The Info List - Ilocos Sur

--- Advertisement ---

Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
(Ilokano: Makin-abagatan nga Ilocos) is a province in the Philippines
located in the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
in Luzon. Vigan
City, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
and Abra to the north, Mountain Province to the east, La Union
La Union
and Benguet
to the south and the South China Sea to the west. Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
was founded by the Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo in 1572. It was formed when the north (now Ilocos Norte) split from the south (Ilocos Sur). At that time it included parts of Abra and the upper half of present-day La Unión. The current boundary of the province was permanently defined through Act 2683, which was signed in March 1917. The province is home to two UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, namely, the Heritage City of Vigan
and the Baroque Church of Santa Maria


1 History

1.1 Precolonial era 1.2 Spanish exploration

1.2.1 Conversion of the natives

1.3 Partition of Ylokos

1.3.1 Vigan, capital of Ylocos 1.3.2 Social institutions 1.3.3 Migration

1.4 Uneasy peace 1.5 Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and Philippine-American War 1.6 World War II 1.7 Economic prosperity

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Administrative divisions

2.2.1 Barangays

3 Demographics

3.1 Inhabitants 3.2 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Agriculture

5 Education 6 Culture 7 UNESCO
Recognitions in Ilocos Sur

7.1 Heritage City of Vigan 7.2 Santa Maria Church

8 Notable people from Ilocos Sur 9 References 10 External links


This section may contain content that is repetitive or redundant of text elsewhere in the article. Please help improve it by merging similar text or removing repeated statements. (April 2016)

