).
Syllabic /l/, /m/ and /n/ are usually replaced by the VC clusters
[əl], [əm] and [ən] (as in button /ˈbuʈʈən/), or if a high
vowel precedes, by [il] (as in little /ˈliʈʈil/). Syllable nuclei
in words with the spelling er/re (a schwa in RP and an r-coloured
schwa in GA) are also replaced VC clusters. e.g., metre, /ˈmiːtər/
→ /ˈmiːʈər/.
Indian English uses clear [l] in all instances like Irish English
whereas other varieties use clear [l] in syllable-initial positions
and dark [l] (velarised-L) in coda and syllabic positions.
The following are the variations in indian english which are often
Most Indian languages (except
Urdu varieties and Assamese) lack the
voiced alveolar fricative /z/. A significant portion of Indians thus,
even though their native languages do have its nearest equivalent: the
unvoiced /s/, often use the voiced palatal affricate (or postalveolar)
/dʒ/, just as with a Korean accent. This makes words such as
<zero> and <rosy> sound as [ˈdʒiːro] and [ˈroːdʒiː]
(the latter, especially in the North). This replacement is equally
true for Persian and
Arabic loanwords into Hindi. The probable reason
is the confusion created by the use of the
Devanagari grapheme <
ज > (for /dʒ/) with a dot beneath it to represent the loaned /z/
(as < ज़ >). This is common among people without formal
In Assamese, /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ is pronounced as /s/; and /dʒ/ and /ʒ/
is pronounced as /z/.
Retroflex and dental consonants are not present
and only alveolar consonants are used unlike other Indian languages.
Similar to Bengali, /v/ is pronounced as /bʱ/ and /β/ in Assamese.
For example; change is pronounced as [sɛɪnz], vote is pronounced as
[bʱʊt] and English is pronounced as [iŋlis].
Again, in Assamese and dialects like Bhojpuri, all instances of /ʃ/
are spoken like [s], a phenomenon which is also apparent in their
English. Exactly the opposite is seen for many Bengalis.[citation
Inability to pronounce certain (especially word-initial) consonant
clusters by people of rural backgrounds, as with some
Spanish-speakers. This is usually dealt with by epenthesis. e.g.,
Many Indians with lower exposure to English also may pronounce /f/ as
aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive [pʰ]. Again note that in Hindi
(Devanagari) the loaned /f/ from Persian and
Arabic is written by
putting a dot beneath the grapheme for native [pʰ] < फ >:
< फ़ >. This substitution is rarer than that for [z], and in
fact in many
Hindi /f/ is used by native speakers instead of /pʰ/, or
the two are used interchangeably.
Many speakers of
Indian English do not use the voiced postalveolar
fricative (/ʒ/). Some Indians use /z/ or /dʒ/ instead, e.g. treasure
/ˈtrɛzəːr/, and in the south Indian variants, with /ʃ/ as in
<"sh'"ore>, e.g. treasure /ˈtrɛʃər/.
A number of distinctive features of
Indian English are due to "the
vagaries of English spelling". Most Indian languages, unlike
English, have a nearly phonetic spelling, so the spelling of a word is
a highly reliable guide to its modern pronunciation. Indians' tendency
to pronounce English phonetically as well can cause divergence from
In words where the digraph <gh> represents a voiced velar
plosive (/ɡ/) in other accents, some
Indian English speakers supply a
murmured version [ɡʱ], for example <ghost> [ɡʱoːst]. No
other accent of English admits this voiced aspiration.
Similarly, the digraph <wh> may be aspirated as [ʋʱ] or [wʱ],
resulting in realisations such as <which> [ʋʱɪtʃ], found in
no other English accent. However, this is somewhat similar to the
traditional distinction between wh and w present in English, wherein
the former is /ʍ/, whilst the latter is /w/.
In unstressed syllables, which speakers of
American English would
realise as a schwa, speakers of
Indian English would use the spelling
vowel, making <sanity> sound as [ˈsæniti] instead of
[ˈsænəti]. This trait is also present in other South Asian dialects
(i.e. Pakistani and Sri Lankan English), and in RP, etc.
