The Imperial Japanese
Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍
Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku
Kaigun (help·info) or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "
Navy of the
Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan from
1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and
surrender in World War II. The
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
(JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.
Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920,
behind the Royal
Navy and the United States
Navy (USN). It was
supported by the
Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and
airstrike operation from the fleet. It was the primary opponent of the
Western Allies in the Pacific War.
The origins of the Imperial Japanese
Navy go back to early
interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the
early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th
and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers
during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during
the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōguns of the Edo
period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was
forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854. This eventually
led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the
Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization.
The navy's history of successes, sometimes against much more powerful
foes as in the Sino-Japanese war and the Russo-Japanese War, ended in
almost complete annihilation during the concluding days of World War
II, largely by the USN.
Naval battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185
Replica of the Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in
1.1 Western studies and the end of seclusion
1.2 Development of shogunal and domain naval forces
2 Creation of the Imperial Japanese
2.1 Boshin War
3 Secondary Service (1872–1882)
3.1 British support and influence
3.2 Further modernization (1870s)
3.3 First interventions abroad (
4 Naval expansion (1882–1893)
4.1 First naval expansion bill
4.2 Influence of the French "Jeune École" (1880s)
4.3 British shipbuilding
5 Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)
6 Suppression of the
Boxer rebellion (1900)
Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
8 Towards an autonomous national navy (1905–1914)
World War I
World War I (1914–1918)
10 Interwar years (1918–1937)
10.1 Washington treaty system
10.2 Development of naval aviation
10.3 Naval developments during the interwar years
10.4 Doctrinal debates
10.5 Conflict in China
11 World War II
12 Self-Defense Forces
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Main article: Naval history of Japan
Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian
continent, involving transportation of troops between
Korea and Japan,
starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd
Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of
Japan by Kubilai Khan in
1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became very active in plundering the
coast of China.
A Japanese Red seal ship, combining eastern and western naval
Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century,
during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for
supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around
Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships
when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in
1576. In 1588
Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy; the
pirates then became vassals of Hideyoshi, and comprised the naval
force used in the Japanese invasion of
Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of
the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during
the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement
with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship
that transported the Japanese embassy of
Hasekura Tsunenaga to the
Americas, which then continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu also
commissioned about 350 Red seal ships, usually armed and incorporating
some Western technologies, mainly for Southeast Asian trade.
Western studies and the end of seclusion
Shōhei Maru (1854) was built from Dutch technical drawings.
For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy
of seclusion ("sakoku") forbade contacts with the outside world and
prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death.
Contacts were maintained, however, with the Dutch through the port of
Nagasaki, the Chinese also through
Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea
through intermediaries with Tsushima. The study of Western sciences,
called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of
to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and
scientific revolution which allowed
Japan to remain aware of naval
sciences, such as cartography, optics and mechanical sciences,
seclusion however, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions
the nation possessed.
Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to
enter Japanese ports, a notable exception was during the Napoleonic
wars, when neutral ships flew the Dutch flag. However frictions with
foreign ships started from the beginning of the 19th century. The
Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving the HMS Phaeton in 1808 and other
subsequent incidents in the following decades led to the shogunate to
enact an edict to repel foreign vessels. Western ships which were
increasing their presence around
Japan due to whaling and the trade
China began to challenge the seclusion policy.
Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the
Opium War, however, led to the shogunate to repeal the law to execute
foreigners and instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of
Firewood and Water. The shogunate also began to strengthen the
nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional
ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions and western
knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at
Dejima to reinforce
Japan's capability to repel the foreigners; field guns, mortars and
firearms were obtained and coastal defenses reinforced. Numerous
attempts to open
Japan ended in failure in part to Japanese
resistance, this was until the early 1850s.
During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore
Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force
requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion
Convention of Kanagawa
Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of
international trade and interaction. This was soon followed by the
1858 Treaty of Amity and Commerce and treaties with other powers.
Development of shogunal and domain naval forces
Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857
Japan's first domestically built steam warship completed in May 1866
The French-built Kōtetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern
As soon as
Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa
shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and
initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western
naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate
acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, and began using it for
training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki.
Samurai such as the future Admiral
Enomoto Takeaki (1836–1908) were
sent by the shogunate to study in the
Netherlands for several
years. In 1859 the Naval Training Center relocated to
Tokyo. In 1857 the shogunate acquired its first screw-driven steam
warship Kanrin Maru and used it as an escort for the 1860 Japanese
delegation to the United States. In 1865 the French naval engineer
Léonce Verny was hired to build Japan's first modern naval arsenals,
at Yokosuka and Nagasaki.
The shogunate also allowed and then ordered various domains to
purchase warships and to develop naval fleets, Satsuma,
especially, had petitioned the shogunate to build modern naval
vessels. A naval center had been set up by the Satsuma domain in
Kagoshima, students were sent abroad for training and a number of
ships were acquired. The domains of Chōshū, Hizen, Tosa and Kaga
joined Satsuma in acquiring ships. This was not enough to prevent
the British from bombarding Kagoshima in 1863 or the Allied
bombardments of Shimonoseki in 1863–64.
By the mid 1860s the shogunate had a fleet of eight warships and
thirty-six auxiliaries. Satsuma (which had the largest domain
fleet) had nine steamships, Choshu had five ships plus numerous
auxiliary craft, Kaga had ten ships and Chikuzen eight. Numerous
smaller domains also had acquired a number of ships. However these
fleets resembled maritime organizations rather than actual navies with
ships functioning as transports as well as combat vessels, they
were also manned by personnel who lacked experienced seamanship except
for coastal sailing and who had virtually no combat training.
Creation of the Imperial Japanese
The British-built Ryūjō was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese
Navy until 1881.
Meiji Restoration in 1868 led to the overthrow of the shogunate.
From 1868, the newly formed Meiji government continued with reforms to
centralize and modernize Japan.
Main article: Boshin War
Naval battle of Hakodate
Although the Meiji reformers had overthrown the Tokugawa shogunate,
tensions between the former ruler and the restoration leaders led to
Boshin War (January 1868 to June 1869). The early part of the
conflict largely involved land battles, with naval forces playing a
minimal role transporting troops from western to eastern Japan.
Battle of Awa
Battle of Awa (28 January 1868) was significant; this also
proved one of the few Tokugawa successes in the war. Tokugawa
Yoshinobu eventually surrendered after the fall of Edo in July 1868,
and as a result most of
Japan accepted the emperor's rule, however
resistance continued in the North.