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the coastal plains in northwestern Luzón, stretching from Bangui (Ilocos Norte) in the north to Namacpacan (Luna, La Union) in the south, were a region called the Ylokos. This region lies in between the China Sea in the west and Northern Cordilleras on the east. The inhabitants built their villages near the small bays on coves called looc in the dialect. These coastal inhabitants were referred to as Ylocos which literally meant from the lowlands. The entire region was then called by the ancient name Samtoy from sao mi ditoy which in Ilocano mean our dialect. The region was later called by the Spaniards as Ylocos or Ilocos and its people Ilocanos. The Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
was already a thriving, fairly advanced cluster of towns and settlements familiar to Chinese, Japanese and Malay traders when the Spaniard explorer Don Juan de Salcedo and members of his expedition arrived in Vigan
on June 13, 1572. Forthwith, they made Cabigbigaan (Bigan), the heart of the Ylokos settlement their headquarters which Salcedo called Villa Fernandina and which eventually gained fame as the Intramuros
de Ilocandia. Salcedo declared the whole Northern Luzón as an encomienda, or a land grant. Subsequently, he became the encomendero of Vigan
and Lieutenant Governor
of the Ylokos until his death in July 1574. Augustinian
missionaries came to conquer the region through evangelization. They established parishes and built churches that still stand today.[3] Three centuries later, Vigan
became the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia. A royal decree of February 2, 1818 separated Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
from Ilocos Sur, the latter to include the northern part of La Unión (as far as Namacpacan, now Luna) and all of what is now the province of Abra. The sub-province of Lepanto and Amburayan in Mountain Province
Mountain Province
were annexed to Ilocos Sur. The passage of Act 2683 by the Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
in March 1917 defined the present geographical boundary of the province. Precolonial era[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The ancient land of Samtoy[4] On the northwestern part of Luzon, the Ilocos range restricts a narrow stretch coastal plain throughout its entire length as the home of one of the tribes of the Malay race, the Ilocanos. Gleanings from ancient chronicles such as that of Fray Andrés Carro say that the word Samtoy was applied to ancient Ylokos or to the most important town of the region, where the most important dialect was spoken. The ancient land of Ylokos or Samtoy extended from Bangui in the north to Aringay in the south. Situated between the coast of the South China Sea and the rugged mountain ranges of the Cordillera is a long narrow strip of coastal plain. On the western China Sea side, the land is sandy. On the eastern side, near the slopes of the mountains that separates the region from the Mountain Province, the land is rocky, leaving just a narrow strip of plain here and there for cultivation. In places, the mountains come so close to the sea that the public highway has to wind along the steep mountain and sea. The pressure of increasing population and consequent land hunger has made the people of this region thrifty. Spanish exploration[edit] The coast of Samtoy, already familiar to Chinese and Japanese traders before Magellan's time, was known to the Spanish colonizers in 1572 when Juan de Salcedo traveled along Samtoy or what is now known as the Ilocos Provinces. Sent by the "Adelantado", Miguel López de Legazpi, to explore the whole island of Luzón, Salcedo founded Ciudad Fernandina in 1574 in the heart of Yloko settlement in Bigan, in what is now Ilocos Sur. It became the center of Spanish rule and influence, and the evangelization and pacification movements. The Spaniards, after Salcedo's exploration, created Samtoy, the whole northwestern region of Luzon
into an encomienda with Villa Fernandina at Tamag (Bigan) as the capital. Salcedo was made lieutenant governor of Ylokos and the encomendero of Bigan where he died on March 11, 1576. It was due to his efforts that the settlements in Tagurín, Santa Lucía, Nalbacán, Bantay, Candón and Sinayt were pacified and made to pay tribute to the King of Spain. Conversion of the natives[edit] To implement Spain's policy, missionaries came to convert the natives to Christianity. A Spanish chronicler[who?] wrote: “The Ilocos are all Christians and are the humblest and most tractable.' The evangelization of Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
was allotted to the Augustinians who established parishes in Santa in 1576, Tagurín in 1586, Sta. Lucía in 1586, Nalbacán in 1587, Candón 1591, and Bantay
in 1590. In 1641 they built a church in Bigan, which 117 years later, was to become the cathedral of the Episcopal See of Nueva Segovia. Partition of Ylokos[edit] Ylokos comprised the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, and a part of Mountain Province. A royal decree dated February 2, 1818, separated the northern section of Ylokos which became the province of Ilocos Norte. The southern portion, called Ilocos Sur, included the northern part of La Union
La Union
and all of what is now the province of Abra. In 1854, the province of La Unión was created out of the towns that had belonged to Ilocos Sur and Pangasinan. Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
previously extended as far south as Namacpacan (in Luna), and the territory south of this belonged to Pangasinan. It was the union of portions of Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
from the Amburayan were taken from the Mountain Province
Mountain Province
and incorporated with Ilocos Sur.[clarification needed] Abra, which was part of Ilocos Sur, was created in 1864 with Lepanto as a sub-province to Ilocos Sur, and remained as such until March, 1971 when the passage of Act made it again a separate province.[clarification needed] Vigan, capital of Ylocos[edit] Vigan
is almost four centuries old, and was once known as Kabigbigaan from biga (Alocasia Indica), a coarse erect and araceous plant with large and ornate leaves with grows on the banks of the rivers. Its name Bigan was later changed to Vigan. To the Spaniards it was Villa Fernandina in honor of King Ferdinand, the Spanish ruler then. Founded in 1574 by Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo as capital of ancient Ylocos, Vigan
vied in importance and gentility with the city of Intramuros. Even before Salcedo came to Bigan, the town was already a center of Malayan civilization with a population of 8,000, a population greater than that of Manila
