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Hussite
Hussite
victory, particularly for Moderate Hussites[1]

Hussite
Hussite
church becomes free from the Papacy[1] Compromise between Moderate Hussites
Moderate Hussites
and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
few years after the fighting began, both join forces to fight Radical Hussites Moderate Hussites
Moderate Hussites
are recognized by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and allowed to practise their variant rite Radical Hussites are defeated and forced to practice their variant rites underground as these are now forbidden Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
becomes King of Bohemia Basel Compacts signed by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Catholic and Hussite
Hussite
representatives effectively end the Hussite
Hussite
Wars

Belligerents

Hussites(1419-1423)

Taborites Orebites (1419-1424) Prague
Prague
Hussites Hussites
Hussites
of Žatec
Žatec
and Louny Bohemian Hussite
Hussite
Nobility

Radical Hussites (1423-1434)

Taborites Orebites (until 1424) Orphans (1424-1434)

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Supported by: Kingdom of Poland

Catholic Church Holy Roman Empire

Bohemian Catholics Moravian Margraviate Duchies of Silesia Margravate of Meissen Upper Lusatia Duchy of Austria Duchy of Bavaria Electorate of Saxony Margraviate of Brandenburg County Palatine of the Rhine Duchy of Thuringia Electorate of Trier Electorate of Mainz Electorate of Cologne

Kingdom of Hungary Papal States Order of Malta Teutonic Order Kingdom of England Serbian Despotate

Moderate Hussites
Moderate Hussites
(Utraquists)(1423-1434)

Bohemian Hussite
Hussite
Nobility Prague
Prague
Hussites

Commanders and leaders

Jan Žižka Prokop the Great † Prokop the Lesser † Hynek Krušina of Lichtenburg Jan Čapek of Sány Diviš Bořek of Miletínek(1420-1423) Jakoubek of Vřesovice Jan Roháč of Dubá Bohuslav von Schwanberg(1422-1425) † / Sigismund Korybut Aleš Vřešťovský of Rýzmburk Chval Řepický of Machovice Jan Pardus of Horka and Vratkov Mikuláš of Hus † Ondřej Keřský of Řimovice † Petr Zmrzlík of Svojšín Jan Talafús of Ostrov Kuneš of Bělovice

/ Władysław II Jagiełło

Sigismund Pope Martin V Pippo Spano Bohuslav von Schwanberg(1419-1422) Ulrich II von Rosenberg Čeněk von Wartenberg Jan Všembera of Boskovice Henry of Kravaře
Kravaře
and Plumlov † Jan I of Żagań Frederick I, the Belligerent Frederick II, Elector of Saxony Frederick I of Brandenburg Johann von Pfalz-Neumarkt Julian Cesarini Henry of Hradec (DOW) Otto von Ziegenhain Henry Beaufort

Diviš Bořek of Miletínek(1423-1434)

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Crusades

In the Holy Land (1095–1291)

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Crusades
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Popular crusades

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Against Christians

Bosnian 1235–1241 Albigensian 1209–1229 Aragonese 1284/5 Despenser's 1382/3 Hussite
Hussite
1419–1434

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Reconquista
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Hussite
Hussite
Wars

Živohoště Nekmíř Sudoměř Vítkov Hill Vyšehrad Brüx Kutná Hora Nebovidy Deutschbrod Hořice Aussig Tachov Kratzau Trnava Domažlice Waidhofen Ilava Hiltersried Pilsen Lipany Kretsch Sellnitz Grotniki

The Hussite
Hussite
Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites
Hussites
and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy
Papacy
and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite
Hussite
factions themselves. After initial clashes, the Utraquists
Utraquists
changed sides in 1423 to fight alongside Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and opposed the Taborites
Taborites
and other Hussite spinoffs. These wars lasted from 1419 to approximately 1434. The Hussite
Hussite
community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
and formed a major spontaneous military power. They defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope (1420, 1421, 1422, 1427, 1431), and intervened in the wars of neighboring countries. The Hussite
Hussite
Wars were notable for the extensive use of early hand-held firearms such as hand cannons. The fighting ended after 1434, when the moderate Utraquist faction of the Hussites
Hussites
defeated the radical Taborite
Taborite
faction. The Hussites agreed to submit to the authority of the King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
and the Roman Catholic Church, and were allowed to practice their somewhat variant rite.

