HUMPHREY DEFOREST BOGART (/ˈboʊɡɑːrt/ ; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American screen and stage actor whose performances in 1940s films noir such as The Maltese Falcon , Casablanca , and The Big Sleep earned him status as a cultural icon .
Bogart began acting in 1921 after a hitch in the U.S. Navy in World War I and little success in various jobs in finance and the production side of the theater. Gradually he became a regular in Broadway shows in the 1920s and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced the demand for plays, Bogart turned to film. His first great success was as Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest (1936), and this led to a period of typecasting as a gangster with films such as Angels with Dirty Faces (1938).
Bogart's breakthrough as a leading man came in 1941 with High Sierra and The Maltese Falcon . The next year, his performance in Casablanca (1943; Oscar nomination) raised him to the peak of his profession and, at the same time, cemented his trademark film persona, that of the hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other successes followed, including To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947), and Key Largo (1948), all four with his wife Lauren Bacall ; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948); In a Lonely Place (1950); The African Queen (1951; Oscar winner); Sabrina (1954); The Caine Mutiny (1954; Oscar nomination); and We\'re No Angels (1955). His last film was The Harder They Fall (1956).
During a film career of almost 30 years, Bogart appeared in more than
75 feature films. In 1999, the
American Film Institute
* 1 Early life and education
* 1.1 Navy
* 2 Early career
* 2.1 The Petrified Forest * 2.2 Early film career
* 3 Rise to stardom
* 3.1 High Sierra
* 3.2 The Maltese Falcon
* 3.3 Casablanca
World War II
* 4 Bogart and Bacall
* 4.1 To Have and Have Not * 4.2 The Big Sleep * 4.3 Marriage * 4.4 Dark Passage and Key Largo * 4.5 Children
* 5 Later career
* 5.1 The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
House Un-American Activities Committee
* 6 Personal life
* 6.1 The Rat Pack * 6.2 Death
* 7 Legacy and tributes
* 7.1 Awards and honors * 7.2 In popular culture
* 8 Quotations * 9 Filmography * 10 Radio appearances * 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Bibliography
* 13 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Bogart was born on Christmas Day, 1899, in
New York City
The precise date of Bogart's birth was long a matter of dispute, but
has been cleared up. Warner Bros listed his birthdate as Christmas
Day, 1899, throughout his career; but film historian Clifford McCarty
later maintained that the Warner publicity department had altered it
from January 23, 1900 "...to foster the view that a man born on
Christmas Day couldn't really be as villainous as he appeared to be on
screen". The "corrected" January birthdate subsequently
appeared—and in some cases, remains—in many otherwise
authoritative sources. Biographers A.M. Sperber and Eric Lax
documented, however, that Bogart always celebrated his birthday on
December 25, and consistently listed it as such on official records,
such as his marriage license.
Lauren Bacall confirmed in her autobiography that his birthday was always celebrated on Christmas Day, adding that he joked that he was cheated out of a present every year because of it. Sperber and Lax also noted that a birth announcement, printed in the Ontario County Times on January 10, 1900, effectively rules out the possibility of a January 23 birthdate; and state and federal census records from 1900 report a Christmas 1899 birthdate as well.
Bogart's father, Belmont, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. His mother,
Maud, was a commercial illustrator who received her art training in
New York and France, including study with James McNeill Whistler .
Later she became art director of the fashion magazine The Delineator
and a militant suffragette . She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a
well-known advertising campaign for Mellins Baby Food. In her prime,
she made over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum and far more than her
husband's $20,000. The Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper West Side
apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a 55-acre estate on
Humphrey had two younger sisters, Frances ("Pat") and Catherine Elizabeth ("Kay"). His parents were busy in their careers and frequently fought. Very formal, they showed little emotion towards their children. Maud told her offspring to call her "Maud" not "Mother", and showed little if any physical affection for them. When pleased she "lapped you on the shoulder, almost the way a man does", Bogart recalled. "I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me."
As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, tidiness, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in, and even for the name "Humphrey". From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency to needle, fondness for fishing, lifelong love of boating, and an attraction to strong-willed women.
Bogart attended the private Delancey School until fifth grade, then
the prestigious Trinity School . He was an indifferent, sullen
student who showed no interest in after-school activities. Later he
went to the equally elite boarding school
With no viable career options, Bogart followed his passion for the
sea and enlisted in the
United States Navy
It was during his naval stint that Bogart may have received his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp, though the actual circumstances are unclear. In one account his lip was cut by shrapnel when his ship, the USS Leviathan , was shelled, although some claim Bogart did not make it to sea until after the Armistice had been signed. Another version, which Bogart's long-time friend, author Nathaniel Benchley , holds to, is that Bogart was injured while taking a prisoner to Portsmouth Naval Prison in Kittery, Maine . As an actor, Bogart's only major part as a US Navy man came late in his career as the paranoid Capt. Queeg in The Caine Mutiny in 1954.