then. It was already enjoying some prosperity, trading with the Chinese and Japanese who brought fine jars, silk and crockery through the nearby port of Pandan, Caoayan. In the 19th century, Vigan
also traded with Europe. Ships loaded indigo in its port for the textile mills in the Continent. The invention of chemical dyes in Germany ruined this industry. By then, the affluent citizens of Vigan
had stocked their homes with statuettes of brass and iron, dinner wares, other artifacts of European civilization, fine ivory and inlaid furniture and China wares.[citation needed] Social institutions[edit] Before Salcedo died in 1576, be bequeathed his encomienda to a selected group who perpetuated the tenancy system from which developed the practice of caciquism and landlordism, and consequently, usury. The aristocracy of the babaknangs against whom the kaillanes rose in revolt in 1762 is apparent. The two sections of the town — one for the meztizos and the other for the naturales are still distinct. These practices became prominent during the indigo boom at the middle of the 19th century. Caciquism, together with landlordism and usury, was the greatest obstacle to the progress of the province. Ilocos underwent the throes of these practices to be what it is today. Migration[edit] In the development of Ilocos Sur, the colonizers utilized free labor. Resentment to free labor brought about sporadic revolts, and those who refused to be slaves and tenants left the region and went to Abra and Cagayan
Valley. From 1898 to the first decade of the 20th century, covered ox carts moved to the rich plains of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija and Tarlac. In these travels, the children were amused by the tales of Lam-ang, Angalo
and Aran, Juan Sadot and other legendary Ilocano characters. Folk songs like Pamulinawen, Manang Biday, Dungdungwen Kanto Unay, Unay, and the Iloko dal-lot, to the accompaniment of the kutibeng were popularized. The second phase of Ilocano migration was from 1908 to 1946 when surplus labor hands migrated to the plantations of Hawaii
and the American West Coast. At the height of this migration, the average density of population in Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
was 492 inhabitants per square mile, the most dense in the Philippines
then, excluding Manila. The last batch of labor migration of Hawaii
was in 1946 when 7,365 men were recruited by the Department of Labor. Vigan
was the recruiting center. At present, more than seventy percent of the 63,500 Filipinos in Hawaii
are Ilocanos.[citation needed] Uneasy peace[edit] The history of Ilocos Sur, from the beginning of the Spanish rule to the first decade of the nineteenth century was characterized by revolts in protest against tributes and forced labor, as well as the monopolies of some industries. The best known of these revolts was the Ilocos revolt (1762–1763), better known as Silang's Revolt. This was principally a revolt of the masses aimed at the Babaknangs and the alcalde-mayor of Vigan. After Diego Silang's assassination on May 28, 1763, his wife, Josefa Gabriela, continued the fight until she was captured and hanged publicly on September 20, 1763. On September 16, 1817, another revolt resulted in protest against the government's monopoly in the manufacture of basi the native wine. The rebels under the command of Ambaristo were defeated by a contingent of regular troops and recruits. On March 25, 1898, Isabelo Abaya started a revolt in Candón and raised a red flag in the town plaza. The historic Ikkis ti Candon
was the start of the several revolutions in the Ilocos Region.[further explanation needed] Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and Philippine-American War[edit] Ilocos Sur, like other provinces in the Philippines, was quick to rally behind Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
in the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
in 1896. Upon the capture of Vigan, the revolutionists made the Bishop's Palace, their headquarters. On March 21, 1898, Don Mariano Acosta of Candón established the provincial revolutionary government in that town. When General Aguinaldo returned from his exile in Hong Kong to begin the Philippine–American War, he sent General Manuel Tinio
Manuel Tinio
to carry on the guerilla warfare against the Americans. Vigan
served as Tinio's headquarters until its occupation by the U.S. 45th Infantry under Lt. Col. Parker on Dec. 4, 1899. On the Tirad Pass in Concepción, east of Candón, General Gregorio del Pilar, covering the retreat of General Aguinaldo to the Cordilleras and ultimate to Palawan, died a heroic death on December 2, 1899 in a battle against the American Forces under Major C. March. Further information: Battle of Tirad Pass With the smoldering embers of the Filipino-American War already dying out, and with the gradual return of peace and order, a civil government under the Americans was established in Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
on September 1, 1901 with Don Mena Crisólogo, a delegate to the Malolos Congress, as the first provincial governor. World War II[edit] About forty years later, another bloody skirmish took place in Vigan, On December 10, 1941, a contingent of Japanese Imperial forces landed in Mindoro, Vigan, Santa, and Pandan, Caoayan. Four years later, the Battle of Bessang Pass in Cervantes, fought between General Yamashita's forces and the U.S. 21st Infantry was the climax in the fight for liberation. On April 18, 1945, Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
was declared liberated from the Japanese with the joint efforts of Filipino & American soldiers including Ilocano guerrillas.[further explanation needed] Economic prosperity[edit] The first half of the 19th century was an economic boom for Ilocos Sur and other Ilocano provinces. It was during this period when the cotton, tobacco and indigo industries were encouraged by the government. With the operations of the Real Compañía de Filipinas, the textile industry was developed on a large scale, and the abolition of the tobacco monopoly accelerated economic progress. But the invention of chemical dyes put the indigo industry out of the business scene. Today, the premier money crop is Virginia leaf tobacco. The windfall was brought about by the Tobacco Subsidy Law, authored by Congressman Floro Crisólogo.[citation needed] The 1970s were a dark period for the province as armed men known as the saka-saka (Ilocano, literally "bare-footed") terrorized the province; and this reign of terror resulted in the famous burning of the barangays of Ora East and Ora Centro in the municipality of Bantay. This era ended with the rise of Luis "Chavit" Singson
Luis "Chavit" Singson
to the governor's seat.[citation needed] Geography[edit]

