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Imam
Imam
(/ɪˈmɑːm/; Arabic: إمام‎ imām; plural: أئمة aʼimmah) is an Islamic leadership position. It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim
Muslim
community among Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. For Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslims, the imam has a more central meaning and role in Islam
Islam
through the concept of imamah; the term is only applicable to those members of Ahl al-Bayt, the house of the prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles.[1]

Contents

1 Sunni
Sunni
imams 2 Shi'a
Shi'a
imams

2.1 Twelver 2.2 Ismaili

3 Imams as secular rulers 4 Gallery

4.1 Imams 4.2 Muftis 4.3 Shaykh

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Sunni
Sunni
imams[edit] Main article: Imam
Imam
khatib ( Sunni
Sunni
Islam) The Sunni
Sunni
branch of Islam
Islam
does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi'a, an important distinction often overlooked by those outside of the Islamic faith. In everyday terms, the imam for Sunni
Sunni
Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal (Fard) prayers, even in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading (imam) and the others following by copying his ritual actions of worship. Friday sermon is most often given by an appointed imam. All mosques have an imam to lead the (congregational) prayers, even though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than an officially appointed salaried person. The position of women as imams is controversial. The person that should be chosen, according to Hadith, is one who has most knowledge of the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and is of good character; the age being post-puberty.[citation needed] The term is also used for a recognized religious scholar or authority in Islam, often for the founding scholars of the four Sunni
Sunni
madhhabs, or schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It may also refer to the Muslim scholars who created the analytical sciences related to Hadith
Hadith
or it may refer to the heads of the Prophet Muhammad's family in their generational times.[citation needed] The following table shows the considered imams in the context of scholarly authority by Sunni
Sunni
Muslims:

Madhhab
Madhhab
(Schools of Jurisprudence) Aqidah
Aqidah
(Schools of Theology) Science of Hadith

Imam
Imam
Abu Hanifa Imam
Imam
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(Athari) Imam
Imam
Bukhari

Imam
Imam
Malik Imam
Imam
al-Ashari (Ash'ari) Imam
Imam
Abu Dawood

Imam
Imam
Shafi'i Imam
Imam
Abu Mansur al-Maturidi
Abu Mansur al-Maturidi
(Maturidi) Imam
Imam
Muslim

Imam
Imam
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Wasil ibn Ata (Mu'tazili) Imam
Imam
Ahmad ibn Hanbal

The Position of Imams In Turkey Imams are appointed by the state to work at mosques and they are required to be graduates of an İmam Hatip high school or have a university degree in Theology. This is an official position regulated by the Presidency of Religious Affairs[2] in Turkey and only males are appointed to this position while female officials under the same state organisation work as preachers and Qur'an course tutors, religious services experts. These officials are supposedly belong to the Hanafi school of the Sunni
Sunni
sect. Central figure in an Islamic movement are also called as Imam
Imam
like the Imam
Imam
Nabahwi in Syria and Ahmad Raza Khan in India called as the Imam of Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. Shi'a
Shi'a
imams[edit] Main articles: Imamah ( Shi'a
Shi'a
doctrine) and The Twelve Imams In the Shi'a
Shi'a
context, an imam is not only presented as the man of God par excellence, but as participating fully in the names, attributes, and acts that theology usually reserves for God alone.[3] Imams have a meaning more central to belief, referring to leaders of the community. Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shi'a
Shi'a
believe that these imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life. They also believe that all the imams chosen are free from committing any sin, impeccability which is called ismah. These leaders must be followed since they are appointed by God. Twelver[edit] Here follows a list of the Twelvers imams:

Number Name (Full/Kunya) Title (Arabic/Turkish)[4] Birth–Death (CE/AH)[5] Importance Birthplace (present day country) Place of death and burial

1 Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib علي بن أبي طالب

Abu al-Hassan or Abu al-Husayn أبو الحسین or أبو الحسن Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful)[6]

Birinci Ali[7] 600–661[6]

23–40[8] The first imam and successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Shia Islam; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph
Caliph
as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim
Muslim
orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad
Muhammad
through him.[6] Mecca, Saudi Arabia[6] Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite
Kharijite
in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword.[6][9] Buried at the Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
Mosque in Najaf, Iraq.

2 Hassan ibn Ali الحسن بن علي

Abu Muhammad أبو محمد al-Mujtaba

İkinci Ali[7] 624–670[10]

3–50[11] He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
through Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiya I, he relinquished control of Iraq
Iraq
following a reign of seven months.[12] Medina, Saudi Arabia[10] Poisoned by his wife in Medina, Saudi Arabia.[13] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.

3 Husayn ibn Ali الحسین بن علي

Abu Abdillah أبو عبدالله Sayed al-Shuhada

Üçüncü Ali[7] 626–680[14]

4–61[15] He was a grandson of Muhammad. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later killed in the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
has become a central ritual in Shia identity.[14][16] Medina, Saudi Arabia[14] Killed on Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
(10 Muharram) and beheaded at the Battle of Karbala.[14] Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine
Imam Husayn Shrine
in Karbala, Iraq.

