ILOCOS SUR (Ilocano : Abagatan nga Ilocos; Tagalog : Timog Ilocos) is
a province in the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Precolonial era
* 1.2 Spanish exploration
* 1.2.1 Conversion of the natives
* 1.3 Partition of Ylokos
* 1.3.1 Vigan, capital of Ylocos * 1.3.2 Social institutions * 1.3.3 Migration
* 1.4 Uneasy peace
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Administrative divisions
* 2.2.1 Barangays
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Inhabitants * 3.2 Religion
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Agriculture
* 5 Education
* 6 Culture
* 7 Notable people from
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Before the arrival of the Spaniards , the coastal plains in
northwestern Luzón, stretching from Bangui (Ilocos Norte) in the
north to Namacpacan (Luna,
A royal decree of February 2, 1818 separated
Ilocos Norte from Ilocos
Sur, the latter to include the northern part of La Unión (as far as
Namacpacan, now Luna ) and all of what is now the province of Abra .
The sub-province of Lepanto and
The passage of Act 2683 by the Philippine Legislature in March 1917 defined the present geographical boundary of the province.
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The ancient land of Samtoy
On the northwestern part of Luzon, the Ilocos range restricts a narrow stretch coastal plain throughout its entire length as the home of one of the tribes of the Malay race, the Ilocanos.
Gleanings from ancient chronicles such as that of Fray Andrés Carro say that the word Samtoy was applied to ancient Ylokos or to the most important town of the region, where the most important dialect was spoken.
The ancient land of Ylokos or Samtoy extended from Bangui in the
north to Aringay in the south. Situated between the coast of the South
China Sea and the rugged mountain ranges of the Cordillera is a long
narrow strip of coastal plain. On the western China Sea side, the land
is sandy. On the eastern side, near the slopes of the mountains that
separates the region from the
The coast of Samtoy, already familiar to Chinese and Japanese traders before Magellan's time, was known to the Spanish colonizers in 1572 when Juan de Salcedo traveled along Samtoy or what is now known as the Ilocos Provinces. Sent by the "Adelantado", Miguel López de Legazpi , to explore the whole island of Luzón, Salcedo founded Ciudad Fernandina in 1574 in the heart of Yloko settlement in Bigan, in what is now Ilocos Sur. It became the center of Spanish rule and influence, and the evangelization and pacification movements.
The Spaniards, after Salcedo's exploration, created Samtoy, the whole
northwestern region of
Salcedo was made lieutenant governor of Ylokos and the encomendero of Bigan where he died on March 11, 1576. It was due to his efforts that the settlements in Tagurín, Santa Lucía, Nalbacán, Bantay, Candón and Sinayt were pacified and made to pay tribute to the King of Spain.
Conversion Of The Natives
To implement Spain's policy, missionaries came to convert the natives to Christianity. A Spanish chronicler wrote: “The Ilocos are all Christians and are the humblest and most tractable.'
The evangelization of
PARTITION OF YLOKOS
A royal decree dated February 2, 1818, separated the northern section
of Ylokos which became the province of Ilocos Norte. The southern
portion, called Ilocos Sur, included the northern part of
Abra , which was part of Ilocos Sur, was created in 1864 with Lepanto as a sub-province to Ilocos Sur, and remained as such until March, 1971 when the passage of Act made it again a separate province.
Vigan, Capital Of Ylocos
Founded in 1574 by Spanish conquistador
Juan de Salcedo as capital of
In the 19th century,
Before Salcedo died in 1576, be bequeathed his encomienda to a selected group who perpetuated the tenancy system from which developed the practice of caciquism and landlordism , and consequently, usury . The aristocracy of the babaknangs against whom the kaillanes rose in revolt in 1762 is apparent. The two sections of the town — one for the meztizos and the other for the naturales are still distinct. These practices became prominent during the indigo boom at the middle of the 19th century. Caciquism, together with landlordism and usury, was the greatest obstacle to the progress of the province. Ilocos underwent the throes of these practices to be what it is today.