Coastline of Vigan

Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
occupies the central section of the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
in northern Luzon. It is bordered by Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
to the north, Abra to the northeast, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
to the east, Benguet
to the southeast, La Union
La Union
to the south, and the South China Sea
South China Sea
to the west. Its area of 2,596.00 square kilometres (1,002.32 sq mi)[5] occupies about 20.11% of the total land area of Region 1. The topography of Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
is undulating to rolling with elevations ranging from 10 to 1,700 metres (33 to 5,577 ft) above sea level.

Climate[edit] The climate is generally dry as defined by the Hernandez climate classification—the dry months are from October to May. However, the southernmost portion, Cervantes, is humid and rain is evenly distributed throughout the year while the southeastern part of Sugpon is drier. August has the most rainfall while January and February have the least. The mean temperature in the province is 27 °C (81 °F). January is the coldest.[vague] Administrative divisions[edit] Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
comprises 32 municipalities and 2 component cities, which are organized into two legislative districts.[5] There are a total of 768 barangays in the province.[6]

 †  Provincial capital and component city  ∗  Component city      Municipality

City or municipality District[5] Population ±% p.a. Area[5] Density Brgy. Coordinates[A]

(2015)[2] (2010)[6]

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Alilem 2nd 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 6,695 6,640 0.16% 119.33 46.07 56 150 9 16°53′13″N 120°31′48″E / 16.8870°N 120.5299°E / 16.8870; 120.5299 (Alilem)

Banayoyo 2nd 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,748 7,694 0.13% 24.63 9.51 310 800 14 17°14′09″N 120°28′47″E / 17.2358°N 120.4797°E / 17.2358; 120.4797 (Banayoyo)

Bantay 1st 7000520000000000000♠5.2% 35,731 34,323 0.77% 76.60 29.58 470 1,200 34 17°34′54″N 120°23′11″E / 17.5818°N 120.3865°E / 17.5818; 120.3865 (Bantay)

Burgos 2nd 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 12,224 11,679 0.87% 44.38 17.14 280 730 26 17°18′58″N 120°30′33″E / 17.3160°N 120.5093°E / 17.3160; 120.5093 (Burgos)

Cabugao 1st 7000540000000000000♠5.4% 37,501 35,706 0.94% 95.56 36.90 390 1,000 33 17°47′33″N 120°27′21″E / 17.7926°N 120.4559°E / 17.7926; 120.4559 (Cabugao)

Candon ∗ 2nd 7000880000000000000♠8.8% 60,623 57,884 0.88% 103.28 39.88 590 1,500 42 17°11′22″N 120°26′51″E / 17.1895°N 120.4474°E / 17.1895; 120.4474 (Candon)

Caoayan 1st 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 19,861 18,551 1.31% 17.42 6.73 1,100 2,800 17 17°32′52″N 120°23′00″E / 17.5477°N 120.3833°E / 17.5477; 120.3833 (Caoayan)

Cervantes 2nd 7000250000000000000♠2.5% 17,211 16,573 0.72% 234.70 90.62 73 190 13 16°59′24″N 120°44′07″E / 16.9899°N 120.7354°E / 16.9899; 120.7354 (Cervantes)

Galimuyod 2nd 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 10,748 10,011 1.36% 34.40 13.28 310 800 24 17°10′59″N 120°28′07″E / 17.1830°N 120.4687°E / 17.1830; 120.4687 (Galimuyod)

Gregorio del Pilar 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,875 4,219 2.79% 41.66 16.09 120 310 7 17°08′53″N 120°36′39″E / 17.1481°N 120.6109°E / 17.1481; 120.6109 (Gregorio del Pilar)