On 26 March 1868 the first naval review in
Japan took place in Osaka
Bay, with six ships from the private domain navies of Saga, Chōshū,
Satsuma, Kurume, Kumamoto and Hiroshima participating. The total
tonnage of these ships was 2,252 tons, which was far smaller than
the tonnage of the single foreign vessel (from the French Navy) that
also participated. The following year, in July 1869, the Imperial
Navy was formally established, two months after the last
combat of the Boshin War.
Enomoto Takeaki, the admiral of the shōgun's navy, refused to
surrender all his ships, remitting just four vessels, and escaped to
northern Honshū with the remnants of the shōgun's navy: eight steam
warships and 2,000 men. Following the defeat of pro-shogunate
resistance on Honshū, Admiral
Enomoto Takeaki fled to Hokkaidō,
where he established the breakaway
Republic of Ezo
Republic of Ezo (27 January 1869).
The new Meiji government dispatched a military force to defeat the
rebels, culminating with the
Naval Battle of Hakodate
Naval Battle of Hakodate in May 1869.
The Imperial side took delivery (February 1869) of the French-built
ironclad Kotetsu (originally ordered by the Tokugawa shogunate) and
used it decisively towards the end of the conflict.
In February 1868 the government had placed all captured shogunate
naval vessels under the
Navy Army affairs section. In the
following months, military forces of the government were put under
several organizations which were created and then disbanded until the
creation of the establishment of Ministry of War (Hyōbushō). For the
first two years of the Meiji state no national, centrally controlled
navy existed, the Meiji government only administered those
Tokugawa vessels captured from the early phase of the Boshin war.
All other naval vessels remained under the control of the various
domains which had been acquired during the bakumatsu period. The naval
forces mirrored that of the political environment of
Japan at the time
in which the domains retained their political as well as military
independence from the imperial government.
Katsu Kaishū a former
Tokugawa navy leader was brought into the government because of his
naval experience and his ability to control Tokugawa personnel who
retained positions in the government naval forces. Upon assuming
office Katsu Kaishu recommended the rapid centralization of all naval
forces government and domain under one agency. However, the
nascent Meiji government at the time did not have the necessary
political and military force to implement it and so like much of the
government the naval forces retained a decentralized structure in most
of 1869 through 1870.
The incident involving Enomoto Takeakis' refusal to surrender and his
escape to Hokkaidō with a large part of former Tokugawa Navy's best
warships embarrassed the Meiji government politically. The imperial
side had to rely on considerable naval assistance from the most
powerful domains as the government did not have enough naval power to
put down the rebellion on its own. Although the rebel forces in
Hokkaidō surrendered, the government's response to the rebellion
demonstrated the need for a strong centralized naval force. Even
before the rebellion the restoration leaders had realized the need for
greater political, economic and military centralization and by August
1869 most of the domains had returned their lands and population
registers to the government. In 1871 the domains were abolished
altogether and as with the political context the centralization of the
navy began with the domains donating their forces to the central
government. As a result, in 1871
Japan could finally boast a
centrally controlled navy, this was also the institutional beginning
of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
In February 1872, the Ministry of War was replaced by a separate Army
Navy Ministry. In October 1873,
Katsu Kaishū became Navy
Secondary Service (1872–1882)
After the consolidation of the government the new Meiji state set
about to build up national strength, in the early period from 1868
many members of the Meiji coalition advocated preference of maritime
forces over the army and saw naval strength as paramount. The
Meiji government honored the treaties with the Western powers signed
during the bakumatsu period with the ultimate goal of revising them,
leading to a subsided threat from the sea. This however led to
conflict with disgruntled samurai who wanted to expel the westerners
and groups which were opposed to the Meiji reforms, internal dissent
including peasant uprisings become a greater concern for the
government and as a result plans for naval expansion were curtailed.
In 1870, the new government drafted an ambitious plan to create a navy
with 200 ships organized into ten fleets. It was abandoned within a
year due to lack of resources. Financial considerations was also a
major factor which restricted the growth of the navy during the
Japan at the time was not a wealthy state. Soon, however
domestic rebellions, the
Saga Rebellion (1874) and especially the
Satsuma Rebellion (1877), forced the government to focus on land
warfare and the army gained prominence. Naval policy, expressed by
the slogan Shusei Kokubō (lit. "Static Defense"), focused on coastal
defenses, and a standing army (established with the assistance of
the second French Military Mission to Japan), and a coastal navy,
leading to a military organization under the Rikushu Kaijū (Army
Navy second) principle. The army gained the bulk of the
military expenditures. During the 1870s and 1880s, the Imperial
Navy remained an essentially coastal defense force, although
the Meiji government continued to modernize it.
Jo Sho Maru
Jo Sho Maru (soon
renamed Ryūjō Maru) commissioned by Thomas Glover was launched at
Scotland on 27 March 1869.
British support and influence
In 1870, an Imperial decree determined that Britain's Royal Navy
should be the model for development, instead of the Netherlands.
In 1873, a thirty-four-man British naval mission, headed by Lt. Comdr.
Archibald Douglas, arrived in Japan. Douglas directed instruction at
the Naval Academy at
Tsukiji for several years, the mission remained
Japan until 1879, substantially advancing the development of the
navy and firmly establishing British traditions within the Japanese
navy from matters of seamanship to the style of its uniforms and the
attitudes of its officers.
From September 1870, the English Lieutenant Horse, a former gunnery
instructor for the Saga fief during the
Bakumatsu period, was put in
charge of gunnery practice on board the Ryūjō. In 1871, the ministry
resolved to send 16 trainees abroad for training in naval sciences (14
to Great Britain, two to the United States), among which was
Heihachirō Tōgō. A 34-member British naval mission visited
1873 for two years, headed by
Commander Archibald Douglas. Later,
Commander L.P. Willan was hired in 1879 to train naval cadets.
Further modernization (1870s)
Armoured corvette Kongō.
Ships such as the Fusō, Kongō and Hiei were built in British
shipyards, they were first warships built abroad specifically for the
Imperial Japanese Navy. Private construction companies such as
Ishikawajima and Kawasaki also emerged around this time.
First interventions abroad (
The landing of the Japanese marines from the Un'yō at Ganghwa Island,
Korea, in the 1875
Ganghwa Island incident.