Contents

1 Origins 2 The outbreak of fighting 3 Wagenburg
Wagenburg
tactics 4 The first anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade 5 The second anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade 6 Bohemian civil war 7 Polish and Lithuanian involvement 8 The third anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade 9 The fourth anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade 10 Beautiful rides (Chevauchée) 11 Peace talks 12 The fifth anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade 13 New negotiations and the defeat of Radical Hussites 14 Peace agreement 15 Aftermath 16 Evolution of the Hussite
Hussite
movement 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Origins[edit]

Burning of Jan Hus
Jan Hus
at the Council of Constance

Starting around 1402, priest and scholar Jan Hus
Jan Hus
denounced what he judged as the corruption of the Church and the Papacy, and he promoted some of the reformist ideas of English theologian John Wycliffe. His preaching was widely heeded in Bohemia, and provoked suppression by the Church, which had declared many of Wycliffe's ideas heretical. In 1411, in the course of the Western Schism, "Antipope" John XXIII proclaimed a "crusade" against King Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of rival Pope Gregory XII. To raise money for this, he proclaimed indulgences in Bohemia. Hus bitterly denounced this and explicitly quoted Wycliffe against it, provoking further complaints of heresy but winning much support in Bohemia. In 1414, Sigismund of Hungary
Hungary
convened the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
to end the Schism and resolve other religious controversies. Hus went to the Council, under a safe-conduct from Sigismund, but was imprisoned, tried, and executed on 6 July 1415. The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent the protestatio Bohemorum to the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
on 2 September 1415, which condemned the execution of Hus in the strongest language. This angered Sigismund, who was "King of the Romans" (head of the Holy Roman Empire, though not yet Emperor), and brother of King Wenceslaus of Bohemia. He had been persuaded by the Council that Hus was a heretic. He sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly drown all Wycliffites and Hussites, greatly incensing the people. Disorder broke out in various parts of Bohemia, and drove many Catholic priests from their parishes. Almost from the beginning the Hussites
Hussites
divided into two main groups, though many minor divisions also arose among them. Shortly before his death Hus had accepted the doctrine of Utraquism
Utraquism
preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague: the obligation of the faithful to receive communion in both kinds, bread and wine (sub utraque specie). This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites
Hussites
known as the Utraquists
Utraquists
or Calixtines, from the Latin
Latin
calix (the chalice), in Czech kališníci (from kalich). The more extreme Hussites
Hussites
became known as Taborites (táborité), after the city of Tábor
Tábor
that became their center; or Orphans (sirotci), a name they adopted after the death of their leader and general Jan Žižka. Under the influence of Sigismund, Wenceslaus endeavoured to stem the Hussite
Hussite
movement. A number of Hussites
Hussites
led by Mikuláš of Hus — no relation of Jan Hus
Jan Hus
— left Prague. They held meetings in various parts of Bohemia, particularly at Sezimovo Ústí
Sezimovo Ústí
(not to be confused with Ústí nad Labem), near the spot where the town of Tábor
Tábor
was founded soon afterwards. At these meetings they violently denounced Sigismund, and the people everywhere prepared for war. In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites, the troubles at Prague
Prague
continued. On 30 July 1419 Hussite
Hussite
procession headed by the priest Jan Želivský
Jan Želivský
attacked New Town Hall in Prague
Prague
and threw the king's representatives, the burgomaster, and some town councillors from the windows into the street (the first "Defenestration of Prague"), where several were killed by the fall, after a rock was allegedly thrown from the town hall and hit Želivský.[2] It has been suggested that Wenceslaus was so stunned by the defenestration that it caused his death on 16 August 1419.[2] (Alternatively, it is possible that he may have just died of natural causes.)[citation needed] The outbreak of fighting[edit] The death of Wenceslaus resulted in renewed troubles in Prague
Prague
and in almost all parts of Bohemia. Many Catholics, mostly Germans — mostly still faithful to the Pope — were expelled from the Bohemian cities. Wenceslaus' widow Sophia of Bavaria, acting as regent in Bohemia, hurriedly collected a force of mercenaries and tried to gain control of Prague, which led to severe fighting. After a considerable part of the city had been damaged or destroyed, the parties declared a truce on 13 November. The nobles, sympathetic to the Hussite
Hussite
cause, but supporting the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund, while the citizens of Prague
Prague
consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vyšehrad, which had fallen into their hands. Žižka, who disapproved of this compromise, left Prague
Prague
and retired to Plzeň. Unable to maintain himself there he marched to southern Bohemia. He defeated the Catholics at the Battle of Sudoměř
Battle of Sudoměř
(25 March 1420), the first pitched battle of the Hussite
Hussite
wars. After Sudoměř, he moved to Ústí, one of the earliest meeting-places of the Hussites. Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighboring new settlement of the Hussites, called by the biblical name of Tábor. Tábor
Tábor
soon became the center of the most militant Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists
Utraquists
by recognizing only two sacraments - Baptism
Baptism
and Communion - and by rejecting most of the ceremony of the Roman Catholic Church. The ecclesiastical organization of Tabor had a somewhat puritanical character, and the government was established on a thoroughly democratic basis. Four captains of the people (hejtmané) were elected, one of whom was Žižka, and a very strict military discipline was instituted. Wagenburg
Wagenburg
tactics[edit] Main article: Wagenburg