In the development of Ilocos Sur, the colonizers utilized free labor.
Resentment to free labor brought about sporadic revolts, and those who
refused to be slaves and tenants left the region and went to Abra and
In these travels, the children were amused by the tales of Lamang, Angalo and Aran, Juan Sadot and other legendary Ilocano characters. Folk songs like Pamulinawen , Manang Biday , Dungdungwen Kanto Unay, Unay, and the Iloko dal-lot, to the accompaniment of the kutibeng were popularized.
The second phase of Ilocano migration was from 1908 to 1946 when
surplus labor hands migrated to the plantations of
The history of Ilocos Sur, from the beginning of the Spanish rule to the first decade of the nineteenth century was characterized by revolts in protest against tributes and forced labor, as well as the monopolies of some industries.
The best known of these revolts was the Ilocos revolt (1762–1763), better known as Silang's Revolt. This was principally a revolt of the masses aimed at the Babaknangs and the alcalde-mayor of Vigan. After Diego Silang 's assassination on May 28, 1763, his wife, Josefa Gabriela, continued the fight until she was captured and hanged publicly on September 20, 1763.
On September 16, 1817, another revolt resulted in protest against the government's monopoly in the manufacture of basi the native wine. The rebels under the command of Ambaristo were defeated by a contingent of regular troops and recruits.
On March 25, 1898, Isabelo Abaya started a revolt in Candón and raised a red flag in the town plaza. The historic Ikkis ti Candon was the start of the several revolutions in the Ilocos Region.
PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION AND PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR
Ilocos Sur, like other provinces in the Philippines, was quick to
rally behind Gen.
Emilio Aguinaldo in the
When General Aguinaldo returned from his exile in Hong Kong to begin
the Philippine–American War, he sent General
Manuel Tinio to carry
on the guerilla warfare against the Americans.
On the Tirad Pass in Concepción, east of Candón, General Gregorio
del Pilar , covering the retreat of General Aguinaldo to the
Cordilleras and ultimate to
With the smoldering embers of the Filipino-American War already dying
out, and with the gradual return of peace and order, a civil
government under the Americans was established in
WORLD WAR II
Four years later, the
Battle of Bessang Pass in Cervantes , fought
between General Yamashita 's forces and the U.S. 21st Infantry was the
climax in the fight for liberation. On April 18, 1945,
The first half of the 19th century was an economic boom for Ilocos Sur and other Ilocano provinces. It was during this period when the cotton, tobacco and indigo industries were encouraged by the government. With the operations of the Real Compañía de Filipinas, the textile industry was developed on a large scale, and the abolition of the tobacco monopoly accelerated economic progress. But the invention of chemical dyes put the indigo industry out of the business scene.
Today, the premier money crop is Virginia leaf tobacco. The windfall was brought about by the Tobacco Subsidy Law, authored by Congressman Floro Crisólogo.
The 1970s were a dark period for the province as armed men known as the saka-saka (Ilocano , literally "bare-footed") terrorized the province; and this reign of terror resulted in the famous burning of the barangays of Ora East and Ora Centro in the municipality of Bantay . This era ended with the rise of Luis "Chavit" Singson to the governor's seat.
The topography of
The climate is generally dry as defined by the Hernandez climate classification—the dry months are from October to May. However, the southernmost portion, Cervantes , is humid and rain is evenly distributed throughout the year while the southeastern part of Sugpon is drier. August has the most rainfall while January and February have the least. The mean temperature in the province is 27 °C (81 °F). January is the coldest.