During 1873, a plan to invade the Korean Peninsula, the Seikanron
proposal made by Saigō Takamori, was narrowly abandoned by decision
of the central government in Tokyo. In 1874, the
was the first foray abroad of the new Imperial Japanese
Navy and Army
after the Mudan Incident of 1871, however the navy served largely as a
Various interventions in the Korean peninsula continued in
1875–1876, starting with the
Ganghwa Island incident provoked by the
Japanese gunboat Un'yō, leading to the dispatch of a large force of
the Imperial Japanese Navy. As a result, the Japan–
Korea Treaty of
1876 was signed, marking the official opening of
Korea to foreign
trade, and Japan's first example of Western-style interventionism and
adoption of "unequal treaties" tactics.
In 1878, the Japanese cruiser Seiki sailed to
Europe with an entirely
Naval expansion (1882–1893)
First naval expansion bill
Imo Incident in July 1882,
Iwakura Tomomi submitted a
document to the daijō-kan titled "Opinions Regarding Naval Expansion"
asserting that a strong navy was essential to maintaining the security
of Japan. In furthering his argument, Iwakura suggested that
domestic rebellions was no longer Japan's primary military concern and
that that naval affairs should take precedence over army concerns; a
strong navy was more important than a sizable army to preserve the
Japanese state. Furthermore, he justified that a large, modern
navy, would have the added potential benefit of instilling
greater international prestige and recognition, as navies were
internationally recognized hallmarks of power and status. Iwakura
also suggested that the Meiji government could support naval growth by
increasing taxes on tobacco, sake, and soy.
After lengthy discussions, Iwakura eventually convinced the ruling
coalition to support Japan's first multi-year naval expansion plan in
history. In May 1883, the government approved a plan that, when
completed, would add 32 warships over eight years at a cost of just
over ¥26 million. This development was very significant for the
navy, as the amount allocated virtually equaled the navy's entire
budget between 1873 and 1882. The 1882 naval expansion plan
succeeded in a large part because of Satsuma power, influence, and
patronage. Between 19 August and 23 November 1882, Satsuma forces
with Iwakura's leadership, worked tirelessly to secure support for the
Navy's expansion plan. After uniting the other Satsuma members of
the Dajokan, Iwakura approached the emperor the
Meiji emperor arguing
persuasively just as he did with the Dajokan, that naval expansion was
critical to Japan's security and that the standing army of forty
thousand men was more than sufficient for domestic purposes. While
the government should direct the lion's share of future military
appropriations toward naval matters, a powerful navy would legitimize
an increase in tax revenue. On November 24, the emperor assembled
select ministers of the daijō-kan together with military officers,
and announced the need for increased tax revenues to provide adequate
funding for military expansion, this was followed by an imperial
re-script. The following month, in December, an annual ¥7.5-million
tax increase on sake, soy, and tobacco was fully approved, in the
hopes that it would provide ¥3.5 million annually for warship
construction and ¥2.5 million for warship maintenance. In
February 1883, the government directed further revenues from other
ministries to support an increase in the navy's warship construction
and purchasing budget. By March 1883, the navy secured the ¥6.5
million required annually to support a eight-year expansion plan, this
was the largest that the Imperial Japanese
Navy had secured in its
However, naval expansion remained a highly contentious issue for both
the government and the navy throughout much of the 1880s. Overseas
advances in naval technology increased the costs of purchasing large
components of a modern fleet, so that by 1885 cost overruns had
jeopardized the entire 1883 plan. Furthermore, increased costs coupled
with decreased domestic tax revenues, heightened concern and political
Japan regarding funding naval expansion. In 1883, two
large warships were ordered from British shipyards.
The Naniwa and Takachiho were 3,650 ton ships. They were capable
of speeds up to 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph) and were armed
with 54 to 76 mm (2 to 3 in) deck armor and two 260 mm
Krupp guns. The naval architect Sasō Sachū designed
these on the line of the Elswick class of protected cruisers but with
superior specifications. An arms race was taking place with China
however, who equipped herself with two 7,335 ton German-built
battleships (Ting Yüan and Chen-Yüan). Unable to confront the
Chinese fleet with only two modern cruisers,
Japan resorted to French
assistance to build a large, modern fleet which could prevail in the
Influence of the French "Jeune École" (1880s)
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese
the Battle of the
Yalu River (1894)
During the 1880s, France took the lead in influence, due to its "Jeune
École" ("young school") doctrine, favoring small, fast warships,
especially cruisers and torpedo boats, against bigger units. The
choice of France may also have been influenced by the Minister of the
Navy, who happened to be
Enomoto Takeaki at that time (
1880–1885), a former ally of the French during the Boshin War. Also,
Japan was uneasy with being dependent on Great Britain, at a time when
Great Britain was very close to China.
The Meiji government issued its First Naval Expansion bill in 1882,
requiring the construction of 48 warships, of which 22 were to be
torpedo boats. The naval successes of the French
China in the
Sino-French War of 1883–85 seemed to validate the
potential of torpedo boats, an approach which was also attractive to
the limited resources of Japan. In 1885, the new
became Kaikoku Nippon (Jp:海国日本, "Maritime Japan").
In 1885, the leading French
Navy engineer Émile Bertin was hired for
four years to reinforce the Japanese
Navy and to direct the
construction of the arsenals of Kure and Sasebo. He developed the
Sankeikan class of cruisers; three units featuring a single powerful
main gun, the 320 mm (13 in) Canet gun. Altogether,
Bertin supervised the building of more than 20 units. They helped
establish the first true modern naval force of Japan. It allowed Japan
to achieve mastery in the building of large units, since some of the
ships were imported, and some others were built domestically at the
arsenal of Yokosuka:
The 320 mm (13 in)
Canet gun aboard Matsushima
3 cruisers: the 4,700 ton Matsushima and Itsukushima, built in
France, and the Hashidate, built at Yokosuka.
3 coastal warships of 4,278 tons.
2 small cruisers: the Chiyoda, a small cruiser of 2,439 tons
built in Britain, and the Yaeyama, 1,800 tons, built at Yokosuka.
1 frigate, the 1,600 ton Takao, built at Yokosuka.
1 aviso: the 726 ton Chishima, built in France.
16 torpedo boats of 54 tons each, built in France by the Companie
du Creusot in 1888, and assembled in Japan.
This period also allowed
Japan "to embrace the revolutionary new
technologies embodied in torpedoes, torpedo-boats and mines, of which
the French at the time were probably the world's best exponents".
Japan acquired its first torpedoes in 1884, and established a "Torpedo
Training Center" at Yokosuka in 1886.