The Hussite
Hussite
Wagenburg

Depending on the terrain, Hussites
Hussites
prepared carts for the battle, forming them into squares or circles. The carts were joined wheel to wheel by chains and positioned aslant, with their corners attached to each other, so that horses could be harnessed to them quickly, if necessary. In front of this wall of carts a ditch was dug by camp followers. The crew of each cart consisted of 16-22 soldiers: 4-8 crossbowmen, 2 handgunners, 6-8 soldiers equipped with pikes or flails (the flail was the Hussite
Hussite
"national weapon"), 2 shield carriers and 2 drivers. The Hussites' battle consisted of two stages, the first defensive, the second an offensive counterattack. In the first stage the army placed the carts near the enemy army and by means of artillery fire provoked the enemy into battle. The artillery would usually inflict heavy casualties at close range. In order to avoid more losses, the enemy knights finally attacked. Then the infantry hidden behind the carts used firearms and crossbows to ward off the attack, weakening the enemy. The shooters aimed first at the horses, depriving the cavalry of its main advantage. Many of the knights died as their horses were shot and they fell. As soon as the enemy's morale was lowered, the second stage, an offensive counterattack, began. The infantry and the cavalry burst out from behind the carts striking violently at the enemy - mostly from the flanks. While fighting on the flanks and being shot at from the carts the enemy was not able to put up much resistance. They were forced to withdraw, leaving behind dismounted knights in heavy armor who were unable to escape the battlefield. The enemy armies suffered heavy losses and the Hussites
Hussites
soon had the reputation of not taking captives. The first anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade[edit]

Battle of Vítkov Hill

After the death of his childless brother Wenceslaus, Sigismund inherited a claim on the Bohemian crown, though it was then, and remained till much later, in question whether Bohemia was a hereditary or an elective monarchy, especially as the line through which Sigismund claimed the throne had accepted that the Kingdom of Bohemia was an elective monarchy elected by the nobles, and thus the regent of the kingdom (Čeněk of Wartenberg) also explicitly stated that Sigismund had not been elected as reason for Sigismund's claim to not be accepted. A firm adherent of the Church of Rome, Sigismund was aided by Pope Martin V, who issued a bull on 17 March 1420 proclaiming a crusade “for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites
Hussites
and all other heretics in Bohemia". Sigismund and many German princes arrived before Prague
Prague
on 30 June at the head of a vast army of crusaders from all parts of Europe, largely consisting of adventurers attracted by the hope of pillage. They immediately began a siege of the city, which had, however, soon to be abandoned. Negotiations took place for a settlement of the religious differences. The united Hussites
Hussites
formulated their demands in a statement known as the “Four Articles of Prague". This document, the most important of the Hussite
Hussite
period, ran, in the wording of the contemporary chronicler, Laurence of Brezova, as follows:

"1. The word of God shall be preached and made known in the kingdom of Bohemia freely and in an orderly manner by the priests of the Lord.

2. The sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist
Eucharist
shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is bread and wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin - according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour.

3. The secular power over riches and worldly goods which the clergy possesses in contradiction to Christ’s precept, to the prejudice of its office and to the detriment of the secular arm, shall be taken and withdrawn from it, and the clergy itself shall be brought back to the evangelical rule and an apostolic life such as that which Christ and his apostles led.