Changing trains in Boston the handcuffed prisoner allegedly asked Bogart for a cigarette, then while Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner smashed him across the mouth with the cuffs, cutting Bogart's lip and fleeing. Recaptured, the prisoner was taken to jail. An alternate version has Bogart struck in the mouth by a handcuff loosened while freeing his charge, the other still around the prisoner's wrist.
By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, a scar had already
His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar, even though it mentions many smaller scars. When actress Louise Brooks met Bogart in 1924, he had some scar-tissue on his upper lip, which Brooks said that Bogart may have had partially repaired before entering films in 1930. She believed his scar had nothing to do with his distinctive speech pattern, and said his "lip wound gave him no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended. Over the years, Bogart practiced all kinds of lip gymnastics, accompanied by nasal tones, snarls, lisps and slurs. His painful wince, his leer, his fiendish grin were the most accomplished ever seen on film."
Bogart returned home to find his father suffering from poor health,
his medical practice faltering, and much of the family's wealth lost
on bad investments in timber. During his naval days, Bogart's
character and values developed independently of family influence, and
he began to rebel somewhat against their values. He came to be a
liberal who hated pretensions, phonies, and snobs, and at times defied
conventional behavior and authority, traits he displayed in both life
and the movies. He did not, however, forsake good manners,
articulateness, punctuality, modesty, and a dislike of being touched.
After his naval service, he worked as a shipper and then bond
salesman. He joined the Naval Reserve . Bogart received plaudits
in an October 15, 1922 newspaper review of the stage play Swifty,
which stated: "
Bogart resumed his friendship with boyhood pal Bill Brady, Jr., whose father had show business connections. Eventually Bogart got an office job working for William A. Brady Sr.'s new company, World Films. Bogart was able to try his hand at screenwriting, directing, and production, but excelled at none. For a while he was stage manager for Brady's daughter Alice 's play A Ruined Lady. A few months later he made his stage debut as a Japanese butler in Alice's 1921 play Drifting, nervously speaking one line of dialog. Several appearances followed in her subsequent plays.
While Bogart had been raised to believe that acting was beneath a gentleman, he liked the late hours actors kept and enjoyed the attention gotten on stage. He stated, "I was born to be indolent and this was the softest of rackets." He spent a lot of his free time in speakeasies and became a heavy drinker. A barroom brawl during this time joins the list of purported causes of Bogart's lip damage, and coincides better with the Brooks account.
Preferring to learn as he went, Bogart never took acting lessons. He was persistent and worked steadily at his craft, appearing in at least seventeen Broadway productions between 1922 and 1935. He played juveniles or romantic second-leads in drawing room comedies, and is said to have been the first actor to ask "Tennis, anyone?" on stage. Critic Alexander Woollcott wrote of Bogart's early work that he "is what is usually and mercifully described as inadequate." Some reviews were kinder.
Heywood Broun , reviewing Nerves wrote, "
Early in his career, while playing double roles in the play Drifting at the Playhouse Theatre in 1922, Bogart met actress Helen Menken . They were married on May 20, 1926, at the Gramercy Park Hotel in New York City. Divorced on November 18, 1927, they remained friends. On April 3, 1928, he married Mary Philips , whom he'd met when they appeared in the play Nerves during its very brief run at the Comedy Theatre in September 1924, at her mother's apartment in Hartford, Connecticut . She, like Menken, had a fiery temper, and, like every other Bogart spouse, was an actress.
After the stock market crash of 1929, stage production dropped off
sharply, and many of the more photogenic actors headed for Hollywood.
Bogart's film debut was with
Bogart then signed a contract with
Fox Film Corporation for $750 a
week. There he met
Bogart then had a minor supporting role in Bad Sister with Bette
Davis in 1931. Decades later, Tracy and Bogart planned to make The
Desperate Hours together, but both sought top billing, so Tracy
dropped out and was replaced by
Bogart shuttled back and forth between Hollywood and the New York stage from 1930 to 1935, suffering long periods without work. His parents had separated, his father dying in 1934 in debt, which Bogart eventually paid off. Bogart inherited his father's gold ring which he always wore, even in many of his films. At his father's deathbed, Bogart finally told him how much he loved him. His second marriage was on the rocks, and he was less than happy with his acting career. He became depressed, irritable, and drank heavily.