4 Ali
Ali
ibn al-Hussein علي بن الحسین

Abu Muhammad أبو محمد al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin[17]

Dördüncü Ali[7] 658-9[17] – 712[18]

38[17]–95[18] Author of prayers in Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet."[18] Medina, Saudi Arabia[17] According to most Shia scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph
Caliph
al-Walid I in Medina, Saudi Arabia.[18] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.

5 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali محمد بن علي

Abu Ja'far أبو جعفر al-Baqir al-Ulum (splitting open knowledge)[19]

Beşinci Ali[7] 677–732[19]

57–114[19] Sunni
Sunni
and Shia sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.[19][20] Medina, Saudi Arabia[19] According to some Shia scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.[18] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.

6 Ja'far ibn Muhammad جعفر بن محمد

Abu Abdillah أبو عبدالله al-Sadiq[21]

(the Trustworthy)

Altıncı Ali[7] 702–765[21]

83–148[21] Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
and developed the Theology of Shia. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
in science and alchemy.[22] Medina, Saudi Arabia[21] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Medina, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mansur.[21] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.

7 Musa ibn Ja'far موسی بن جعفر

Abu al-Hassan I أبو الحسن الأول[23] al-Kazim[24]

Yedinci Ali[7] 744–799[24]

128–183[24] Leader of the Shia community during the schism of Ismaili
Ismaili
and other branches after the death of the former imam, Jafar al-Sadiq.[25] He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shia community of the Middle East
Middle East
and the Greater Khorasan.[26] Medina, Saudi Arabia[24] Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq
Iraq
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Kazimayn
Kazimayn
shrine in Baghdad.[24]

8 Ali
Ali
ibn Musa علي بن موسی

[23] al-Rida, Reza[27]

Sekizinci Ali[7] 765–817[27]

148–203[27] Made crown-prince by Caliph
Caliph
Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim
Muslim
and non- Muslim
Muslim
religious scholars.[27] Medina, Saudi Arabia[27] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Mashad, Iran
Iran
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine
Imam Reza shrine
in Mashad.[27]

9 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali محمد بن علي

Abu Ja'far أبو جعفر al-Taqi, al-Jawad[28]

Dokuzuncu Ali[7] 810–835[28]

195–220[28] Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate. Medina, Saudi Arabia[28] Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad, Iraq
Iraq
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Kazmain
Kazmain
shrine in Baghdad.[28]

10 Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad علي بن محمد

Abu al-Hassan III أبو الحسن الثالث[29] al-Hadi, al-Naqi[29]

Onuncu Ali[7] 827–868[29]

212–254[29] Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.[29] Surayya, a village near Medina, Saudi Arabia[29] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq
Iraq
on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'tazz.[30] Buried in the Al Askari Mosque
Mosque
in Samarra.

11 Hassan ibn Ali الحسن بن علي

Abu Muhammad أبو محمد al-Askari[31]

Onbirinci Ali[7] 846–874[31]

232–260[31] For most of his life, the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shi'ite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.[32] Medina, Saudi Arabia[31] According to Shia, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in Al Askari Mosque
Mosque
in Samarra.[33]

12 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن

Abu al-Qasim أبو القاسم al-Mahdi, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah[34]

Onikinci Ali[7] 868–unknown[35]

255–unknown[35] According to Twelver
Twelver
doctrine, he is the current imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with Jesus. He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam
Islam
and replete the earth with justice and peace.[36] Samarra, Iraq[35] According to Shia doctrine, he has been living in the Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it.[35]

Fatimah, also Fatimah
Fatimah
al-Zahraa, daughter of Muhammed (615–632), is also considered infallible but not an Imam. Shi'a
Shi'a
believe that the last Imam
Imam
[the Mahdi] will one day emerge. Ismaili[edit] See Imamah ( Ismaili
Ismaili
doctrine) and List of Ismaili
Ismaili
imams for Ismaili imams. Imams as secular rulers[edit] At times, imams have held both secular and religious authority. This was the case in Oman
Oman
among the Kharijite
Kharijite
or Ibadi
Ibadi
sects. At times, the imams were elected. At other times the position was inherited, as with the Yaruba dynasty
Yaruba dynasty
from 1624 and 1742.[37] The Imamate of Futa Jallon (1727-1896) was a Fulani state in West Africa where secular power alternated between two lines of hereditary Imams, or almami.[38] In the Zaidi Shiite sect, imams were secular as well as spiritual leaders who held power in Yemen
Yemen
for more than a thousand years. In 897, a Zaidi ruler, al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founded a line of such imams, a theocratic form of government which survived until the second half of the 20th century. (See details under Zaidiyyah, History of Yemen, Imams of Yemen.) Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
is officially referred to as Imam
Imam
in Iran. Several Iranian places and institutions are named " Imam
Imam
Khomeini", including a city, an international airport, a hospital, and a university. Gallery[edit] Imams[edit]

An Imam
Imam
reads verses from the Quran
Quran
after Isha'
Isha'
(night prayers) in the Mughal Empire.