These ships, ordered during the fiscal years 1885 and 1886, were the
last major orders placed with France. The unexplained sinking of Unebi
en route from France to
Japan in December 1886, created embarrassment
The torpedo boat Kotaka (1887)
Japan turned again to Britain, with the order of a revolutionary
torpedo boat, Kotaka which was considered the first effective design
of a destroyer, in 1887 and with the purchase of Yoshino, built at
the Armstrong works in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, the fastest
cruiser in the world at the time of her launch in 1892. In 1889,
she ordered the Clyde-built Chiyoda, which defined the type for
Between 1882 and 1918, ending with the visit of the French Military
Mission to Japan, the Imperial Japanese
Navy stopped relying on
foreign instructors altogether. In 1886, she manufactured her own
prismatic powder, and in 1892 one of her officers invented a powerful
explosive, the Shimose powder.
Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)
Main article: First Sino-Japanese War
Video footage of a naval battle during the first Sino-Japanese war
Japan continued the modernization of its navy, especially as
also building a powerful modern fleet with foreign, especially German,
assistance, and as a result tensions were building between the two
countries over Korea. The Japanese naval leadership on the eve of
hostilities, was generally cautious and even apprehensive as the
navy had not yet received the warships ordered in February 1893,
particularly the battleships Fuji and Yashima and the cruiser
Akashi. Hence, initiating hostilities at the time was not ideal,
and the navy was far less confident than the Japanese army about the
outcome of a war with China.
Japan's main strategy was to gain command of the sea as this was
critical to the operations on land. An early victory over the Beiyang
fleet would allow
Japan to transport troops and material to the Korean
peninsula, however any prolongation of the war would increase the risk
of intervention by the European powers with interests in East
Asia. The army's Fifth Division would land at Chemulpo on the
western coast of Korea, both to engage and push Chinese forces
northwest up the peninsula and to draw the
Beiyang Fleet into the
Yellow Sea, where it would be engaged in decisive battle. Depending
upon the outcome of this engagement,
Japan would make one of three
choices; If the
Combined Fleet were to win decisively, the larger part
of the Japanese army would undertake immediate landings on the coast
between Shan-hai-kuan and Tientsin in order to defeat the Chinese army
and bring the war to a swift conclusion. If the engagement were to be
a draw and neither side gained control of the sea, the army would
concentrate on the occupation of Korea. Lastly, if the Combined Fleet
was defeated and consequently lost command of the sea, the bulk of the
army would remain in
Japan and prepare to repel a Chinese invasion,
while the Fifth Division in
Korea would be ordered to hang on and
fight a rearguard action.
A Japanese squadron intercepted and defeated a Chinese force near
Korean island of Pungdo; damaging a cruiser, sinking a loaded
transport, capturing one gunboat and destroying another. The
battle occurred before the war was officially declared on 1 August
1894. The Japanese
Navy then devastated Qing's
Beiyang Fleet off
the mouth of the
Yalu River during the Battle of
Yalu River on 17
September 1894, in which the Chinese fleet lost eight out of 12
Japan turned out victorious, the two large
German-made battleships of the Chinese
Navy remained almost impervious
to Japanese guns, highlighting the need for bigger capital ships in
Navy (Ting Yuan was finally sunk by torpedoes, and Chen
Yuan was captured with little damage). The next step of the Imperial
Japanese Navy's expansion would thus involve a combination of heavily
armed large warships, with smaller and innovative offensive units
permitting aggressive tactics.
As a result of the conflict, under the
Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki (April
Taiwan and the
Pescadores Islands were transferred to
Japan. The Imperial Japanese
Navy took possession of the island
and quelled opposition movements between March to October 1895, and
the islands continued to be a Japanese colony until 1945.
obtained the Liaodong Peninsula, although she was forced by Russia,
Germany and France to return it to
China (Triple Intervention), only
Russia take possession of it soon after.
Suppression of the
Boxer rebellion (1900)
Main article: Boxer rebellion
The Imperial Japanese
Navy further intervened in
China in 1900 by
participating, together with Western Powers, in the suppression of the
Chinese Boxer Rebellion. The
Navy supplied the largest number of
warships (18 out of a total of 50) and delivered the largest
contingent of troops among the intervening nations (20,840 Imperial
Japanese Army and
Navy soldiers, out of a total of 54,000).
The conflict allowed
Japan to enter combat together with Western
nations and to acquire first-hand understanding of their fighting
Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
Russo-Japanese War and Six-six fleet
Following the Sino-Japanese War, and the humiliation of the forced
return of the Liaotung peninsula to
China under Russian pressure (the
Japan began to build up its military strength
in preparation for further confrontations.
Japan promulgated a
¥215 million 10-year naval build-up program, under the slogan
"Perseverance and determination" (臥薪嘗胆, Gashinshōtan), in
which the Japanese commissioned 109 warships, for a total of
200,000 tons, and increased its
Navy personnel from 15,100 to
40,800. The new fleet consisted of:
6 battleships (all British-built)
8 armored cruisers (4 British-, 2 Italian-, 1 German-built Yakumo, and
1 French-built Azuma)
9 cruisers (5 Japanese, 2 British and 2 U.S.-built)
24 destroyers (16 British- and 8 Japanese-built)
63 torpedo boats (26 German-, 10 British-, 17 French-, and 10
Mikasa, among the most powerful battleships of her time, in 1905.
One of these battleships, Mikasa, among the most powerful warships
afloat when completed, was ordered from the
Vickers shipyard in
United Kingdom at the end of 1898, for delivery to
Japan in 1902.
Commercial shipbuilding in
Japan was exhibited by construction of the
twin screw steamer Aki-Maru, built for
Nippon Yusen Kaisha
Nippon Yusen Kaisha by the
Mitsubishi Dockyard & Engine Works, Nagasaki. The Imperial
Japanese cruiser Chitose
Japanese cruiser Chitose was built at the
Union Iron Works
Union Iron Works in San
These dispositions culminated with the Russo-Japanese War. At the
Battle of Tsushima, Admiral Togo (flag in Mikasa) led the Japanese
Combined Fleet into the decisive engagement of the war. The
Russian fleet was almost completely annihilated: out of 38 Russian
ships, 21 were sunk, seven captured, six disarmed, 4,545 Russian
servicemen died and 6,106 were taken prisoner. On the other hand, the
Japanese only lost 116 men and three torpedo boats. These
victories broke Russian strength in East Asia, and triggered waves of
mutinies in the Russian
Navy at Sevastopol,
Vladivostok and Kronstadt,
peaking in June with the Potemkin uprising, thereby contributing to
the Russian Revolution of 1905. The victory at Tsushima elevated the
stature of the navy.