4. All mortal sins, and in particular all public and other disorders, which are contrary to God’s law shall in every rank of life be duly and judiciously prohibited and destroyed by those whose office it is."[citation needed]

These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite
Hussite
doctrine, were rejected by King Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Pope. Hostilities therefore continued. However Sigismund was defeated at the Battle of Vítkov Hill
Battle of Vítkov Hill
on July 1420. Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, his troops held the castles of Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
and Hradčany. The citizens of Prague
Prague
laid siege to Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
(see Battle of Vyšehrad), and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine. Sigismund tried to relieve the fortress but was decisively defeated by the Hussites
Hussites
on 1 November near the village of Pankrác. The castles of Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
and Hradčany
Hradčany
now capitulated, and shortly afterwards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites. The second anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade[edit]

Escape of the King Sigismund from Kutná Hora

Internal troubles prevented the followers of Hus from fully capitalizing on their victory. At Prague
Prague
a demagogue, the priest Jan Želivský, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tábor
Tábor
a religious communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Žižka. Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites
Hussites
was undertaken. A large German army entered Bohemia and in August 1421 laid siege to the town of Žatec. After an unsuccessful attempt of storming the city, the crusaders retreated somewhat ingloriously on hearing that the Hussite
Hussite
troops were approaching.[3] Sigismund only arrived in Bohemia at the end of 1421. He took possession of the town of Kutná Hora
Kutná Hora
but was decisively defeated by Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
at the Battle of Deutschbrod
Battle of Deutschbrod
(Německý Brod) on 6 January 1422. Bohemian civil war[edit]

Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
during the Hussite
Hussite
Wars

Bohemia was for a time free from foreign intervention, but internal discord again broke out, caused partly by theological strife and partly by the ambition of agitators. On 9 March 1422, Jan Želivský was arrested by the town council of Prague
Prague
and beheaded. There were troubles at Tábor
Tábor
also, where a more radical party opposed Žižka's authority. Polish and Lithuanian involvement[edit] The Hussites
Hussites
were aided at various times by Poland. Because of this, Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
arranged for the crown of Bohemia to be offered to King Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
of Poland, who, under pressure from his own advisors, refused it. The crown was then offered to Władysław's cousin, Vytautas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Vytautas
Vytautas
accepted it, with the condition that the Hussites
Hussites
reunite with the Catholic Church. In 1422, Žižka accepted Prince Sigismund Korybut
Sigismund Korybut
of Lithuania (nephew of Władysław II) as regent of Bohemia for Vytautas. His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate of the Taborites, but he failed to bring the Hussites
Hussites
back into the Church. On a few occasions, he even fought against both the Taborites
Taborites
and the Orebites to try to force them into reuniting. After Władysław II and Vytautas
Vytautas
signed the Treaty of Melno with Sigismund of Hungary
Hungary
in 1423, they recalled Sigismund Korybut to Lithuania, under pressure from Sigismund of Hungary
Hungary
and the Pope. On his departure, civil war broke out, the Taborites
Taborites
opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers", as Prague
Prague
was their principal stronghold. On 27 April 1423, Žižka now again leading, the Taborites defeated the Utraquist army under Čeněk of Wartenberg
Čeněk of Wartenberg
at the Battle of Hořice; shortly afterwards an armistice was concluded at Konopilt. The third anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade[edit]