Discourse between Islamic Imams in the Mughal Empire.

Crimean Tatar imams teach the Quran. Lithograph by Carlo Bossoli.

Imam
Imam
presiding over prayer, North Africa

Imam
Imam
Shamil, Caucasus

Imam
Imam
in Bosnia, c. 1906

Imam
Imam
Khomeini, leader of the Islamic revolution.

An Imam
Imam
in Omdurman, Sudan.

An Ottoman imam in Constantinople.

A Bosniak
Bosniak
military imam in the Austro-Hungarian Army.

Imam
Imam
Thierno Ibrahima Thiello

A Georgian Muslim
Muslim
imam from Tbilisi.

Tuanku Imam
Imam
Bonjol (of South East Asia)

Muftis[edit]

Grand Mufti
Mufti
Mirza Huseyn Qayibzade of Tbilisi

Travelling muftis of the Ottoman Empire

Mufti, Jakub Szynkiewicz

Grand Mufti
Mufti
Absattar Derbisali
Absattar Derbisali
of Kazakhstan

Ottoman Grand Mufti

Ottoman Grand Mufti

Tomb of mufti in Indonesia

Grand Mufti
Mufti
Talgat Tadzhuddin

Mufti
Mufti
delivering a sermon

Grand Mufti
Mufti
Ebrahim Desai

Shaykh[edit]

Portrait of Shaykh ul- Islam
Islam
by Ali
Ali
bey Huseynzade

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf

Kurdish sheikhs, 1895.

Sheykh of the Rufai Sufi Order

See also[edit]

Mufti Women as imams

Notes[edit]

^ Corbin 1993, p. 30 ^ "Presidency of Religious Affairs". www.diyanet.gov.tr.  ^ Amir-Moezzi, Ali
Ali
(2008). Spirituality and Islam. London: Tauris. p. 103. ISBN 9781845117382.  ^ The imam's Arabic
Arabic
titles are used by the majority of Twelver
Twelver
Shia who use Arabic
Arabic
as a liturgical language, including the Usooli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, and to a lesser extent Alawi. Turkish titles are generally used by Alevi, a fringe Twelver
Twelver
group, who make up around 10% of the world Shia population. The titles for each imam literally translate as "First Ali", "Second Ali", and so forth. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1.  ^ The abbreviation CE refers to the Common Era
Common Era
solar calendar, while AH refers to the Islamic Hijri lunar calendar. ^ a b c d e Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-10-12.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.190-192 ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.192 ^ a b "Hasan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.194-195 ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.195 ^ a b c d "al-Husayn". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.196-199 ^ Calmard, Jean. "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  ^ a b c d Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ B. AL-ḤOSAYN". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.202 ^ a b c d e Madelung, Wilferd. "AL-BAQER, ABU JAFAR MOHAMMAD". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.203 ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.203-204 ^ "Wasil ibn Ata". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ a b Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ AL-HĀDĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-09.  ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.205 ^ Tabatabae (1979) p. 78 ^ Sachedina (1988), pp.53-54 ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), pp.205-207 ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p. 207 ^ a b c d e f Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ AL-HĀDĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.208-209 ^ a b c d Halm, H. "'ASKARĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Tabatabae (1979) pp. 209-210 ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.209-210 ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Mahdi
Mahdi
al-Hujjah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ a b c d Tabatabae (1979), pp.210-211 ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 211-214 ^ Miles, Samuel Barrett (1919). The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf. Garnet Pub. pp. 50, 437. ISBN 978-1-873938-56-0. Retrieved 2013-11-15.  ^ Holt, P. M.; Holt, Peter Malcolm; Lambton, Ann K. S.; Bernard Lewis (1977-04-21). The Cambridge History of Islam:. Cambridge University Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-521-29137-8. 

References[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4.  Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim
Muslim
world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.  Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1.  Corbin, Henry (1993) [1964]. History of Islamic Philosophy (in French). Translated by Sherrard, Liadain; Sherrard, Philip. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.  Momen, Moojan (1985). TAn Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4.  Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1988). The Just Ruler (al-sultān Al-ʻādil) in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.  Tabatabae, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. SUNY press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic philosophy (Reprinted. ed.). London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 9780710304162. 

External links[edit]

Look up imam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Imams.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Imam.

A brief introduction of Twelve Imams A Brief History Of The Lives Of The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
a chapter of Shi'a Islam
Islam
(book) by Allameh Tabatabaei The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
Taken From "A Shi'ite Anthology" By Allameh Tabatabaei A Short History of the Lives of The Twelve Imams Detailed description of the Shiite belief List of Sunni
Sunni
Imams International

.