Holland 1-class submarine, the first Japanese navy submarine,
purchased during the Russo Japanese War.
During the Russo-Japanese war,
Japan also made frantic efforts to
develop and construct a fleet of submarines. Submarines had only
recently become operational military engines, and were considered to
be special weapons of considerable potential. Naval losses for the
Navy during the war amounted to two battleships, four
cruisers, one armored cruiser, seven destroyers, and at least 10
torpedo boats; the majority of them were lost due to hitting Russian
The Imperial Japanese
Navy acquired its first submarines in 1905 from
Electric Boat Company, barely four years after the U.S.
commissioned its own first submarine, USS Holland. The ships were
Holland designs and were developed under the supervision of Electric
Boat's representative, Arthur L. Busch. These five submarines (known
as Holland Type VII's) were shipped in kit form to
1904) and then assembled at the
Yokosuka, Kanagawa Yokosuka Naval
Arsenal, to become hulls No.1 through 5, and became operational at the
end of 1905.
Towards an autonomous national navy (1905–1914)
Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as
an "all-big-gun" battleship
Japan continued in its efforts to build up a strong national naval
industry. Following a strategy of "copy, improve, innovate",
foreign ships of various designs were usually analysed in depth, their
specifications often improved on, and then were purchased in pairs so
as to organize comparative testing and improvements. Over the years,
the importation of whole classes of ships was progressively
substituted by local assembly, and then complete local production,
starting with the smallest ships, such as torpedo boats and cruisers
in the 1880s, to finish with whole battleships in the early 20th
century. The last major purchase was in 1913 when the battlecruiser
Kongō was purchased from the
Vickers shipyard. By 1918, there was no
aspect of shipbuilding technology where Japanese capabilities fell
significantly below world standards.
The period immediately after Tsushima also saw the IJN, under the
influence of the navalist theoretician Satō Tetsutarō, adopt an
explicit policy of building for a potential future conflict against
the United States Navy. Satō called for a battlefleet at least 70% as
strong as that of the USA. In 1907, the official policy of the Navy
became an 'eight-eight fleet' of eight modern battleships and eight
battlecruisers. However, financial constraints prevented this ideal
ever becoming a reality.
By 1920, the Imperial Japanese
Navy was the world's third largest navy
and a leader in naval development:
Following its 1897 invention by Marconi, the Japanese
Navy was the
first navy to employ wireless telegraphy in combat, at the 1905 Battle
In 1905, it began building the battleship Satsuma, at the time the
largest warship in the world by displacement, and the first ship to be
designed, ordered and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship, about
one year prior to the launching of HMS Dreadnought. However, due
to a lack of material, she was completed with a mixed battery of
rifles, launched on 15 November 1906, and completed on 25 March
Between 1903 and 1910,
Japan began to build battleships
domestically. The 1906 battleship Satsuma was built in
about 80% material imported from Great Britain, with the following
battleship class in 1909, the Kawachi, being built with only 20%
World War I
World War I (1914–1918)
Main articles: Imperial Japanese
World War I
World War I and Asian and
Pacific theatre of World War I
Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya
Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first
sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
World War I
World War I on the side of the Entente, against Germany
and Austria-Hungary, as a consequence of the 1902 Anglo-Japanese
Alliance. In the Siege of Tsingtao, the Imperial Japanese
seize the German colony of Tsingtao. During the siege, beginning on 5
September 1914, Wakamiya conducted the world's first successful
sea-launched air strikes. On 6 September 1914, in the very first
air-sea battle in history, a Farman aircraft launched by Wakamiya
attacked the Austro-Hungarian cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth and the
German gunboat Jaguar off Tsingtao. from Jiaozhou Bay. Four
Maurice Farman seaplanes bombarded German land targets like
communication and command centers, and damaged a German minelayer in
the Tsingtao peninsula from September to 6 November 1914 when the
A battle group was also sent to the central Pacific in August and
September to pursue the German East Asiatic squadron, which then moved
into the Southern Atlantic, where it encountered British naval forces
and was destroyed at the Falkland Islands.
Japan also seized German
possessions in northern Micronesia, which remained Japanese colonies
until the end of World War II, under the League of Nations' South
Pacific Mandate. Hard pressed in Europe, where she had only a
narrow margin of superiority against Germany, Britain had requested,
but was denied, the loan of Japan's four newest Kongō-class
battlecruisers (Kongō, Hiei, Haruna, and Kirishima), some of the
first ships in the world to be equipped with 356 mm (14 in)
guns, and the most formidable battlecruisers in the world at the
Following a further request by the British and the initiation of
unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany, in March 1917, the Japanese
sent a special force to the Mediterranean. This force, consisted of
one armoured cruiser, Akashi as flotilla leader and eight of the
Navy's newest destroyers (Ume, Kusunoki, Kaede, Katsura, Kashiwa,
Matsu, Sugi, and Sakaki), under Admiral Satō Kōzō, was based in
Malta and efficiently protected allied shipping between Marseille,
Taranto, and ports in
Egypt until the end of the War. In June,
Akashi was replaced by Izumo, and four more destroyers were added
(Kashi, Hinoki, Momo, and Yanagi). They were later joined by the
cruiser Nisshin. By the end of the war, the Japanese had escorted 788
allied transports. One destroyer, Sakaki, was torpedoed on 11 June
1917 by a German submarine with the loss of 59 officers and men. A
memorial at the Kalkara Naval Cemetery in
Malta was dedicated to the
72 Japanese sailors who died in action during the Mediterranean convoy
Japan exported 12 Arabe-class destroyers to France. In 1918,
ships such as Azuma were assigned to convoy escort in the Indian Ocean
Singapore and the
Suez Canal as part of Japan’s contribution
to the war effort under the Anglo-Japanese alliance. After the
conflict, the Japanese
Navy received seven German submarines as spoils
of war, which were brought to
Japan and analysed, contributing greatly
to the development of the Japanese submarine industry.
Interwar years (1918–1937)
By 1921, Japan's naval expenditure reached nearly 32% of the national
budget. In 1941, the Imperial Japanese
Navy possessed 10 battleships,
10 aircraft carriers, 38 cruisers (heavy and light), 112 destroyers,
65 submarines, and various auxiliary ships.
