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Liniment
Liniment
(or embrocation), from the Latin
Latin
linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Sometimes called balms or heat rubs, liniments are of a similar or lesser viscosity than lotions and are rubbed in to create friction, unlike lotions, ointments or creams,[1][2] but patches, sticks and sprays are also available. Liniments are typically sold to relieve pain and stiffness, such as from sore muscular aches and strains, or arthritis. These are typically formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar quickly evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicilate, benzoin resin, menthol, or capsaicin. They produce a feeling of warmth within the muscle of the area they are applied to, typically acting as rubefacients via a counterirritant effect. Liniments have been around since antiquity. The methyl salicylate that is the active analgesic ingredient in some heat-rub products can be toxic if they are used in excess.[3] Heating pads are also not recommended for use with heat rubs, as the added warmth may cause overabsorption of the active ingredients.

An old bottle of AA Hyde Mentholatum
Mentholatum
Ointment

Examples[edit]

Opodeldoc is a formulation invented by the Renaissance
Renaissance
physician Paracelsus A.B.C. Liniment
Liniment
is a very old rubbing mixture or liniment. It was used for a long period of time (1880-1935 minimum[4][5]) as a way of relieving pain caused by lumbago (lower back pain), sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, stiffness after exercise and other conditions. It was made from aconite, belladonna, and chloroform, leading to its name.[4] However, there have been numerous examples of poisoning from the mixture, resulting in at least one death.[6][7][8][9] Bengay, spelled Ben-Gay before 1995, is a liniment used to temporarily relieve muscle and joint pain associated with arthritis, bruises, simple backaches, sprains and strains. It was developed in France by Dr. Jules Bengué, and brought to America in 1898. The name Bengué was anglicized to Bengay. It was originally produced by Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, which was acquired by Johnson & Johnson.[citation needed] Flex-power is a liniment that claims to use nanotechnology in its formulation.[10][11] IcyHot is a line of liniments produced and marketed by Chattem, now a subsidiary of Sanofi[12][13] Mentholatum
Mentholatum
Ointment
Ointment
was introduced in December 1894 by a US company founded by Albert Alexander Hyde. In 1975 a Japanese pharmaceutical company, Rohto Pharmaceutical Co., bought the rights to market the product and in 1988 it bought the entire Mentholatum
Mentholatum
company. The ointment also has a brand, "Deep Heat".[14] RUB A535
RUB A535
(also known as Antiphlogistine) is a liniment introduced in 1919 and manufactured by Church & Dwight in Canada. It is not well-known outside of Canada, and is not sold in the United States.[citation needed]

A 1914 advertisement

Tiger Balm was developed during the 1870s in Rangoon, Burma, by herbalist Aw Chu Kin, son of a Hakka herbalist in China, Aw Leng Fan and brought to market by his sons. Made of Menthol
Menthol
(16%), and Oil of Wintergreen (28%).[15] Minard's Liniment: Dr. Levi Minard from Hants County, Nova Scotia, branded as "The King of Pain",[16] created this preparation which he developed in the 1860s from camphor, ammonia water, and medical turpentine. Its use was popular in Eastern Canada.

Use on horses[edit] Liniments are commonly used on horses following exercise, applied either by rubbing on full-strength, especially on the legs; or applied in a diluted form, usually added to a bucket of water and sponged on the body. They are used in hot weather to help cool down a horse after working, the alcohol cooling through rapid evaporation, and counterirritant oils dilating capillaries in the skin, increasing the amount of blood releasing heat from the body.[17] Many horse liniment formulas in diluted form have been used on humans, though products for horses which contain DMSO
DMSO
are not suitable for human use, as DMSO
DMSO
carries the topical product into the bloodstream.[18] Horse liniment ingredients such as menthol, chloroxylenol, or iodine are also used in different formulas in products used by humans.[19] Absorbine, a horse liniment product manufactured by W.F. Young, Inc., was reformulated for humans and marketed as Absorbine Jr.[20] The company also acquired other liniment brands including Bigeloil and RefreshMint.[21] The equine version of Absorbine is sometimes used by humans,[22] though its benefits in humans may be because the smell of menthol releases serotonin, or due to a placebo effect.[20] Earl Sloan
Earl Sloan
was a US entrepreneur who made his initial fortune selling his father's horse liniment formula beginning in the period following the Civil War. Sloan's liniment, with capsicum as a key ingredient, was also marketed for human use. He later sold his company to the predecessor of Warner–Lambert, which was purchased in 2000 by Pfizer.[23][24] References[edit]