Lidlidda 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,647 4,398 1.05% 33.84 13.07 140 360 11 17°15′07″N 120°31′15″E / 17.2519°N 120.5207°E / 17.2519; 120.5207 (Lidlidda)

Magsingal 1st 7000450000000000000♠4.5% 30,792 28,302 1.62% 84.98 32.81 360 930 30 17°41′06″N 120°25′33″E / 17.6851°N 120.4257°E / 17.6851; 120.4257 (Magsingal)

Nagbukel 2nd 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 5,259 4,938 1.21% 43.12 16.65 120 310 12 17°26′48″N 120°31′34″E / 17.4466°N 120.5260°E / 17.4466; 120.5260 (Nagbukel)

Narvacan 2nd 7000640000000000000♠6.4% 44,006 42,803 0.53% 122.21 47.19 360 930 34 17°25′10″N 120°28′37″E / 17.4194°N 120.4769°E / 17.4194; 120.4769 (Narvacan)

Quirino 2nd 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 8,573 8,535 0.08% 240.10 92.70 36 93 9 17°08′12″N 120°40′35″E / 17.1367°N 120.6765°E / 17.1367; 120.6765 (Quirino)

Salcedo 2nd 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 11,288 10,935 0.61% 103.44 39.94 110 280 21 17°09′03″N 120°32′10″E / 17.1507°N 120.5361°E / 17.1507; 120.5361 (Salcedo)

San Emilio 2nd 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,407 7,427 −0.05% 141.44 54.61 52 130 8 17°14′19″N 120°34′44″E / 17.2386°N 120.5789°E / 17.2386; 120.5789 (San Emilio)

San Esteban 2nd 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 8,349 8,072 0.64% 19.62 7.58 430 1,100 10 17°19′47″N 120°26′42″E / 17.3297°N 120.4451°E / 17.3297; 120.4451 (San Esteban)

San Ildefonso 1st 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,787 7,075 1.84% 11.35 4.38 690 1,800 15 17°37′30″N 120°23′35″E / 17.6249°N 120.3931°E / 17.6249; 120.3931 (San Ildefonso)

San Juan 1st 7000380000000000000♠3.8% 26,411 25,199 0.90% 64.37 24.85 410 1,100 32 17°44′32″N 120°27′30″E / 17.7422°N 120.4583°E / 17.7422; 120.4583 (San Juan)

San Vicente 1st 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 12,758 11,720 1.63% 12.60 4.86 1,000 2,600 7 17°35′39″N 120°22′22″E / 17.5941°N 120.3729°E / 17.5941; 120.3729 (San Vicente)

Santa 2nd 7000220000000000000♠2.2% 15,340 15,106 0.29% 109.10 42.12 140 360 26 17°29′10″N 120°26′04″E / 17.4860°N 120.4344°E / 17.4860; 120.4344 (Santa)

Santa Catalina 1st 7000200000000000000♠2.0% 13,945 13,597 0.48% 9.68 3.74 1,400 3,600 9 17°35′20″N 120°21′48″E / 17.5888°N 120.3634°E / 17.5888; 120.3634 (Santa Catalina)

Santa Cruz 2nd 7000580000000000000♠5.8% 39,868 37,911 0.96% 88.78 34.28 450 1,200 49 17°05′04″N 120°27′07″E / 17.0844°N 120.4520°E / 17.0844; 120.4520 (Santa Cruz)

Santa Lucia 2nd 7000370000000000000♠3.7% 25,402 24,981 0.32% 49.72 19.20 510 1,300 36 17°07′02″N 120°26′53″E / 17.1173°N 120.4480°E / 17.1173; 120.4480 (Santa Lucia)

Santa Maria 2nd 7000440000000000000♠4.4% 30,321 28,597 1.12% 63.31 24.44 480 1,200 33 17°22′03″N 120°28′51″E / 17.3676°N 120.4807°E / 17.3676; 120.4807 (Santa Maria)