Washington treaty system
Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference and Washington Naval Treaty
In the aftermath following the First World War, the naval construction
programs of the three greatest naval powers Britain,
Japan and the
United States had threatened to set off a new potentially dangerous
and expensive naval arms race. The
Washington Naval Treaty
Washington Naval Treaty of 1922
was one of history's most effective arms reduction programs and a
system of ratios was set up between the five signatory powers. The
United States and Britain were each allocated 525,000 tons of capital
Japan 315,000 tons, and France and Italy were both restricted
to 175,000 tons each; a ratio of 5:5:3:1.75. Also agreed to was a
ten year moratorium on battleship construction and the replacement of
battleships was allowed after they had reached 20 years of service,
however, the battleships could not be bigger than 35,000 tons or carry
guns larger than 16 inches. Carriers were also restricted with the
same 5:5:3 ratio, with Japan's allocation being 81,000 tons. Many
naval leaders in Japan’s delegation were outraged by these
Japan would always be behind its chief rivals.
However, in the end it was concluded that even these unfavorable
limitations would be better than an unrestricted arms race with the
industrially dominant United States. The Washington System may
Japan a junior partner with the US and Britain, but it also
curtailed the rise of
China and the Soviet Union, who both sought to
Japan in Asia.
The Washington Treaty did not restrict the building of ships other
than battleships and carriers, as a result what ensued was a building
race for heavy cruisers. However, the Washington Treaty did set a
limit on the size of these ships which was 10,000 tons and the size of
their guns was to be no larger than 8 inches. The Japanese were
also able to get some concessions, most notably the battleship
Mutsu, which had been partly funded by donations from
schoolchildren and was going to be scrapped under the terms of the
treaty. And the non-fortification of naval bases in the Western
Development of naval aviation
Main article: Sempill Mission
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō,
Japan at times continued to solicit foreign expertise in areas in
which the IJN was inexperienced, such as naval aviation. The Japanese
navy had closely monitored the progress of aviation of the three
Allied naval powers during
World War I
World War I and concluded that Britain had
made the greatest advances in naval aviation,. The Sempill Mission
led by Captain William Forbes-Sempill, a former officer in the Royal
Air Force experienced in the design and testing of Royal
during the First World War. The mission consisted of 27 members,
who were largely personnel with experience in naval aviation and
included pilots and engineers from several British aircraft
manufacturing firms. The British technical mission left for Japan
in September with the objective of helping the Imperial Japanese Navy
develop and improve the proficiency of its naval air arm. The
mission arrived at Kasumigaura Naval Air Station the following month,
in November 1921, and stayed in
Japan for 18 months.
The Japanese were trained on several British aircraft such as the
Gloster Sparrowhawk; as the mission also brought to Kasumigaura, well
over a hundred aircraft comprising twenty different models, five of
which were then currently in service with the Royal Navy's Fleet Air
Arm, including the Sparrowhawk. These planes eventually provided the
inspiration for the design of a number of Japanese naval aircraft.
Technicians become familiar with the newest aerial weapons and
equipment-torpedoes, bombs, machine guns, cameras, and communications
gear. While naval aviators were trained in various techniques such
as torpedo bombing, flight control and carrier landing and take-offs;
The mission also brought the plans of the most recent British aircraft
carriers, such as the HMS Argus and the HMS Hermes, which influenced
the final stages of the development of the carrier Hōshō. By the
time the last members of the mission had returned to Britain, the
Japanese had acquired a reasonable grasp of the latest aviation
technology and the Sempill mission of 1921-22, marked the true
beginning of an effective Japanese naval air force. Japanese naval
aviation also, both in technology and in doctrine, continued to be
dependent on the British model for most of the 1920s.
Naval developments during the interwar years
Hōshō, the world's first purpose built aircraft carrier, completed
Between the wars,
Japan took the lead in many areas of warship
In 1921, it launched the Hōshō, the first purpose-designed aircraft
carrier in the world to be completed, and subsequently developed a
fleet of aircraft carriers second to none.
In keeping with its doctrine, the Imperial
Navy was the first to mount
356 mm (14 in) guns (in Kongō), 406 mm (16 in)
guns (in Nagato), and then completed the only battleships ever to
mount 460 mm (18.1 in) guns (in the Yamato class).
In 1928, she launched the innovative Fubuki-class destroyer,
introducing enclosed dual 127 mm (5 in) turrets capable of
anti-aircraft fire. The new destroyer design was soon emulated by
other navies. The Fubukis also featured the first torpedo tubes
enclosed in splinterproof turrets.
Japan developed the 610 mm (24 in) oxygen fuelled Type 93
torpedo, generally recognized as the best torpedo of World War II.
During the pre-war years, two schools of thought battled over whether
the navy should be organized around powerful battleships, ultimately
able to defeat American ones in Japanese waters, or around aircraft
carriers. Neither really prevailed, and both lines of ships were
developed, with the result neither solution displayed overwhelming
strength over the American adversary. A consistent weakness of
Japanese warship development was the tendency to incorporate too much
armament, and too much engine power, in comparison to ship size (a
side-effect of the Washington Treaty), leading to shortcomings in
stability, protection and structural strength. The Imperial
Navy was faced, before and during World War II, with
considerable challenges, probably more so than any other navy in the
world. Japan, like Britain, was almost entirely dependent on
foreign resources to supply its economy. To achieve Japan’s
expansionist policies, IJN had to secure and protect distant sources
of raw material (especially Southeast Asian oil and raw materials),
controlled by foreign countries (Britain, France, and the
Netherlands). To achieve this goal, she had to build large warships
capable of long range assault. In the years before World War II, the
IJN began to structure itself specifically to fight the United States.
A long stretch of militaristic expansion and the start of the Second
Sino-Japanese war in 1937 had exacerbated tensions with the United
States, which was seen as a rival of Japan.
This was in conflict with Japan's doctrine of "decisive battle"
(艦隊決戦, Kantai kessen, which did not require long range),
in which IJN would allow the U.S. to sail across the Pacific, using
submarines to damage it, then engage the U.S.