Statue of Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
on Vítkov Hill

Papal influence had meanwhile succeeded in calling forth a new crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure. In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, Poles and Lithuanians did not wish to attack the kindred Czechs; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the King of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country. Free for a time from foreign threat, the Hussites
Hussites
invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favored their creed; but, paralysed again by dissensions, they soon returned to Bohemia. The city of Hradec Králové, which had been under Utraquist rule, espoused the doctrine of Tábor, and called Žižka to its aid. After several military successes gained by Žižka in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussite
Hussite
factions was concluded on 13 September 1424 at Libeň, a village near Prague, now part of that city. Sigismund Korybut, who had returned to Bohemia in 1424 with 1,500 troops, helped broker this peace. After Žižka's death in October 1424, Prokop the Great
Prokop the Great
took command of the Taborites. Korybut, who had come in defiance of Władysław II and Vytautas, also became a Hussite leader. The fourth anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade[edit] In 1426 the Hussites
Hussites
were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite
Hussite
forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites
Hussites
were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England
England
as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites
Hussites
subsequently invaded parts of Germany several times, though they made no attempt to occupy permanently any part of the country. Korybut was imprisoned in 1427 for allegedly conspiring to surrender the Hussite
Hussite
forces to Sigismund of Hungary. He was released in 1428, and participated in the Hussite
Hussite
invasion of Silesia. But after a few years, Korybut returned to Poland
Poland
with his men. Korybut and his Poles, however, did not really want to leave; but the Pope threatened to call a crusade against Poland
Poland
if they did not. Beautiful rides (Chevauchée)[edit] During the Hussite
Hussite
Wars, the Hussites
Hussites
launched raids against many bordering countries. The Hussites
Hussites
called them Spanilé jízdy ("beautiful rides"). Especially under the leadership of Prokop the Great, Hussites
Hussites
invaded Silesia, Saxony, Hungary, Lusatia, and Meissen. These raids were against countries that had supplied the Germans with men during the anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusades, to deter further participation. However, the raids did not have the desired effect; these countries kept supplying soldiers for the crusades against the Hussites. During a war between Poland
Poland
and the Teutonic Order, some Hussite troops helped the Poles. In 1433, a Hussite
Hussite
army of 7,000 men marched through Neumark into Prussia
Prussia
and captured Dirschau
Dirschau
on the Vistula River. They eventually reached the mouth of the Vistula where it enters the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
near Danzig. There, they performed a great victory celebration to show that nothing but the ocean could stop the Hussites. The Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke
Heinrich von Treitschke
later wrote that they had "greeted the sea with a wild Czech song about God's warriors, and filled their water bottles with brine in token that the Baltic once more obeyed the Slavs."[4] Peace talks[edit] The almost uninterrupted series of victories of the Hussites
Hussites
now rendered vain all hope of subduing them by force of arms. Moreover, the conspicuously democratic character of the Hussite
Hussite
movement caused the German princes, who were afraid that such ideas might spread to their own countries, to desire peace. Many Hussites, particularly the Utraquist clergy, were also in favour of peace. Negotiations for this purpose were to take place at the ecumenical Council of Basel
Council of Basel
which had been summoned to meet on 3 March 1431. The Roman See reluctantly consented to the presence of heretics at this council, but indignantly rejected the suggestion of the Hussites
Hussites
that members of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and representatives of all Christian creeds, should also be present. Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites
Hussites
to subjection; this resulted in the fifth Crusade against the Hussites. The fifth anti- Hussite
Hussite
crusade[edit]

Battle of Domažlice, 15th century Jena Codex

On 1 August 1431 a large army of crusaders under Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, accompanied by Cardinal Cesarini as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian border. On 8 August the crusaders reached the city of Domažlice
Domažlice
and began besieging it. On 14 August, a Hussite relief army arrived, reinforced with some 6,000 Polish Hussites
Hussites
and under the command of Prokop the Great, and it completely routed the crusaders at the resulting Battle of Domažlice. As the legend has it, upon seeing the Hussite
Hussite
banners and hearing their battle hymn, "Ktož jsú boží bojovníci" ("Ye Who are Warriors of God"), the invading Papal forces immediately took to flight. New negotiations and the defeat of Radical Hussites[edit] On 15 October 1431, the Council of Basel
Council of Basel
issued a formal invitation to the Hussites
Hussites
to take part in its deliberations. Prolonged negotiations ensued, but finally a Hussite
Hussite
embassy, led by Prokop and including John of Rokycan, the Taborite
Taborite
bishop Nicolas of Pelhřimov, the ‘English Hussite’ Peter Payne and many others, arrived at Basel on 4 January 1433. No agreement could be reached, but negotiations were not broken off, and a change in the political situation of Bohemia finally resulted in a settlement.

Battle of Lipany, romantic painting

In 1434 war again broke out between the Utraquists
Utraquists
and the Taborites. On 30 May 1434, the Taborite
Taborite
army, led by Prokop the Great
Prokop the Great
and Prokop the Lesser, who both fell in the battle, was totally defeated and almost annihilated at the Battle of Lipany. The Polish Hussite
Hussite
movement also came to an end. Polish royal troops under Władysław III of Varna
Władysław III of Varna
defeated the Hussites
Hussites
at the Battle of Grotniki in 1439, bringing the Hussite
Hussite
Wars to an end. Peace agreement[edit] The moderate party thus obtained the upper hand; and wanted to find a compromise between the council and the Hussites. It formulated its demands in a document which was finally accepted by the Church of Rome in a slightly modified form, and which is known as ‘the compacts.’ The compacts, mainly founded on the articles of Prague, declare that:

The Holy Sacrament is to be given freely in both kinds to all Christians in Bohemia and Moravia, and to those elsewhere who adhere to the faith of these two countries. All mortal sins shall be punished and extirpated by those whose office it is so to do. The word of God is to be freely and truthfully preached by the priests of the Lord, and by worthy deacons. The priests in the time of the law of grace shall claim no ownership of worldly possessions.