THE PETRIFIED FOREST
Bogart in the 1934 original theatrical trailer for The Petrified Forest
Bogart starred in the Broadway play Invitation to a Murder at the Theatre Masque, now the John Golden Theatre , in 1934. The producer Arthur Hopkins heard the play from off-stage and sent for Bogart to play escaped murderer Duke Mantee in Robert E. Sherwood 's new play, The Petrified Forest. Hopkins recalled:
When I saw the actor I was somewhat taken aback, for he was the one I never much admired. He was an antiquated juvenile who spent most of his stage life in white pants swinging a tennis racquet. He seemed as far from a cold-blooded killer as one could get, but the voice (dry and tired) persisted, and the voice was Mantee's. Bogart with Cagney and Jeffrey Lynn in The Roaring Twenties (1939), the last film Cagney and Bogart made together
The play had 197 performances at the
Broadhurst Theatre in New York
in 1935. Leslie Howard , though, was the star. New York Times critic
Brooks Atkinson said of the play, "a peach ... a roaring Western
The studio tested several Hollywood veterans for the Duke Mantee role, and chose Edward G. Robinson , who had first-rank star appeal and was due to make a film to fulfill his expensive contract. Bogart cabled news of this to Howard in Scotland, who replied: "Att: Jack Warner Insist Bogart Play Mantee No Bogart No Deal L.H.". When Warner Bros. saw Howard would not budge, they gave in and cast Bogart. Jack Warner, famous for butting heads with his stars, tried to get Bogart to adopt a stage name, but Bogart stubbornly refused.
The film was highly successful, earning $500,000 at the box office,
and making Bogart a star. He never forgot Howard's favor, and in 1952
named his only daughter "Leslie Howard Bogart" after Howard, who had
World War II
EARLY FILM CAREER
Still from the Invisible Stripes trailer
The film version of The Petrified Forest was released in 1936. Bogart's performance was called "brilliant", "compelling", and "superb." Despite his success in an "A movie," Bogart received a tepid twenty-six-week contract at $550 per week and was typecast as a gangster in a series of " B movie " crime dramas. Bogart was proud of his success, but the fact that it came from playing a gangster weighed on him. He once said: "I can't get in a mild discussion without turning it into an argument. There must be something in my tone of voice, or this arrogant face—something that antagonizes everybody. Nobody likes me on sight. I suppose that's why I'm cast as the heavy."
Bogart's roles were not only repetitive, but physically demanding and draining (studios were not yet air-conditioned ), and his regimented, tightly scheduled job at Warners was anything but the indolent and "peachy" actor's life he hoped for. However, he was always professional and generally respected by other actors. He used these "B movie" years to start developing his enduring film persona—the wounded, stoical, cynical, charming, vulnerable, self-mocking loner with a code of honor.
In spite of his success,
Amenities at Warners were few compared to the prestigious
The leading men ahead of Bogart at
Bogart played violent roles so often that in
Nevil Shute 's 1939
What Happened to the Corbetts the protagonist, when asked
whether he knows how to operate an automatic weapon, jokes "I've seen
On August 21, 1938, Bogart entered into a disastrous third marriage,
"The Bogart-Methot marriage was the sequel to the Civil War ," said their friend Julius Epstein . A wag observed that there was "madness in his Methot." During this time, Bogart bought a motor launch, which he named Sluggy, his nickname for hot-tempered Methot. Despite his proclamations that, "I like a jealous wife," "We get on so well together (because) we don't have illusions about each other," and, "I wouldn't give you two cents for a dame without a temper," it was a highly destructive relationship.
Bogart had a lifelong disgust for the pretentious, fake or phony.
Sensitive yet caustic, he was once again disgusted by the inferior
movies he was performing in. He rarely saw his own films and avoided
premieres. He even issued phony press releases about his private life
to satisfy the curiosity of newspapers and the public. When he
thought an actor, director, or a movie studio had done something
shoddy, he spoke up about it and was willing to be quoted. He advised
All over Hollywood, they are continually advising me, "Oh, you mustn't say that. That will get you in a lot of trouble," when I remark that some picture or writer or director or producer is no good. I don't get it. If he isn't any good, why can't you say so? If more people would mention it, pretty soon it might start having some effect. The local idea that anyone making a thousand dollars a week is sacred and is beyond the realm of criticism never strikes me as particularly sound.