The word "of" is usually pronounced with a /f/ instead of a /v/ as in
most other accents.
Use of [d] instead of [t] for the "-ed" ending of the past tense after
voiceless consonants, for example "developed" may be [ˈdɛʋləpd]
instead of RP /dɪˈvɛləpt/.
Use of [s] instead of [z] for the "-s" ending of the plural after
voiced consonants, for example <dogs> may be [daɡs] instead of
Pronunciation of <house> as [hauz] in both the noun and the
verb, instead of [haus] as noun and [hauz] as verb.
In RP, /r/ occurs only before a vowel. But some speakers of Indian
English, primarily in the South, use /r/ in almost all positions in
words using the letter 'r', similar to most American and some
Irish dialects. The allophone used is a mild trill or a tap. Indian
speakers do not typically use the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ for
<r>, which is common for
American English speakers.[citation
In certain words, especially Latinate words ending in ile, is
pronounced [ɪ] in America and [aɪ] in Britain. Indian English, like
most other Commonwealth dialects, will invariably use the British
pronunciation. Thus, <tensile> would be pronounced as
[ˈtɛnsaɪl] like the British, rather than [ˈtɛnsɪl] like the
American; <anti>, on the other hand, use i, as [ˈænti] like in
Britain, rather than [ˈæntaɪ] like in America. Similar effects of
British colonisation are 're', 'ise', and 'our' spellings in words
like 'metre', 'realise', and 'endeavour', respectively, which
Americans would spell as 'meter', 'realize' and 'endeavor'.
Deletion is not commonly used. For example, "salmon" is usually
pronounced with a distinct "l".
English is a stress-timed language, and both syllable stress and word
stress, where only certain words in a sentence or phrase are stressed,
are important features of received pronunciation. Indian native
languages are actually syllable-timed languages, like French.
Indian-English speakers usually speak with a syllabic rhythm.
Further, in some Indian languages, stress is associated with a low
pitch, whereas in most English dialects, stressed syllables are
generally pronounced with a higher pitch. Thus, when some Indian
speakers speak, they appear to put the stress accents at the wrong
syllables, or accentuate all the syllables of a long English word.
Certain Indian accents are of a "sing-song" nature, a feature seen in
a few English dialects in Britain, such as
Scouse and Welsh
Morphology and syntax
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Indian numbering system is preferred for digit grouping. When
written in words, or when spoken, numbers less than 100,000/100 000
are expressed just as they are in Standard English. Numbers including
and beyond 100,000 / 100 000 are expressed in a subset of the Indian
numbering system. Thus, the following scale is used:
In digits (International system)
In digits (Indian system)
In words (long and short scales)
In words (Indian system)
one hundred thousand
one lakh (from lākh लाख/لاکھ)
ten lakh (from lākh लाख/لاکھ)
one crore (from karoṛ करोड़/کروڑ)
Larger numbers are generally expressed as multiples of the above (for
example, one lakh crores for one trillion).
Indian English has political, sociological, and administrative terms
of modern India: dharna, hartal, eve-teasing, vote bank, swaraj,
swadeshi, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, NRI; it has words of
India such as tiffin, hill station, gymkhana; and it has slang.
Some examples unique to, or chiefly used in, standard written Indian
academic (noun) (also Canadian and U.S. English): In pl.: Academic
pursuits in contrast to technical or practical work.
Example: 1991 Hindu (Madras) 6 Dec. 27/2 For 14 years he immersed
himself in academics and was a fine achiever.
accomplish (verb, transitive), chiefly Indian English: To equip.
Example: 1992 H. L. Chopra in V. Grover Political Thinkers of Modern
India XVII. lxiii. 488 His insatiable thirst for knowledge
accomplished him with all modern standards of scholarship.
airdash (verb intransitive) Indian English, to make a quick journey by
air, especially in response to an emergency.