* † Provincial capital and component city * ∗ Component city * Municipality
CITY OR MUNICIPALITY DISTRICT POPULATION ±% P.A. AREA DENSITY BRGY. COORDINATES
KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI
ALILEM 2nd 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 6,695 6,640 0.16% 119.33 46.07 56 150 9 16°53′13″N 120°31′48″E / 16.8870°N 120.5299°E / 16.8870; 120.5299 (Alilem)
BANAYOYO 2nd 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,748 7,694 0.13% 24.63 9.51 310 800 14 17°14′09″N 120°28′47″E / 17.2358°N 120.4797°E / 17.2358; 120.4797 (Banayoyo)
BANTAY 1st 7000520000000000000♠5.2% 35,731 34,323 0.77% 76.60 29.58 470 1,200 34 17°34′54″N 120°23′11″E / 17.5818°N 120.3865°E / 17.5818; 120.3865 (Bantay)
BURGOS 2nd 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 12,224 11,679 0.87% 44.38 17.14 280 730 26 17°18′58″N 120°30′33″E / 17.3160°N 120.5093°E / 17.3160; 120.5093 (Burgos)
CABUGAO 1st 7000540000000000000♠5.4% 37,501 35,706 0.94% 95.56 36.90 390 1,000 33 17°47′33″N 120°27′21″E / 17.7926°N 120.4559°E / 17.7926; 120.4559 (Cabugao)
CANDON ∗ 2nd 7000880000000000000♠8.8% 60,623 57,884 0.88% 103.28 39.88 590 1,500 42 17°11′22″N 120°26′51″E / 17.1895°N 120.4474°E / 17.1895; 120.4474 (Candon)
CAOAYAN 1st 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 19,861 18,551 1.31% 17.42 6.73 1,100 2,800 17 17°32′52″N 120°23′00″E / 17.5477°N 120.3833°E / 17.5477; 120.3833 (Caoayan)
CERVANTES 2nd 7000250000000000000♠2.5% 17,211 16,573 0.72% 234.70 90.62 73 190 13 16°59′24″N 120°44′07″E / 16.9899°N 120.7354°E / 16.9899; 120.7354 (Cervantes)
GALIMUYOD 2nd 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 10,748 10,011 1.36% 34.40 13.28 310 800 24 17°10′59″N 120°28′07″E / 17.1830°N 120.4687°E / 17.1830; 120.4687 (Galimuyod)
GREGORIO DEL PILAR 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,875 4,219 2.79% 41.66 16.09 120 310 7 17°08′53″N 120°36′39″E / 17.1481°N 120.6109°E / 17.1481; 120.6109 (Gregorio del Pilar)
LIDLIDDA 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,647 4,398 1.05% 33.84 13.07 140 360 11 17°15′07″N 120°31′15″E / 17.2519°N 120.5207°E / 17.2519; 120.5207 (Lidlidda)
MAGSINGAL 1st 7000450000000000000♠4.5% 30,792 28,302 1.62% 84.98 32.81 360 930 30 17°41′06″N 120°25′33″E / 17.6851°N 120.4257°E / 17.6851; 120.4257 (Magsingal)
NAGBUKEL 2nd 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 5,259 4,938 1.21% 43.12 16.65 120 310 12 17°26′48″N 120°31′34″E / 17.4466°N 120.5260°E / 17.4466; 120.5260 (Nagbukel)
NARVACAN 2nd 7000640000000000000♠6.4% 44,006 42,803 0.53% 122.21 47.19 360 930 34 17°25′10″N 120°28′37″E / 17.4194°N 120.4769°E / 17.4194; 120.4769 (Narvacan)
QUIRINO 2nd 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 8,573 8,535 0.08% 240.10 92.70 36 93 9 17°08′12″N 120°40′35″E / 17.1367°N 120.6765°E / 17.1367; 120.6765 (Quirino)
SALCEDO 2nd 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 11,288 10,935 0.61% 103.44 39.94 110 280 21 17°09′03″N 120°32′10″E / 17.1507°N 120.5361°E / 17.1507; 120.5361 (Salcedo)
SAN EMILIO 2nd 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,407 7,427 −0.05% 141.44 54.61 52 130 8 17°14′19″N 120°34′44″E / 17.2386°N 120.5789°E / 17.2386; 120.5789 (San Emilio)