RISE TO STARDOM
High Sierra , a 1941 film directed by
Raoul Walsh , had a screenplay
written by Bogart's friend and drinking partner,
The film cemented a strong personal and professional connection
between Bogart and Huston. Bogart admired and somewhat envied Huston
for his skill as a writer. Though a poor student, Bogart was a
lifelong reader. He could quote
THE MALTESE FALCON
Bogart as Sam Spade in the trailer for The Maltese Falcon (1941)
Now regarded as a classic film noir , The Maltese Falcon (1941) was
John Huston's directorial debut. Originally a novel written by
Dashiell Hammett , it was first published in the pulp magazine Black
Mask in 1929, and had also served as the basis of two other movie
Satan Met a Lady (1936) starring
Complementing Bogart were co-stars
Sydney Greenstreet ,
With Sydney Greenstreet in Casablanca (1942), a role that earned Bogart the first of three Oscar nominations
Bogart gained his first real romantic lead in 1942's Casablanca ,
playing Rick Blaine, a hard-pressed expatriate nightclub owner hiding
from a shady past while negotiating a fine line among Nazis , the
French underground , the Vichy prefect and unresolved feelings for his
ex-girlfriend. The film was directed by
Michael Curtiz and produced by
Hal Wallis, and featured
The on-screen magic of Bogart and Bergman was the result of two actors working at their best, not any real-life sparks, though Bogart's perennially jealous wife assumed otherwise. Off the set, the co-stars hardly spoke. Bergman, who had a reputation for affairs with her leading men, later said of Bogart, "I kissed him but I never knew him." Because Bergman was taller, Bogart had 3-inch (76 mm) blocks attached to his shoes in certain scenes.
Casablanca won the 1943
WORLD WAR II
During part of 1943 and 1944, Bogart went on USO and War Bond tours accompanied by Methot, enduring arduous travels to Italy and North Africa, including Casablanca. In 1944 Bogart volunteered for service along with his own yacht "Santana" with the Coast Guard Temporary Reserve.
BOGART AND BACALL
Further information: Lauren Bacall
TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT
Lauren Bacall rocketed to fame in To Have and Have Not (1944)
Lauren Bacall while filming To Have and Have Not (1944), a
loose adaptation of the
Ernest Hemingway novel. The movie has many
similarities with Casablanca—the same enemies, the same kind of
hero, even a piano player sidekick (played by
Hawks at some point began to disapprove of the pair. He considered himself Bacall's protector and mentor, and Bogart was usurping that role. Married, and not usually drawn to his starlets, he too fell for Bacall, telling her she meant nothing to Bogart and even threatening to send her to Monogram , the worst studio in Hollywood. Bogart calmed her down and then went after Hawks. Jack Warner settled the dispute and filming resumed. Hawks said of Bacall: "Bogie fell in love with the character she played, so she had to keep playing it the rest of her life."
THE BIG SLEEP
Bacall and Bogart in The Big Sleep (1946)
Just months after wrapping the film, Bogart and Bacall were reunited
for an encore, the film noir The Big Sleep , based on the novel by
Raymond Chandler , again with script help from
At director Howard Hawks' urging production partner Charles K. Feldman agreed to Bacall's scenes being re-written to heighten the 'insolent' quality that had intrigued critics and audiences in that film. By chance, a 35-mm nitrate composite master positive (fine grain) of the 1945 version survived. The UCLA Film Archive, in association with Turner Entertainment and with funding provided by Hugh Hefner , restored and released it in 1996.
Throughout filming Bogart was still torn between his new love and his
sense of duty to his marriage. The mood on the set was tense, the
actors both emotionally exhausted as Bogart tried to find a way out of
his dilemma. The dialogue, especially in the newly shot scenes, was
full of sexual innuendo supplied by Hawks, and Bogart proves
convincing and enduring as private detective
Lauren Bacall - Bogart's wife from 1945 until his death
Bogart filed for divorce from Methot in February 1945. He and Bacall
married in a small ceremony at the country home of Bogart's close
Bogart and Bacall moved into a $160,000 ($2,130,000 today) white brick mansion in an exclusive neighborhood in Los Angeles's Holmby Hills . The marriage proved a happy one, though there were tensions due to their differences. Bogart's drinking sometimes inflamed tensions. He was a homebody and she liked nightlife; he loved the sea, which made her seasick .