Santiago 2nd 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 18,759 17,958 0.83% 46.36 17.90 400 1,000 24 17°17′38″N 120°26′43″E / 17.2940°N 120.4453°E / 17.2940; 120.4453 (Santiago)

Santo Domingo 1st 7000410009999999999♠4.1% 27,975 27,596 0.26% 55.49 21.42 500 1,300 36 17°38′16″N 120°24′36″E / 17.6378°N 120.4101°E / 17.6378; 120.4101 (Santo Domingo)

Sigay 2nd 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 2,737 2,419 2.38% 81.55 31.49 34 88 7 17°02′34″N 120°34′46″E / 17.0429°N 120.5795°E / 17.0429; 120.5795 (Sigay)

Sinait 1st 7000370000000000000♠3.7% 25,640 25,427 0.16% 65.56 25.31 390 1,000 44 17°51′59″N 120°27′22″E / 17.8664°N 120.4561°E / 17.8664; 120.4561 (Sinait)

Sugpon 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,585 3,820 3.54% 57.11 22.05 80 210 6 16°49′38″N 120°29′45″E / 16.8272°N 120.4959°E / 16.8272; 120.4959 (Sugpon)

Suyo 2nd 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 11,446 10,622 1.43% 124.00 47.88 92 240 8 16°58′33″N 120°31′30″E / 16.9758°N 120.5249°E / 16.9758; 120.5249 (Suyo)

Tagudin 2nd 7000570000000000000♠5.7% 39,277 38,122 0.57% 151.19 58.37 260 670 43 16°56′04″N 120°26′42″E / 16.9345°N 120.4450°E / 16.9345; 120.4450 (Tagudin)

Vigan † 1st 7000780000000000000♠7.8% 53,879 49,747 1.53% 25.12 9.70 2,100 5,400 39 17°34′22″N 120°23′12″E / 17.5729°N 120.3867°E / 17.5729; 120.3867 (Vigan)

Total 689,668 658,587 0.88% 2,596.00 1,002.32 270 700 768 (see GeoGroup box)

^ Coordinates
mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.

Barangays[edit] The 32 municipalities and 2 cities of the province comprise a total of 768 barangays, with Puro in Magsingal
as the most populous in 2010, and Montero in Banayoyo
as the least.[6] Further information: List of barangays in Ilocos Sur Demographics[edit]

Population census of Ilocos Sur

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1903 189,572 —    

1918 247,458 +1.79%

1939 271,532 +0.44%

1948 276,278 +0.19%

1960 338,058 +1.70%

1970 385,139 +1.31%

1975 419,776 +1.74%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1980 443,591 +1.11%

1990 519,966 +1.60%

1995 545,385 +0.90%

2000 594,206 +1.85%

2007 632,255 +0.86%

2010 658,587 +1.50%

2015 689,668 +0.88%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[2][6][6][7]

The population of Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
in the 2015 census was 689,668 people,[2] with a density of 270 inhabitants per square kilometre or 700 inhabitants per square mile. The 1960 census lists 338,058 people; 64,446 dwelling units of which 2,974 are lighted with electricity; 3227 provided with radio; 7379 served with pipe water; 25,137 served with artesian and pumped water; and 310 using electricity, kerosene and gas for cooking.[citation needed] Inhabitants[edit] Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
is inhabited mostly by Ilocanos belonging to the third largest ethnic group of Malay origin. A Spanish chronicler[who?] wrote that “the people are very simple, domestic and peaceful, large of body and very strong. “They are highly civilized. They are a most clean race, especially the women in their homes which they keep very neat and clean.”[citation needed] Miguel de Loarca records around 1582 that the Ilocanos are intelligent as the Zambaleños for they are farmers. The main occupation of the people is agriculture.[citation needed] Father Juan de Medina noted in 1630 that the natives are ‘the humblest and most tractable known and lived in nest and large settlements'.[citation needed] Religion[edit] The province is predominantly Roman Catholic with 75% of population adherence. Aglipayan Church
Aglipayan Church
is also a considerable large minority with a 20% adherence.[citation needed] Other religious beliefs are represented by other Christian Churches such as Baptist, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, other Evangelical Christians as well as Muslims. Economy[edit]

Public Market

The people are engaged in farming, producing food crops, mostly rice, corn, vegetable, root crops, and fruits. Non-food crops include tobacco, cotton, and tigergrass. Cottage industries include loom weaving, furniture making, jewelry making, ceramics, blacksmithing, and food processing. Agriculture[edit]

Rice grains being dried on a road in San Esteban.