SAN ESTEBAN 2nd 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 8,349 8,072 0.64% 19.62 7.58 430 1,100 10 17°19′47″N 120°26′42″E / 17.3297°N 120.4451°E / 17.3297; 120.4451 (San Esteban)
SAN ILDEFONSO 1st 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7,787 7,075 1.84% 11.35 4.38 690 1,800 15 17°37′30″N 120°23′35″E / 17.6249°N 120.3931°E / 17.6249; 120.3931 (San Ildefonso)
SAN JUAN 1st 7000380000000000000♠3.8% 26,411 25,199 0.90% 64.37 24.85 410 1,100 32 17°44′32″N 120°27′30″E / 17.7422°N 120.4583°E / 17.7422; 120.4583 (San Juan)
SAN VICENTE 1st 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 12,758 11,720 1.63% 12.60 4.86 1,000 2,600 7 17°35′39″N 120°22′22″E / 17.5941°N 120.3729°E / 17.5941; 120.3729 (San Vicente)
SANTA 2nd 7000220000000000000♠2.2% 15,340 15,106 0.29% 109.10 42.12 140 360 26 17°29′10″N 120°26′04″E / 17.4860°N 120.4344°E / 17.4860; 120.4344 (Santa)
SANTA CATALINA 1st 7000200000000000000♠2.0% 13,945 13,597 0.48% 9.68 3.74 1,400 3,600 9 17°35′20″N 120°21′48″E / 17.5888°N 120.3634°E / 17.5888; 120.3634 (Santa Catalina)
SANTA CRUZ 2nd 7000580000000000000♠5.8% 39,868 37,911 0.96% 88.78 34.28 450 1,200 49 17°05′04″N 120°27′07″E / 17.0844°N 120.4520°E / 17.0844; 120.4520 (Santa Cruz)
SANTA LUCIA 2nd 7000370000000000000♠3.7% 25,402 24,981 0.32% 49.72 19.20 510 1,300 36 17°07′02″N 120°26′53″E / 17.1173°N 120.4480°E / 17.1173; 120.4480 (Santa Lucia)
SANTA MARIA 2nd 7000440000000000000♠4.4% 30,321 28,597 1.12% 63.31 24.44 480 1,200 33 17°22′03″N 120°28′51″E / 17.3676°N 120.4807°E / 17.3676; 120.4807 (Santa Maria)
SANTIAGO 2nd 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 18,759 17,958 0.83% 46.36 17.90 400 1,000 24 17°17′38″N 120°26′43″E / 17.2940°N 120.4453°E / 17.2940; 120.4453 (Santiago)
SANTO DOMINGO 1st 7000410009999999999♠4.1% 27,975 27,596 0.26% 55.49 21.42 500 1,300 36 17°38′16″N 120°24′36″E / 17.6378°N 120.4101°E / 17.6378; 120.4101 (Santo Domingo)
SIGAY 2nd 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 2,737 2,419 2.38% 81.55 31.49 34 88 7 17°02′34″N 120°34′46″E / 17.0429°N 120.5795°E / 17.0429; 120.5795 (Sigay)
SINAIT 1st 7000370000000000000♠3.7% 25,640 25,427 0.16% 65.56 25.31 390 1,000 44 17°51′59″N 120°27′22″E / 17.8664°N 120.4561°E / 17.8664; 120.4561 (Sinait)
SUGPON 2nd 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 4,585 3,820 3.54% 57.11 22.05 80 210 6 16°49′38″N 120°29′45″E / 16.8272°N 120.4959°E / 16.8272; 120.4959 (Sugpon)
SUYO 2nd 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 11,446 10,622 1.43% 124.00 47.88 92 240 8 16°58′33″N 120°31′30″E / 16.9758°N 120.5249°E / 16.9758; 120.5249 (Suyo)
TAGUDIN 2nd 7000570000000000000♠5.7% 39,277 38,122 0.57% 151.19 58.37 260 670 43 16°56′04″N 120°26′42″E / 16.9345°N 120.4450°E / 16.9345; 120.4450 (Tagudin)
VIGAN † 1st 7000780000000000000♠7.8% 53,879 49,747 1.53% 25.12 9.70 2,100 5,400 39 17°34′22″N 120°23′12″E / 17.5729°N 120.3867°E / 17.5729; 120.3867 (Vigan)
TOTAL 689,668 658,587 0.88% 2,596.00 1,002.32 270 700 768 (SEE GEOGROUP BOX )
* ^ Coordinates mark the city/town center , and are sortable by latitude .