Example: 1973 Hindustan Times Weekly 25 Mar. 1 Governor B. K. Nehru,
who airdashed to Shillong yesterday, flew back to Imphal.
Cinema hall (noun) a cinema or movie theater/theatre.
Example: 2018 Times of
India (India) 03 Jan., Cinema halls in Uttar
Pradesh will soon display the newly-unveiled logo for Kumbh Mela,
right after the national anthem is played, to make youths understand
the importance of the religious festival, a senior official said on
English-knowing (adjective) originally and chiefly
Indian English (of
a person or group of people) that uses or speaks English.
Example: 1941 J. Nehru Toward Freedom vii. 40 The official and Service
atmosphere... set the tone for almost all Indian middle-class life,
especially the English-knowing intelligentsia.
freeship, Indian English. A studentship or scholarship which offers
full payment of a student's fees.
Example: 1893 Med. Reporter (Calcutta) 1 Feb. 57/1 Two permanent
freeships, each tenable for one year and one of which is for the
second and the other for the third year class.
Example: 2006 Economic Times (India) (Nexis) 12 Oct., Private
institutions can only develop if they are allowed to charge reasonable
fees, while also providing need based freeships and scholarships for a
certain percentage of students.
matrimonial (noun) B. 3b. Chiefly Indian English. Advertisements in a
newspaper for the purpose of finding a marriageable partner.
Example: 1999 Statesman (Calcutta) 10 Feb., (Midweek section) 4/3 When
I have a job I'll have to begin a whole new search for my better
half... Back to the newspaper matrimonials on Sundays.
press person n. (chiefly Indian English, frequently as one word) a
newspaper journalist, a reporter, a member of the press
Example: 2001 Hindu (Nexis) 20 June, The Prime Minister greeted the
presspersons with a ‘namaskar’ and a broad smile.
redressal (noun) now chiefly Indian English. = redress (noun)
Example: 1998 Statesman (India) (Nexis) 2 Apr., There is an urgent
need for setting up an independent authority for redressal of telecom
Example: 2002 Sunday Times of
India 15 Sept. 8/4 Where does he go for
the redressal of his genuine grievances?
upgradation (noun) Indian English, the enhancement or upgrading of
status, value or level of something
Example: 1986 Business
India 8 Sept. 153/1 (advt.) Our Company lays
great stress on technical training and knowledge upgradation.
Spelling and national differences
Indian English generally uses the same
British English spelling as
Commonwealth nations such as Australia, the United Kingdom, New
Zealand, and South Africa, occasionally with minor differences.
Similarly, in common with most of the Commonwealth, the final letter
of the alphabet, Z is pronounced zed. In addition, the punctuation
mark denoting the end of a sentence is referred to as a full stop
rather than period.
Indian English literature
Indian numbering system
Languages with official status in India
English as a lingua franca
Regional accents of English
Regional differences and dialects in Indian English
^ Sedlatschek 2009, p. 1: Today many regional varieties of
English, or Englishes, exist around the globe and are slowly but
steadily gaining recognition.
Indian English (IndE) is one of the
^ "In defence of English: Blame the Indian education system, not the
^ Census of India's Indian Census Archived 14 May 2007 at the Wayback
Machine., Issue 25, 2003, pp 8–10, (Feature: Languages of West
Bengal in Census and Surveys, Bilingualism and Trilingualism).
^ FAMILY-WISE GROUPING OF THE 122 SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED
LANGUAGES Archived 7 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. – 2001
Census of India
^ Tropf, Herbert S. 2005.
India and its Languages Archived 8 March
2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Siemens AG, Munich
^ For the distinction between "English Speakers," and "English Users,"
please see: TESOL-
India (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other
India is World's Second Largest English-Speaking Country
Archived 4 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Their article
explains the difference between the 350 million number mentioned in a
previous version of this article and the current number:
India estimate of 350 million includes two categories –
'English Speakers' and 'English Users'. The distinction between the
Speakers and Users is that Users only know how to read English words
while Speakers know how to read English, understand spoken English as
well as form their own sentences to converse in English. The
distinction becomes clear when you consider China's numbers. China has
over 200 million that can read English words but, as anyone can see on
the streets of China, only a few million are English speakers.