Ilocos Sur's economy is agrarian, but its 2,647 square kilometres (1,022 sq mi) of unfertile land is not enough to support a population of 338,579.[citation needed] Such agricultural crops as rice, corn tobacco and fruit trees dominate their farm industries. Secondary crops are camote and cassava, sugar cane and onions. The rapidly growing population, the decreasing fertility of the soil, and the long period between the planting and harvesting season, have forced the people to turn to manufacture and trade. Many Ilocanos go to the Cagayán valley, Central Plains and Mindanao
to sell Ilocano woven cloth. Weaving is the most extensive handicraft, bolstered by the installation of the NDC Textile Mills in Narvacan
which supplies the weavers with yarn. Other industries are burnay and slipper making in Vigan, furniture and statue making in San Vicente, mortar and pestle making in San Esteban, and bolo making in Santa. Education[edit] Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
has 547 public schools including five general high schools, one university, one agricultural college and 56 private schools, 16 of which are Catholic.[citation needed] Culture[edit] The Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
Museum, founded on August 22, 1970, has a collection of cultural treasures which include art include paintings, centuries-old sculptures, pieces of carved furniture, and relics of Spanish European and Chinese cultures that had influenced Ilocano life for centuries. Chapters of Philippine history and religion are found in the Crisólogo collections which includes family heirlooms, centuries –old "santos" (religious statuettes made of wood or ivory)[clarification needed], other ivory images, Vienna furniture, marble-topped tables, ancient-carved beds, rare Chinese porcelains, jars and jarlettes, lamps, Muslim brass wares, and Spanish and Mexican coins. The Syquia collections, including then President Elpidio Quirino's memorabilia, vie in quality with the Crisólogo collections. But in the midst of a fire scare in Vigan
in the past,[when?] the relics in the Syquia Mansion were transferred to Manila
for safekeeping. UNESCO
Recognitions in Ilocos Sur[edit] UNESCO
has inscribed two Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
sites in the World Heritage List. Heritage City of Vigan[edit] In 1999, the Heritage City of Vigan
was inscribed in the World Heritage List. UNESCO
describes the site as: "Established in the 16th century, Vigan
is the best-preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines, from China and from Europe, resulting in a culture and townscape that have no parallel anywhere in East and South-East Asia."[8] Santa Maria Church[edit] In 1993, the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, containing 4 properties, was inscribed in the World Heritage List. One of the properties was the Santa Maria Church
Santa Maria Church
of Ilocos Sur. UNESCO
describes, "[the] unique architectural style [of the churches] is a reinterpretation of European Baroque by Chinese and Philippine craftsmen."[9] Notable people from Ilocos Sur[edit]

Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
— sixth President of the Philippines Gabriela Silang
Gabriela Silang
— revolutionary leader best known as the first female leader of a Filipino movement for independence from Spain José Burgos
José Burgos
— priest and one of the martyrs of Gomburza Pedro Bucaneg — poet, and the "Father of Ilocano literature" Leona Florentino
Leona Florentino
— poet in the Spanish and Ilocano languages, and the "mother of Philippine women's literature" Isabelo de los Reyes
Isabelo de los Reyes
— politician, writer and labor activist in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the "Father of Filipino socialism" and unionism


^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ http://www.ilocossur.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=285&Itemid=601 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2010-07-07.  ^ a b c d "Province: Ilocos Sur". PSGC Interactive. Quezon
City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ a b c d e Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ " Philippines
Census Of Population of all LGUs 1903-2007". archive.org. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/502 ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/677

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Media related to Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
at OpenStreetMap Philippine Standard Geographic Code