Navy in a "decisive
battle area", near Japan, after inflicting such attrition. This is
in keeping with the theory of Alfred T. Mahan, to which every major
navy subscribed before World War II, in which wars would be decided by
engagements between opposing surface fleets (as they had been for
over 300 years). Following the dictates of Satō (who doubtless was
influenced by Mahan), it was the basis for Japan's demand for a
70% ratio (10:10:7) at the Washington Naval Conference, which would
Japan superiority in the "decisive battle area", and the U.S.'
insistence on a 60% ratio, which meant parity. Japan, unlike other
navies, clung to it even after it had been demonstrated to be
It was also in conflict with her past experience. Japan's numerical
and industrial inferiority led her to seek technical superiority
(fewer, but faster, more powerful ships), qualitative superiority
(better training), and aggressive tactics (daring and speedy attacks
overwhelming the enemy, a recipe for success in her previous
conflicts), but failed to take account of any of these traits. She
failed to take account of the fact her opponents in the Pacific War
did not face the political and geographical constraints of her
previous wars, nor did she allow for losses in ships and crews.
Conflict in China
Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War
The IJN had two primary responsibilities, the first was to support
amphibious operations on the Chinese coast and the second was the
strategic aerial bombardment of Chinese cities. This was unique
in naval history, as it was the first time that any naval air arm had
ever carried out such an effort. From the onset of hostilities in
1937 until forces were diverted to combat for the Pacific war in 1941,
naval aircraft played a key role in military operations on the Chinese
mainland. The campaign began in 1937, taking place largely in the
Yangtze River basin with attacks on military installations along the
Chinese coast by Japanese carrier aircraft. Naval involvement
during the conflict reached its peak in 1938-39 with the heavy
bombardment of Chinese cities deep in the interior of
land-based medium bombers and concluded during 1941 with an attempt by
both, carrier-borne and land-based, tactical aircraft to cut
communication and transportation routes in southern China. Although,
the 1937-41 air offensives failed in their political and psychological
aims, they did reduce the flow of strategic materiel to
China and for
a time improved the Japanese military situation in the central and
southern parts of the country. The
China War, was of great
importance and value to the Japanese naval aviation in demonstrating
how aircraft could contribute to the projection of naval power
World War II
Main article: Imperial Japanese
Navy in World War II
Navy vs US
(1937–1945, in Standard Tons Displacement)
Planes from the
Japanese aircraft carrier Shōkaku
Japanese aircraft carrier Shōkaku preparing the
attack on Pearl Harbor.
In order to combat the numerically superior American navy, the
Japanese had devoted a large amount of resources to creating a force
superior in quality, the objective being of "making up for
quantity by means of quality".  Betting on the agile success
of aggressive tactics which stemmed from Mahanian doctrineand the
concept of decisive battle,
Japan did not invest significantly in
capabilities needed to protect its long shipping lines against enemy
submarines, particularly under-investing in the vital area of
antisubmarine warfare (both escort ships and escort carriers), and in
the specialized training and organization to support it. Imperial
Japan's reluctance to use its submarine fleet for commerce raiding and
failure to secure its communications also hastened its defeat.
During the first six months of the Pacific War, the IJN enjoyed
spectacular success inflicting heavy defeats on Allied forces.
The attack on
Pearl Harbor crippled the battle line of the US Pacific
fleet while Allied navies were devastated during the conquest of
Southeast Asia. Japanese naval aircraft were also responsible for
the sinkings of the Prince of Wales and Repulse which was the first
time that capital ships were sunk by aerial attack while
underway. In April 1942, the
Indian Ocean raid drove the Royal
Navy from South East Asia.
After these successes, the IJN now concentrated on the elimination and
neutralization of strategic points from where the Allies could launch
counteroffensives against Japanese conquests. However, at Coral
Sea the Japanese were forced to abandon their attempts to isolate
Australia while the defeat in the Midway Campaign saw the
Japanese forced on the defensive. The campaign in the Solomon Islands,
in which the Japanese lost the war of attrition, was the most
decisive; the Japanese failed to commit enough forces in sufficient
time. During 1943 the Allies were able to reorganize their forces
and American industrial strength began to turn the tide of the
war. American forces ultimately managed to gain the upper hand
through a vastly greater industrial output and a modernization of its
air and naval forces.
In 1943, the Japanese also turned their attention to the defensive
perimeters of their previous conquests. Forces on Japanese held
islands in Micronesia were to absorb and wear down an expected
American counteroffensive. However, American industrial power
become apparent and the military forces that faced the Japanese in
1943 were overwhelming in firepower and equipment. From the end
of 1943 to 1944 Japan's defensive perimeter failed to hold.
Defeat at the Philippine Sea was a disaster for Japanese naval air
power with American pilots terming the slanted air/sea battle the
Great Marianas Turkey Shoot, mostly going in the favor of the
U.S., while the battle of Leyte Gulf led to the destruction of a
large part of the surface fleet. During the last phase of the
war, the Imperial Japanese
Navy resorted to a series of desperate
measures, including a variety of
Special Attack Units which were
popularly called kamikaze. By May 1945, most of the Imperial
Navy had been sunk and the remnants had taken refuge in
Japan's harbors. By July 1945, all but one of the Imperial
Navy capital ships had been sunk in raids by the United
Japanese sailors beside the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)
training vessel JDS Kashima, in Pearl Harbor, May 4, 2004.
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Following Japan's surrender and subsequent occupation by the Allies at
the conclusion of World War II, the Imperial Japanese
dissolved in 1945. In the new constitution of
Japan which was drawn up
in 1947, Article 9 specifies that "The Japanese people forever
renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use
of force as a means of settling international disputes." The prevalent
Japan is that this article allows for military forces to be
kept for the purposes of self-defense.
In 1952, the Coastal Safety Force was formed within the Maritime
Safety Agency, incorporating the minesweeping fleet and other military
vessels, mainly destroyers, given by the United States. In 1954, the
Coastal Safety Force was separated, and the JMSDF was formally created
as the naval branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (JSDF),
following the passage of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Law. Japan's
current navy falls under the umbrella of the
Japan Self-Defense Forces
(JSDF) as the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).
Admiral of the Fleet (Japan)
Carrier Striking Task Force
Fleet Faction –
Navy political group
Imperial Japanese Naval Academy
Navy Armor Units
Navy Aviation Bureau
Navy bases and facilities
Navy Land Forces
Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors
Imperial Way Faction
Special Naval Landing Forces
List of Japanese
Navy ships and war vessels in World War II
May 15 Incident – coup d'état with
Ministry of War (Ritsuryō)
"Strike South" Doctrine
Ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Recruitment in the Imperial Japanese Navy
Navy Military Police
Treaty Faction –
Navy political group
^ Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan> National Security>
Self-Defense Forces> Early Development
^ Evans, Kaigun
^ "Early Samurai". google.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 3.