In California in 1945, Bogart bought a 55-foot (17 m) sailing yacht, the Santana, from actor Dick Powell . The sea was his sanctuary, spending about thirty weekends a year on the water, with a particular fondness for sailing around Catalina Island . He once said, "An actor needs something to stabilize his personality, something to nail down what he really is, not what he is currently pretending to be." He also joined the Coast Guard Temporary Reserve offering the use of his own yacht, Santana, for Coast Guard use. It was rumored Bogart attempted to enlist but was turned down because of his age.
DARK PASSAGE AND KEY LARGO
Bacall and Bogart in Dark Passage (1947)
The suspenseful Dark Passage (1947) was Bogart and Bacall's next pairing. Its first third is shot from the Bogart's character's point of view, with the camera seeing what he sees. After his plastic surgery, the rest of the movie is shot normally, with Bogart intent on finding the real murderer in a crime for which he was blamed and sentenced to prison.
The couple next starred in the future classic, Key Largo . Directed
by John Huston, the film highlighted
Edward G. Robinson as gangster
"Johnny Rocco," a seething older synthesis of many of his vicious
early bad guy roles. The characters are trapped during a spectacular
hurricane in a hotel owned by Bacall's screen father-in-law, played by
In the film's trailer, Bogart is repeatedly mentioned first, but Robinson's name is listed above Bogart's in a cast list at the trailer's end. Robinson's role is evocative of Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest (1936), a Bogart leading man breakthrough the studio had originally earmarked for Robinson.
Bogart became a first-time father at age 49 when Bacall gave birth to
The enormous success of Casablanca redefined Bogart's career. For the first time, Bogart could be cast successfully as both a tough, strong man and vulnerable love interest. Despite his elevated standing, he did not yet have a contractual right of script refusal. When he got weak scripts he simply dug in his heels and locked horns again with the front office, as he did on the film Conflict (1945). Though he submitted to Jack Warner on it, he successfully turned down God is My Co-Pilot (1945).
THE TREASURE OF THE SIERRA MADRE
Bogart sports a trademark scruff in the trailer for The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948).
Riding high in 1947 with a new contract which provided limited script
refusal and the right to form his own production company, Bogart
The film was shot in the heat of summer for greater realism and
atmosphere, proving grueling to make.
James Agee wrote, "Bogart does
a wonderful job with this character ... miles ahead of the very good
work he has done before".
HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE
Bogart, a liberal Democrat , organized a delegation to Washington,
D.C., called the
Committee for the First Amendment , against what he
perceived to be the
House Un-American Activities Committee
In addition to being offered better, more diverse roles, Bogart
started his own production company in 1948,
Santana Productions ,
named after his sailing yacht (which also lent her name to the cabin
cruiser featured in the climax of that year's smash, Key Largo).
Earning the right to create his own production company had left Warner
Bros. head Jack Warner furious, and afraid other stars would do the
same and further erode the major studios' power. In addition to the
pressure they were bearing from freelancing actors like Bogart, James
Santana Productions released its films through Columbia
Pictures . Without letting up, Bogart starred in Knock on Any Door
(1949), Tokyo Joe (1949),
In a Lonely Place
While the majority lost money at the box office, ultimately forcing Santana's sale, at least two are well remembered today: In a Lonely Place is considered by many a high point in film noir. Bogart plays embittered writer Dixon Steele, whose history of violence lands him as top suspect in a murder case. At the same time he falls in love with an alluring but failed actress played by Gloria Grahame . It is considered among his best performances, and many Bogart biographers and actress/writer Louise Brooks feel the role is the closest to the real Bogart of any he played. She wrote that the film "gave him a role that he could play with complexity, because the film character's pride in his art, his selfishness, drunkenness, lack of energy stabbed with lightning strokes of violence were shared by the real Bogart". The character even mimics some of Bogart's personal habits, including twice ordering Bogart's favorite meal of ham and eggs.
Something of a parody of The Maltese Falcon, Beat the Devil (1953),
was Bogart's last film with his close friend and favorite director
Bogart sold his interest in Santana to Columbia for over $1 million in 1955.