On 5 July 1436 the compacts were formally accepted and signed at Jihlava
Jihlava
(Iglau), in Moravia, by King Sigismund, by the Hussite delegates, and by the representatives of the Roman Catholic Church. The last-named, however, refused to recognize as archbishop of Prague John of Rokycan, who had been elected to that dignity by the estates of Bohemia. Aftermath[edit] Further information: Religious peace of Kutná Hora

The battle of Wenzenbach between the troops of Emperor Maximilian I and the Czech Utraquists
Utraquists
in 1504

The Utraquist creed, frequently varying in its details, continued to be that of the established church of Bohemia until all non-Catholic religious services were prohibited shortly after the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620. The Taborite
Taborite
party never recovered from its defeat at Lipany, and after the town of Tábor
Tábor
had been captured by George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
in 1452, Utraquist religious worship was established there. The Bohemian Brethren (Unitas Fratrum), whose intellectual originator was Petr Chelčický but whose actual founders were Brother Gregory, a nephew of Archbishop Rokycany, and Michael, curate of Žamberk, to a certain extent continued the Taborite traditions, and in the 15th and 16th centuries included most of the strongest opponents of Rome in Bohemia. J. A. Komenský (Comenius), a member of the Brethren, claimed for the members of his church that they were the genuine inheritors of the doctrines of Hus. After the beginning of the German Reformation, many Utraquists
Utraquists
adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Martin Luther and of John Calvin
John Calvin
and, in 1567, obtained the repeal of the Compacts which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching. From the end of the 16th century the inheritors of the Hussite
Hussite
tradition in Bohemia were included in the more general name of "Protestants" borne by the adherents of the Reformation. At the end of the Hussite
Hussite
Wars in 1431, the lands of Bohemia had been totally ravaged. The adjacent Bishopric of Würzburg
Bishopric of Würzburg
in Germany was left in such bad shape after the Hussite
Hussite
Wars, that the impoverishment of the people was still evident in 1476. The poor conditions contributed directly to the peasant conspiracy that broke out that same year in Würzburg.[5] Evolution of the Hussite
Hussite
movement[edit]

Evolution of the Hussite
Hussite
movement in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown from 1419 to 1620, superimposed on modern borders

See also[edit]

German Peasants' War Schmalkaldic War The Slav Epic
The Slav Epic
(Painting: "The meeting at Křížky: Sub utraque")

References[edit]

^ a b Reeves, Michael, and Mark Dever. The Unquenchable Flame: Discovering the Heart of the Reformation. Nashville, TN: B & H Academic, 2010. Print. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia ^ Hardy, Duncan (2016). "An Alsatian Nobleman's Account of the Second Crusade
Crusade
against the Hussites: New Edition, Translation, and Interpretation". Crusades. 15: 199–221.  ^ Von Treitschke, Heinrich (2013). Treitschke's Origins of Prussianism (Routledge Revivals) : the Teutonic Knights (ebook ed.). Hoboken : Taylor and Francis. p. 128. ISBN 9781134582211.  ^ Frederick Engels, "The Peasant War in Germany" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 10 (International Publishers: New York, 1978) p. 428.

Further reading[edit]

Victor Verney (2009). Warrior of God: Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
and the Hussite Revolution. Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1-84832-516-6.  Howard Kaminsky (2004-04-08). A History of the Hussite
Hussite
Revolution. Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1-59244-631-5.  Stephen Turnbull (2004-05-25). The Hussite
Hussite
Wars 1419-36. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-665-2.  Count Lützow, Bohemia; an Historical Sketch (London, 1896) František Palacký, Geschichte von Böhmen Bachmann, Geschichte Böhmens L. Krummel, Geschichte der böhmischen Reformation (Gotha, 1866) L. Krummel, Utraquisten und Taboriten (Gotha, 187 i) Ernest Denis, Huss et la guerre des Hussites
Hussites
(Paris, 1878) H. Toman, Husitské válečnictví (Prague, 1898).

External links[edit]

[ Hussite
Hussite
Museum in Tábor][1] Joan of Arc's Letter to the Hussites
Hussites
(23 March 1430) — In 1430, Joan of Arc dictated a letter threatening to lead a crusading army against the Hussites
Hussites
unless they returned to "the Catholic Faith and the original Light". This link contains a translation of the letter plus notes and commentary. Tactics of the Hussite
Hussite
Wars The Bohemian War (1420–1434) Jan Hus
Jan Hus
and the Hussite
Hussite
Wars on Medieva

.