^ a b c Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 4.
^ THE FIRST IRONCLADS In Japanese: . Also in English: : "Iron
clad ships, however, were not new to
Japan and Hideyoshi; Oda
Nobunaga, in fact, had many iron clad ships in his fleet." (referring
to the anteriority of Japanese ironclads (1578) to the Korean Turtle
ships (1592)). In Western sources, Japanese ironclads are described in
CR Boxer "The Christian Century in
Japan 1549–1650", p122, quoting
the account of the Italian Jesuit Organtino visiting
Japan in 1578.
Nobunaga's ironclad fleet is also described in "A History of Japan,
1334–1615", Georges Samson, p309 ISBN 0-8047-0525-9. Admiral Yi
Sun-sin invented Korea's "ironclad Turtle ships", first documented in
1592. Incidentally, Korea's iron plates only covered the roof (to
prevent intrusion), and not the sides of their ships. The first
Western ironclads date to 1859 with the French Gloire ("Steam, Steel
Japan encyclopedia by Louis Frédéric p.293
Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III by Donald F. Lach, Edwin J.
Van Kley p.29 
^ The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the
West, 1500–1800 by Geoffrey Parker p.110 
^ "A History of Japan". google.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Jentschura p. 113
^ a b c d e f g h Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 5.
^ Sims 1998, p. 246.
^ a b c Schencking 2005, p. 15.
^ a b Schencking 2005, p. 16.
^ a b c d e Schencking 2005, p. 13.
^ a b Schencking 2005, p. 11.
^ a b c d e f Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 7.
^ Sondhaus 2001, p. 100.
^ a b c d Schencking 2005, p. 12.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 9.
^ a b Schencking 2005, p. 19.
^ a b Schencking 2005, p. 18.
^ a b c Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 12.
^ Sondhaus 2001, p. 133.
^ Meiji Japan: Political, Economic and Social History 1868–1912
Peter F. Kornicki p.191 
^ The land of scholars: two thousand years of Korean Confucianism by
Jae-un Kang, Jae-eun Kang p.450ff 
^ a b John Pike. "Rise of the Imperial Japanese Navy".
globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ a b c Schencking 2005, p. 26.
^ a b c d e f Schencking 2005, p. 27.
^ a b c Schencking 2005, p. 34.
^ a b c Schencking 2005, p. 35.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 14.
^ a b c d Sims 1998, p. 250.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 19.
^ Rulers, guns, and money: the global arms trade in the age of
imperialism by Jonathan A. Grant p.137 
^ Howe, p.281
^ Sims 1998, p. 354.
^ Chiyoda (II): First Armoured
Cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy,
Kathrin Milanovich, Warship 2006, Conway Maritime Press, 2006,
^ Video footage of the Sino-Japanese war: Video (external link).
^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 38.
^ Schencking 2005, p. 81.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 40.
^ a b c Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 41.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 46.
^ Perry, John Curtis (1964). "The Battle off the Tayang, 17 September
1894". The Mariner's Mirror. Taylor & Francis. 50 (4): 243–259.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 48.
^ Schencking 2005, p. 83.
^ Ground warfare: an international encyclopedia by Stanley Sandler
^ The arc of Japan's economic development by Arthur J. Alexander p.44
^ Schencking 2005, p. 87.
^ Schencking 2005, p. 85.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 53.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 52.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, pp. 60–61.
^ Corbett Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War, 2:333
^ Schencking 2005, p. 108.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 116.
^ Schencking 2005, p. 122.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 177.
^ Howe, p.284
^ Howe, p.268
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, pp. 150–1.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 84.
^ a b Jentschura p. 23
^ Jane's Battleships of the 20th Century, p.68
^ Jentschura p. 22
^ Wakamiya is "credited with conducting the first successful carrier
air raid in history"Source:GlobalSecurity.org Austrian
SMS Radetzky launched sea plane raids a year earlier
^ John Pike. "IJN Wakamiya Aircraft Carrier". globalsecurity.org.
Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Peattie 2007, p. 9.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 168.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 161.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 169.
^ Zammit, Roseanne (27 March 2004). "Japanese lieutenant's son visits
Japanese war dead at Kalkara cemetery". Times of Malta. Retrieved 25
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 212 & 215.
^ John Pike. "Rise of the Imperial Japanese Navy". globalsecurity.org.
Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 191.
^ Stille 2014, p. 12.
^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 194.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 193.
^ Cambridge History of
Japan Vol. 6. Ed. John Whitney Hall and Marius
B. Jansen. Cambridge University Press, 1988
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 195.
^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 197.
^ Peattie 2007, p. 17.
^ a b c d Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 301.
^ Peattie 2007, p. 19.
^ Evan & Peattie 1997, p. 181.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 248.
^ "The Imperial Japanese
Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation, having
commissioned the world's first built-from-the-keel-up carrier, the
^ The British had used 18-inch guns during the First World War on the
large "light" cruiser HMS Furious, converted to an aircraft
carrier during the 1920s, and also two of the eight monitors of the
Lord Clive class, namely Lord Clive and General Wolfe.
^ Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th
Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volum3 10,
^ Westwood, Fighting Ships
World War II
World War II warships p. 35
World War II
World War II Warships p. 34
^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
^ Miller, Edward S. War Plan Orange. Annapolis, MD: United States
Naval Institute Press, 1991.
^ Mahan, Alfred T. Influence of Seapower on History, 1660–1783
(Boston: Little, Brown, n.d.).
^ Peattie and Evans, Kaigun
^ Miller, op. cit. The United States would be able to enforce a 60%
ratio thanks to reading signals from the Japanese government to her
negotiators, thanks to having broken the Japanese diplomatic code.
Yardly, American Black Chamber.
^ Peattie & Evans, op. cit., and Willmott, H. P.,The Barrier and
the Javelin. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983.
^ a b c d Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 340.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 341.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 355 & 367.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 205 & 370.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 357.
^ Howe, p286
^ Stille 2014, p. 13.
^ Stille 2014, p. 371.
^ Parillo, Mark. Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II. Annapolis,
MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1993.
^ Stille 2014, p. 9.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 488.
^ a b c Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 489.
^ Peattie 2007, p. 169.
^ Peattie 2007, p. 172.
^ Evans & Peattie 1997, pp. 490.
^ a b c d Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 491.
^ The origins of Japanese trade supremacy: development and technology
Asia by Christopher Howe p.313 
^ Peattie 2007, p. 188-189.
^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 492.
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