THE AFRICAN QUEEN
With Katharine Hepburn in a promotional image for The African Queen
Working outside of his own Santana Productions, Bogart starred with
Katharine Hepburn in the
Bacall came for the four-month-plus duration, leaving their young child to be cared for in L.A. The Bogarts started the trip with a junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII . Later, the glamor would be gone and Bacall would make herself useful as a cook, nurse and clothes washer, earning her husband's praise: "I don't know what we'd have done without her. She Luxed my undies in darkest Africa". Just about everyone in the cast came down with dysentery except Bogart and Huston, who subsisted on canned food and alcohol. Bogart explained: "All I ate was baked beans, canned asparagus and Scotch whisky . Whenever a fly bit Huston or me, it dropped dead." Hepburn, a teetotaler in and out of character, fared worse in the difficult conditions, losing weight and at one point falling very ill. Bogart resisted Huston's insistence on using real leeches in a key scene where Charlie has to drag his steam launch through an infested marsh, until reasonable fakes were employed. In the end, the crew overcame illness, soldier ant invasions, leaking boats, poor food, attacking hippos , poor water filters, fierce heat, isolation, and a boat fire to complete a memorable film. Despite the discomfort of jumping from the boat into swamps, rivers and marshes the film apparently rekindled Bogart's early love of boats. On his return to California he bought a classic mahogany Hacker-Craft runabout, which he kept until his death.
The role of cantankerous skipper Charlie Allnutt won Bogart his only
The African Queen was the first
Just three years after his Best Actor triumph in African Queen, Bogart dropped his asking price to get the role of Captain Queeg in Edward Dmytryk 's 1954 drama The Caine Mutiny . Though he griped with some of his old bitterness about having to do so, he delivered a strong performance in the lead, earning him his final Oscar nomination as well as being the subject of the cover story in the June 7, 1954 issue of TIME . Yet for all his success, Bogart was still his melancholy old self, grumbling and feuding with the studio, while his health was beginning to deteriorate. The character of Queeg mirrored in some ways those Bogart had played in The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca and The Big Sleep–the wary loner who trusts no one—but without either the warmth or humor of those roles. Like his portrayal of Fred C. Dobbs in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Bogart played a paranoid, self-pitying character whose small-mindedness eventually destroyed him. Three months before the film's release, Bogart appeared as Queeg on the cover of TIME magazine, while on Broadway Henry Fonda was starring in the stage version (in a different role), both of which generated strong publicity for the film.
In Sabrina , Billy Wilder wished to cast Cary Grant as the older male lead. Unable, he chose Bogart to play the elder, conservative brother who competes with his younger playboy sibling ( William Holden ) for the affection of the Cinderella-like Sabrina ( Audrey Hepburn ). Bogart was lukewarm about the part, but agreed to it on a handshake with Wilder, sans finished script but with the director's assurances he would take good care of Bogart during the filming. Nevertheless, Bogart got on poorly with his director and co-stars. He complained about the script and its last-minute drafting and delivery, and accused Wilder of favoring Hepburn and Holden on and off the set. At the root was Wilder being the opposite of Bogart's ideal director, John Huston, in both style and personality. Bogart groused to the press that Wilder was "overbearing" and "is the kind of Prussian German with a riding crop. He is the type of director I don't like to work with ... the picture is a crock of crap. I got sick and tired of who gets Sabrina." Wilder later claimed, "We parted as enemies but finally made up." Despite the acrimony, the film was successful. The New York Times crowed that Bogart was "incredibly adroit ... the skill with which this old rock-ribbed actor blends the gags and such duplicities with a manly manner of melting is one of the incalculable joys of the show." Years of smoking and alcohol abuse were clearly showing by 1954's The Barefoot Contessa .
The Barefoot Contessa , directed by Joseph Mankiewicz , was filmed in
Bogart could be generous with actors, particularly those who were blacklisted, down on their luck, or having personal problems. During the filming of the Edward Dmytryk directed The Left Hand of God (1955), he noticed his co-star Gene Tierney having a hard time remembering her lines and behaving oddly. He coached Tierney, feeding her lines. He was familiar with mental illness from his sister's bouts of depression, and encouraged Tierney to seek treatment. He also stood behind Joan Bennett and insisted on her as his co-star in Michael Curtiz 's We\'re No Angels when an ugly public scandal made her persona non grata with Jack Warner.
TELEVISION AND RADIO
Bacall, Bogart and
While Bogart rarely performed on television, he and Bacall appeared on Edward R. Murrow 's Person to Person in which they disagreed in answering every question. Bogart was also featured on The Jack Benny Show . The surviving kinescope of the live telecast captures him in his only TV sketch comedy outing.
Bogart and Bacall also worked together on an early color telecast in
Bogart performed radio adaptations of some of his best known films, such as Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon. He also recorded a radio series called Bold Venture with Lauren Bacall.
In 1995 newly developed digital technology allowed Bogart's image to be inserted in the Tales from the Crypt television episode "You, Murderer" as one of its many Casablanca references. The "Ingrid Bergman" character was played by her daughter Isabella Rossellini .