^ "These four charts break down India's complex relationship with
^ published in 2010
EF English Proficiency Index
EF English Proficiency Index – A comprehensive ranking of
countries by English skills". www.ef.com. Retrieved 29 November
^ Desai, Dubey; Joshi, Sen; Sharif, Vanneman (2010). "HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015.
^ "Number of children studying in English doubles in 5 years".
EF English Proficiency Index
EF English Proficiency Index – India". www.ef.com. Retrieved 29
^ "Court language is English, says Supreme Court".
^ Mukesh Ranjan Verma and Krishna Autar Agrawal: Reflections on Indian
English literature (2002), page 163: "Some of the words in American
English have spelling pronunciation and also pronunciation spelling.
These are also characteristic features of
Indian English as well. The
novels of Mulk Raj Anand, in particular, are full of examples of ..."
^ Pingali Sailaja:
Indian English (2009), page 116: "So what was
Cauvery is now Kaveri. Some residual spellings left by the British do
exist such as the use of ee for /i:/ as in Mukherjee. Also, some place
names such as Cuddapah and Punjab"
^ Edward Carney: Survey of English Spelling (2012), page 56: "Not all
distributional differences, however, have important consequences for
spelling. For instance, the ... Naturally enough,
Indian English is
heavily influenced by the native language of the area in which it is
Indian English Literature (2002), page 300: "The use of Indian words
with English spellings: e.g. 'Mundus,' 'raksha'; 'Ed Cherukka,'
'Chacko Saar Vannu'"
^ Lalmalsawma, David (7 September 2013),
India speaks 780 languages,
220 lost in last 50 years – survey, Reuters
^ John MacKenzie, "A family empire," BBC History Magazine (Jan 2013)
^ Annamalai, E. (2006). "India: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith.
Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier.
pp. 610–613. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04611-3.
ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6
February 2015). – via
ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be
available in libraries.)
^ "The rise of Hinglish: How the media created a new lingua franca for
^ Chelliah, Shobhana L. (July 2001). "Constructs of
Indian English in
language 'guidebooks'". World Englishes. 20 (2): 161–178.
^ Wells, pp. 627–628
^ a b c d Wells, p. 628
^ Ball & Muller 2014: The comments on retroflex consonants also
apply to southern Indian languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam.
and Kannada. Speakers of these languages tend to use their own
retroflex consonants in place of English alveolar It, d, n/. Although
these languages do have nonretroflex stops, these are dental, and it
seems that English alveolar stops are perceived as closer to the
retroflex stops than to the dental ones.
^ Ball & Muller 2014, p. 289b: This use of retroflex
consonants is very characteristic of Indian English, and the retroflex
resonance is very pervasive ...
^ Sailaja 2007, p. 252: 1.4 Indian (Telugu) English: All the
adults who participated in this study spoke a Telugu variety of Indian
English. Telugu pronunciation of English is heavily influenced by the
spelling. Two identical letters in a word are articulated as
geminates. The articulation is also mostly rhotic ... In place of the
alveolar stops, retroflex sounds are used. Some speakers would also
use a retroflex nasal in place of the alveolar nasal, and a retroflex
lateral in place of the alveolar lateral.
^ a b c d e Wells, p. 629
^ Wells, p. 627
^ Wells, p. 630
^ Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Cambridge University
Press, 1995), page 360
^  Archived 1 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Varshney, R.L., "An Introductory Textbook of Linguistics and
Phonetics", 15th Ed. (2005), Student Store, Bareilly.
^ "Investors lose Rs 4.4 lakh crore in four days Business Standard".
Bsl.co.in. 27 November 2010. Archived from the original on 16 March
2012. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
^ "Corporate chiefs getting crores in salaries: 100 and counting! –
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