Places adjacent to Ilocos Sur

Ilocos Norte

South China Sea

Ilocos Sur

Abra Mountain Province

La Union Benguet

v t e

Province of Ilocos Sur



Alilem Banayoyo Bantay Burgos Cabugao Caoayan Cervantes Galimuyod Gregorio del Pilar Lidlidda Magsingal Nagbukel Narvacan Quirino Salcedo San Emilio San Esteban San Ildefonso San Juan San Vicente Santa Santa Catalina Santa Cruz Santa Lucia Santa Maria Santiago Santo Domingo Sigay Sinait Sugpon Suyo Tagudin

Component cities

Candon Vigan


See: List of barangays in Ilocos Sur

Articles related to Ilocos Sur

v t e

Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
(Region I)

Regional Center

San Fernando


Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur La Union Pangasinan

Independent Component City


Component Cities

Alaminos Batac Candon Laoag San Carlos San Fernando Urdaneta Vigan

Provincial Capitals

Laoag Lingayen San Fernando Vigan


Adams Agno Agoo Aguilar Alcala Alilem Anda Aringay Asingan Bacarra Bacnotan Badoc Bagulin Balaoan Balungao Banayoyo Bangar Bangui Bani Banna Bantay Basista Bauang Bautista Bayambang Binalonan Binmaley Bolinao Bugallon Burgos (Ilocos Norte) Burgos (Ilocos Sur) Burgos (La Union) Burgos (Pangasinan) Caba Cabugao Calasiao Caoayan Carasi Cervantes Currimao Dasol Dingras Dumalneg Galimuyod Gregorio del Pilar Infanta Labrador Laoac Lidlidda Lingayen Luna Mabini Magsingal Malasiqui Manaoag Mangaldan Mangatarem Mapandan Marcos Nagbukel Naguilian Narvacan Natividad Nueva Era Pagudpud Paoay Pasuquin Piddig Pinili Pozorrubio Pugo Quirino Rosales Rosario Salcedo San Emilio San Esteban San Fabian San Gabriel San Ildefonso San Jacinto San Juan (Ilocos Sur) San Juan (La Union) San Manuel San Nicolas (Ilocos Norte) San Nicolas (Pangasinan) San Quintin San Vicente Santa Santa Barbara Santa Catalina Santa Cruz Santa Lucia Santa Maria (Ilocos Sur) Santa Maria (Pangasinan) Santiago Santo Domingo Santo Tomas (La Union) Santo Tomas (Pangasinan) Santol Sarrat Sigay Sinait Sison Solsona Sual Sudipen Sugpon Suyo Tagudin Tayug Tubao Umingan Urbiztondo Villasis Vintar

Luzon, Republic of the Philippines

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines


(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao



I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region


Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao


Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay


List of cities in the Philippines


List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines


Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas


Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

v t e

Philippines articles



Prehistory (Pre-900) Archaic Era (900–1521) Colonial era (1521–1946)

Spanish period (1521–1898) American period (1898–1946)

Postcolonial era (1946–1986)

Third Republic (1946–65) Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)

Contemporary history (1986–present)

By topic

Archaeology Demographic Discoveries Economic history Inventions Military


Bays Biosphere reserves Climate Earthquakes Ecoregions Environmental issues Extreme points Island groups


Lakes Landmarks Mountains National parks Protected areas Ramsar sites Rivers Volcanoes Wildlife World Heritage Sites





Executive Office

Cabinet Civil service National Police




Senate President President pro tem

House of Representatives



Supreme Court Judiciary Court of Appeals


Constitution Philippine legal codes Human rights


National Bureau of Investigation National Counter-Terrorism Action Group National Intelligence Coordinating Agency Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency


Armed Forces of the Philippines

Philippine Air Force Philippine Army Philippine Navy Philippine Marine Corps

Philippine Coast Guard

Administrative divisions Elections Foreign relations Political parties


Agriculture Business process outsourcing Central Bank Energy Fiscal policy National debt Labor Peso Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Science and technology Water and Sanitation


Corruption Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health Income inequality Languages Poverty Provinces by HDI Refugees Religion Women


Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Cultural Properties Dance Fashion and clothing Festivals Historical Markers Literature Media Music Mythology Public holidays Psychology Sexuality Sports Traditional games Value system


Anthem Coat of arms Arnis Flag Name Narra Philippine eagle Sampaguita

Book Category Philippines

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125465