THE RAT PACK
Bogart was a founding member and the original leader of the so-called
Rat Pack . In the spring of 1955, after a long party in Las
Vegas attended by
The name stuck and was made official at Romanoff\'s in Beverly Hills . Sinatra was tabbed Pack Leader, Bacall, Den Mother; Bogie, Director of Public Relations; and Sid Luft , Acting Cage Manager. When asked by columnist Earl Wilson what the group's purpose was, Bacall stated: "To drink a lot of bourbon and stay up late."
Once, after signing a long-term deal with Warner Bros., Bogart had predicted with glee that his teeth and hair would fall out before the contract ended. By 1955, though he was well established as an independent producer, the sometime actor's health was failing. In the wake of Santana Productions he had formed a new company and had anxious plans for a film, Melville Goodwin , U.S.A., in which he would play a general and Bacall a press magnate. However, his persistent cough and difficulty eating became too serious to ignore and he dropped the project.
Bogart, a heavy smoker and drinker, had developed cancer of the
esophagus . He almost never spoke of his failing health and refused to
see a doctor until January 1956 after much persistence from Bacall. A
diagnosis of cancer was made several weeks later. He underwent a
surgical operation on March 1, 1956, where his entire esophagus , two
lymph nodes , and a rib were removed but, by then, it was too late to
halt the disease, even with chemotherapy . He underwent corrective
surgery in November 1956 after the cancer had spread. With time, he
grew too weak to walk up and down stairs, fighting the pain yet still
able to joke: "Put me in the dumbwaiter and I'll ride down to the
first floor in style." It was then altered to accommodate his
Spence patted him on the shoulder and said, "Goodnight, Bogie." Bogie turned his eyes to Spence very quietly and with a sweet smile covered Spence's hand with his own and said, "Goodbye, Spence." Spence's heart stood still. He understood. Bogart's memorial in the Garden of Memory, Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery , Glendale
Bogart fell into a coma and died in his bed the next day. He had just
turned 57 twenty days prior and weighed only 80 pounds (36 kg). His
simple funeral was held at All Saints Episcopal Church, with musical
selections from favorite composers
Johann Sebastian Bach
Himself, he never took too seriously—his work most seriously. He regarded the somewhat gaudy figure of Bogart, the star, with an amused cynicism; Bogart, the actor, he held in deep respect ... In each of the fountains at Versailles there is a pike which keeps all the carp active; otherwise they would grow overfat and die. Bogie took rare delight in performing a similar duty in the fountains of Hollywood. Yet his victims seldom bore him any malice, and when they did, not for long. His shafts were fashioned only to stick into the outer layer of complacency, and not to penetrate through to the regions of the spirit where real injuries are done ... He is quite irreplaceable. There will never be another like him.
Bogart's cremated remains were interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery , Glendale, California in the Garden of Memory, Columbarium of Eternal Light, Garden Niche 647. He was buried with a small, gold whistle once part of a charm bracelet he had given to Lauren Bacall before they married. On it was inscribed an allusion to a line from their first movie together, in 1944, To Have and Have Not , where Bacall had said to him shortly after their first meeting: "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and blow". The inscription read: "If you want anything, just whistle."
The probate value of Bogart's estate was $910,146 gross and $737,668 net ($7.8 million and $6.3 million today, respectively).
LEGACY AND TRIBUTES
Street art with Bogart and Bacall, Spain (2015)
After his death, a "Bogie Cult" formed at the
Brattle Theatre in
AWARDS AND HONORS
On August 21, 1946, Bogart was honored in a ceremony at Grauman\'s
Chinese Theater to record his hand and footprints in cement. On
February 8, 1960, he was posthumously given a star on the Hollywood
Walk of Fame at 6322 Hollywood Boulevard. During his career, Bogart
was nominated for several awards including the BAFTA award for Best
Foreign Actor in 1952 for The African Queen and three
1943 Best Actor Casablanca Nominated
1951 Best Actor The African Queen Won
1954 Best Actor The Caine Mutiny Nominated
In 1997, the
United States Postal Service
"Today, we mark another chapter in the Bogart legacy. With an image that is small and yet as powerful as the ones he left in celluloid, we will begin today to bring his artistry, his power, his unique star quality, to the messages that travel the world."
On June 24, 2006, a section of 103rd Street, between Broadway and
West End Avenue, in
New York City
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Humphrey Bogart's life has inspired writers and others:
* Two Bugs Bunny cartoons featured Bogart:
* Bogart is featured in two
Mad Magazine spoofs from 1955. The
January 1955 issue No.19 in "The Cane Mutiny!" and the May 1955 issue
No.23 in "The Barefoot Nocountessa!"