Look up liniment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

^ "Liniment". The Free Dictionary.  ^ "Liniment". UK. Oxford Dictionaries.  ^ “ Muscle
Muscle
Cream Caused NYC Teen's Death”, USA Today, retrieved April 2, 2012 ^ a b Everybody's Family Doctor. London, UK: Odhams Press LTD. 1935. p. 7.  ^ Cross, John (March 13, 1880). "Letters, Notes, and Answers to Correspondents". Br Med J. 1 (1002): 424–426. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1002.424. PMC 2239646 .  ^ Sinha, R P.; Mitra, S K.; Roy, P K. (1967-03-16). " Liniment
Liniment
A.B.C. poisoning". Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 48 (6): 278–9. PMID 6038536.  ^ Weir, Archibald (February 15, 1896). "Fatal Case Of Poisoning By A.B.C. Liniment". The British Medical Journal. 1 (1833): 399–400. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.435.399-a.  ^ Fisher, O D. (November 1954). "Accidental Poisoning of Children in Belfast: A Report of two years' experience at the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children". Ulster Med J. 23 (2): 124–131. PMC 2480209 . PMID 20476409.  ^ Swinscow, Douglas (February 1953). "Accidental Poisoning of Young Children". Arch Dis Child. 28 (137): 26–29. doi:10.1136/adc.28.137.26. PMC 1988641 . PMID 13031693.  ^ Strickland, Eliza (25 January 2006). "Nice Nanostuff, But Is It Safe?". East Bay Express. Archived from the original on 19 April 2008.  ^ "USAT Partners with Flex-Power". USA Triathlon. 13 December 2006. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  ^ Icy Hot Products ^ Icy Hot - Chempedia ^ Springville Journal Staff. January 30, 2015 The Mentholatum
Mentholatum
Company thanks WNY residents for success Archived 2016-07-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tiger Balm: Heritage, archived from the original on 2009-08-31, retrieved 2009-09-30  ^ Beverly J. Freeman (1998), Levi Minard, M.D., King of Pain, B.J. Freeman  ^ http://www.horsechannel.com/horse-health/liniments-poultices-10382.aspx ^ http://orientalherb.com/how-is-horse-liniment-helpful-to-humans/ ^ https://www.reference.com/health/horse-liniment-safe-humans-4fd8f682b65bf829# ^ a b https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/8178836/To-all-you-neigh-sayers-this-horse-rub-really-does-work.html ^ http://absorbine.com/products/muscle-care/ ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2016-06-27.  ^ http://www.newbernsj.com/20140802/historical-society-curator-reveals-early-20th-century-success-story/308029911 ^ http://www.pfizer.com/about/history/pfizer_warner_lambert

v t e

Routes of administration, dosage forms

Oral

Digestive tract (enteral)

Solids

Pill Tablet Capsule Pastille Time release technology Osmotic delivery system (OROS)

Liquids

Decoction Elixir Electuary Emulsion Extended-release syrup Effervescent
Effervescent
powder or tablet Herbal tea Hydrogel Molecular encapsulation Powder Softgel Solution Suspension Syrup Syrup
Syrup
Concentrate for dilution and/or addition of carbonated water Tincture

Buccal (sublabial), sublingual

Solids

Orally disintegrating tablet
Orally disintegrating tablet
(ODT) Film Lollipop Sublingual drops Lozenges Effervescent
Effervescent
buccal tablet Chewing gum

Liquids

Mouthwash Toothpaste Ointment Oral spray

Respiratory tract

Solids

Smoking
Smoking
device Dry-powder inhaler
Dry-powder inhaler
(DPI)

0 0

Liquids

Anaesthetic vaporizer Vaporizer Nebulizer Metered-dose inhaler
Metered-dose inhaler
(MDI)

Gas

Oxygen mask
Oxygen mask
and Nasal cannula Oxygen concentrator Anaesthetic machine Relative analgesia machine

Ophthalmic, otologic, nasal

Nasal spray Ear
Ear
drops Eye drops Ointment Hydrogel Nanosphere suspension Insufflation Mucoadhesive microdisc (microsphere tablet)

Urogenital

Ointment Pessary
Pessary
(vaginal suppository) Vaginal ring Vaginal douche Intrauterine device
Intrauterine device
(IUD) Extra-amniotic infusion Intravesical infusion

Rectal (enteral)

Ointment Suppository Enema

Solution Hydrogel

Murphy drip Nutrient enema

Dermal

Ointment Topical
Topical
cream Topical
Topical
gel Liniment Paste Film DMSO
DMSO
drug solution Electrophoretic
Electrophoretic
dermal delivery system Hydrogel Liposomes Transfersome vesicles Cream Lotion Lip balm Medicated shampoo Dermal patch Transdermal patch Contact (rubbed into break in the skin) Transdermal spray Jet injector

Injection, infusion (into tissue/blood)

Skin

Intradermal Subcutaneous Transdermal implant

Organs

Intracavernous Intravitreal Intra-articular injection Transscleral

Central nervous system

Intracerebral Intrathecal Epidural

Circulatory, musculoskeletal

Intravenous Intracardiac Intramuscular Intraosseous Intraperitoneal Nanocell injection Patient-Controlled Analgesia
Patient-Controlled Analgesia
pump PIC line

Category WikiProjec

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