The 32 municipalities and 2 cities of the province comprise a total
of 768 barangays , with Puro in
POPULATION CENSUS OF ILOCOS SUR
YEAR POP. ±% P.A.
1903 189,572 —
1918 247,458 +1.79%
1939 271,532 +0.44%
1948 276,278 +0.19%
1960 338,058 +1.70%
1970 385,139 +1.31%
1975 419,776 +1.74%
YEAR POP. ±% P.A.
1980 443,591 +1.11%
1990 519,966 +1.60%
1995 545,385 +0.90%
2000 594,206 +1.85%
2007 632,255 +0.86%
2010 658,587 +1.50%
2015 689,668 +0.88%
Source: National Statistics Office
The population of
The 1960 census lists 338,058 people; 64,446 dwelling units of which 2,974 are lighted with electricity; 3227 provided with radio; 7379 served with pipe water; 25,137 served with artesian and pumped water; and 310 using electricity, kerosene and gas for cooking.
Miguel de Loarca records around 1582 that the Ilocanos are intelligent as the Zambaleños for they are farmers. The main occupation of the people is agriculture.
Father Juan de Medina noted in 1630 that the natives are ‘the humblest and most tractable known and lived in nest and large settlements'.
The province is predominantly Roman Catholic with 75% of population
Aglipayan Church is also a considerable large minority with
a 20% adherence. Other religious beliefs are represented by other
Christian Churches such as
Sinait Public Market
The people are engaged in farming, producing food crops, mostly rice, corn, vegetable, root crops, and fruits. Non-food crops include tobacco, cotton, and tigergrass. Cottage industries include loom weaving, furniture making, jewelry making, ceramics, blacksmithing, and food processing.
Rice grains being dried on a road in San Esteban .
Ilocos Sur's economy is agrarian, but its 2,647 square kilometres (1,022 sq mi) of unfertile land is not enough to support a population of 338,579.
Such agricultural crops as rice, corn tobacco and fruit trees dominate their farm industries. Secondary crops are camote and cassava, sugar cane and onions.
The rapidly growing population, the decreasing fertility of the soil,
and the long period between the planting and harvesting season, have
forced the people to turn to manufacture and trade. Many Ilocanos go
to the Cagayán valley, Central Plains and
Weaving is the most extensive handicraft, bolstered by the installation of the NDC Textile Mills in Narvacan which supplies the weavers with yarn.
Other industries are burnay and slipper making in
Chapters of Philippine history and religion are found in the Crisólogo collections which includes family heirlooms, centuries –old "santos", statuettes, ivory images, Vienna furniture, marble-topped tables, ancient-carved beds, rare Chinese porcelains, jars and jarlettes, lamps, Muslim brass wares, and Spanish and Mexican coins.
The Syquia collections, including then President
Elpidio Quirino 's
memorabilia, vie in quality with the Crisólogo collections. But in
the midst of the fire scare in
NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM ILOCOS SUR
Elpidio Quirino — sixth President of the Philippines
Gabriela Silang — revolutionary leader best known as the first
female leader of a Filipino movement for independence from Spain
* ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City,
Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from
the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
* ^ A B C D Census of Population (2015). "Region I (Ilocos
Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and
Barangay. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016.
* ^ A B C D "Province: Ilocos Sur". PSGC Interactive.
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