* Bogart is featured in one of
The 1968 song Don't Bogart Me (also known as Don't Bogart That
Joint) by U.S. band
Fraternity of Man became popular in counterculture
through its inclusion in the soundtrack of the 1969 film
* "Bogart" can refer to coercion or bullying in African American slang * Bogart outtakes (mostly from The Big Sleep) play a critical role in Carl Reiner 's 1982 parody of mystery films, Dead Men Don\'t Wear Plaid . * The 1981 song "Key Largo " by Bertie Higgins references both Key Largo and Casablanca in the lyrics and directly mentions Bogart and his wife Lauren Bacall in the song's chorus. ("Just like Bogie and Bacall", and "Here's looking at you kid") * The Bogie Man is a comic book series created in 1989 by John Wagner, Alan Grant and Robin Smith. The comic is about a delusional man escaped from an asylum in Glasgow and presumes he's Bogart. Neil Bogart,nee Bogatz,Renamed Himself after Bogart,and later founded Casablanca Records and Filmworks,in 1973,
Wikiquote has quotations related to: HUMPHREY BOGART
Bogart is credited with five of the American Film Institute's top 100 quotations in American cinema , the most by any actor:
* 5th: "Here's looking at you, kid"—Casablanca * 14th: "The stuff that dreams are made of."—The Maltese Falcon * 20th: "Louie, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."—Casablanca * 43rd: "We'll always have Paris."—Casablanca * 67th: "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine."—Casablanca
Bogart is also credited with one of the top movie misquotations ,
"Play it again, Sam". In Casablanca, neither his Rick Blaine character
nor anyone else says the line, although it is widely credited to him
and is the verbatim title of a
When Blaine's former love, Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman), first enters his Café Americain, she spots Sam, the piano player ( Dooley Wilson ), and asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." When he feigns ignorance, she persists, "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By .'" Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick demands, "You played it for her — you can play it for me." Sam once again resists, prompting Blaine to shout: "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!"
Main article: Humphrey Bogart filmography
DATE PROGRAM EPISODE/SOURCE
1940 The Gulf Screen Guild Theater The Petrified Forest
1941 The Gulf Screen Guild Theater If Only She Could Cook
1941 The Gulf Screen Guild Theater The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse
1941 The Gulf Screen Guild Theater If You Could Only Cook
January 4, 1942 The Screen Guild Theater High Sierra
1943 The Screen Guild Theater Casablanca
September 20, 1943 The Screen Guild Theater The Maltese Falcon
1944 Screen Guild Players High Sierra
April 30, 1945 Lux Radio Theatre Moontide
July 3, 1946
1946 Lux Radio Theatre To Have and Have Not
April 18, 1949 Lux Radio Theatre Treasure Of The Sierra Madre
1951-52 Bold Venture Series - 78 episodes
1952 Stars in the Air The House on 92nd Street
1952 Lux Radio Theatre The African Queen
* ^ "Bogart." Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary .
Retrieved: March 13, 2015.
* ^ Ontario County Times birth announcement, January 10, 1900.
* ^ Birthday of Reckoning.
* ^ Obituary Variety , January 16, 1957.
* ^ Sragow, Michael. "Spring Films/Revivals; How One Role Made
Bogart Into an Icon." The New York Times, January 16, 2000. Retrieved:
February 22, 2009.
* ^ "100 Icons of the Century – Humphrey Bogart." Variety ,
October 16, 2005. Retrieved: February 22, 2009.
* ^ "
* Bacall, Lauren. By Myself. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979. ISBN
* Bogart, Stephen Humphrey. Bogart: In Search of My Father. New
York: Dutton, 1995. ISBN 0-525-93987-3 .
* Citro, Joseph A., Mark Sceurman and Mark Moran.Weird New England.
New York: Sterling, 2005. ISBN 1-4027-3330-5 .
* Halliwell, Leslie. Halliwell's Film, Video and DVD Guide. New
York: Harper Collins Entertainment, 2004. ISBN 0-00-719081-6 .
* Hepburn, Katharine. The Making of the African Queen. New York:
Alfred Knopf, 1987. ISBN 0-394-56272-0 .
* Hill, Jonathan and Jonah Ruddy. Bogart: The Man and the Legend.
London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966.
* t * e
Peter Finch (1976)
Richard Dreyfuss (1977)
Jon Voight (1978)
Denzel Washington (2001)
Adrien Brody (2002)
1 refused award that year
* v * t * e
* The Rat Pack (film) * The Rat Pack: Live from Las Vegas