Humphrey DeForest Bogart (/ˈboʊɡɑːrt/; December 25,
1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American screen and stage
actor whose performances in 1940s film noir classics such as The
Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, and The Big Sleep earned him status as a
Bogart began acting in 1921 after a hitch in the U.S. Navy in World
War I and little success in various jobs in finance and the production
side of the theater. Gradually he became a regular in Broadway shows
in the 1920s and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced
the demand for plays, Bogart turned to film. His first great success
was as Duke Mantee in
The Petrified Forest
The Petrified Forest (1936), and this led to a
period of typecasting as a gangster with films such as Angels with
Dirty Faces (1938).
Bogart's breakthrough as a leading man came in 1941 with High Sierra
and The Maltese Falcon. The next year, his performance in Casablanca
(1943; Oscar nomination) raised him to the peak of his profession and,
at the same time, cemented his trademark film persona, that of the
hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other successes
followed, including To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946),
Dark Passage (1947), and Key Largo (1948), all four with his wife
Lauren Bacall; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948); In a Lonely
Place (1950); The African Queen (1951; Oscar winner); Sabrina (1954);
The Caine Mutiny (1954; Oscar nomination); and We're No Angels (1955).
His last film was
The Harder They Fall
The Harder They Fall (1956).
During a film career of almost 30 years, Bogart appeared in more than
75 feature films. In 1999, the
American Film Institute
American Film Institute ranked Bogart
as the greatest male star of Classic American cinema. Over his career,
he received three
Academy Award nominations for Best Actor, winning
one (for The African Queen).
1 Early life and education
2 Early career
2.1 The Petrified Forest
2.2 Early film career
3 Rise to stardom
3.1 High Sierra
3.2 The Maltese Falcon
3.4 World War II
4 Bogart and Bacall
4.1 To Have and Have Not
4.2 The Big Sleep
4.4 Dark Passage and Key Largo
5 Later career
5.1 The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
5.2 House Un-American Activities Committee
5.3 Santana Productions
5.4 The African Queen
5.5 Final roles
5.6 Television and radio
6 Personal life
6.1 Rat Pack
7 Legacy and tributes
7.1 Awards and honors
7.2 In popular culture
10 Radio appearances
11 See also
13 External links
Early life and education
Bogart was born on Christmas Day, 1899, in New York City, the eldest
child of Belmont DeForest Bogart (1867 – 1934) and Maud Humphrey
(1868 – 1940). Belmont was the only child of the unhappy marriage of
Adam Watkins Bogart, a Canandaigua, New York innkeeper, and his wife,
Julia, a wealthy heiress. The name "Bogart" derived from the Dutch
surname "Bogaert". Belmont and Maud married in June 1898; he was a
Presbyterian, of English and Dutch descent, and she was an
Episcopalian of English heritage, and a descendant of Mayflower
passenger John Howland. Young Humphrey was raised in the Episcopal
faith, but was non-practicing for most of his adult life.
The precise date of Bogart's birth was long a matter of dispute, but
has been cleared up. Warner Bros listed his birthdate as Christmas
Day, 1899, throughout his career; but film historian Clifford McCarty
later maintained that the Warner publicity department had altered it
from January 23, 1900 "...to foster the view that a man born on
Christmas Day couldn't really be as villainous as he appeared to be on
screen". The "corrected" January birthdate subsequently
appeared—and in some cases, remains—in many otherwise
authoritative sources. Biographers A.M. Sperber and Eric Lax
documented, however, that Bogart always celebrated his birthday on
December 25, and consistently listed it as such on official records,
such as his marriage license.
Maud Humphrey from American Women, 1897
Lauren Bacall confirmed in her autobiography that his birthday was
always celebrated on Christmas Day, adding that he joked that he was
cheated out of a present every year because of it. Sperber and Lax
also noted that a birth announcement, printed in the Ontario County
Times on January 10, 1900, effectively rules out the possibility of a
January 23 birthdate; and state and federal census records from
1900 report a Christmas 1899 birthdate as well.
Bogart's father, Belmont, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. His mother,
Maud, was a commercial illustrator who received her art training in
New York and France, including study with James McNeill Whistler.
Later she became art director of the fashion magazine The Delineator
and a militant suffragette. She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in
a well-known advertising campaign for Mellins Baby Food. In her
prime, she made over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum and far more than
her husband's $20,000. The Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper
West Side apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a 55-acre estate on
Canandaigua Lake in upstate New York. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang
of friends at the lake would put on theatricals.
Humphrey had two younger sisters, Frances ("Pat") and Catherine
Elizabeth ("Kay"). His parents were busy in their careers and
frequently fought. Very formal, they showed little emotion towards
their children. Maud told her offspring to call her "Maud" not
"Mother", and showed little if any physical affection for them. When
pleased she "[c]lapped you on the shoulder, almost the way a man
does", Bogart recalled. "I was brought up very unsentimentally but
very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our
mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me."
As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, tidiness, the "cute"
pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy
clothes she dressed him in, and even for the name "Humphrey". From
his father, Bogart inherited a tendency to needle, fondness for
fishing, lifelong love of boating, and an attraction to strong-willed
Bogart attended the private Delancey School until fifth grade, then
the prestigious Trinity School. He was an indifferent, sullen
student who showed no interest in after-school activities. Later
he went to the equally elite boarding school Phillips Academy, where
he was admitted based on family connections. His parents hoped he
would go on to Yale, but in 1918 Bogart was expelled. Several
reasons have been given: one claims that it was for throwing the
headmaster (or a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond on campus. Another
cites smoking, drinking, poor academic performance, and possibly some
inappropriate comments made to the staff. A third has him withdrawn by
his father for failing to improve his grades. Whatever caused his
premature departure, his parents were deeply dismayed and rued their
failed plans for his future.
With no viable career options, Bogart followed his passion for the sea
and enlisted in the
United States Navy
United States Navy in the spring of 1918. He
recalled later, "At eighteen, war was great stuff. Paris! Sexy French
girls! Hot damn!" Bogart is recorded as a model sailor who spent
most of his sea time after the Armistice ferrying troops back from
It was during his naval stint that Bogart may have received his
trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp, though the
actual circumstances are unclear. In one account his lip was cut by
shrapnel when his ship, the USS Leviathan, was shelled, although
some claim Bogart did not make it to sea until after the Armistice had
been signed. Another version, which Bogart's long-time friend, author
Nathaniel Benchley, holds to, is that Bogart was injured while taking
a prisoner to
Portsmouth Naval Prison
Portsmouth Naval Prison in Kittery, Maine.
As an actor, Bogart's only major part as a US Navy man came late in
his career as the paranoid Capt. Queeg in The Caine Mutiny in 1954.
Changing trains in Boston the handcuffed prisoner allegedly asked
Bogart for a cigarette, then while Bogart looked for a match, the
prisoner smashed him across the mouth with the cuffs, cutting Bogart's
lip and fleeing. Recaptured, the prisoner was taken to jail. An
alternative version has Bogart struck in the mouth by a handcuff
loosened while freeing his charge, the other still around the
By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, a scar had already formed.
David Niven said that when he first asked Bogart about his scar, he
said it was caused by a childhood accident. "Goddamn doctor", Bogart
later told Niven, "instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up."
Niven claims the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were
made up by the studios to inject glamour.
His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar, even
though it mentions many smaller scars. When actress Louise Brooks
met Bogart in 1924, he had some scar-tissue on his upper lip, which
Brooks said that Bogart may have had partially repaired before
entering films in 1930. She believed his scar had nothing to do
with his distinctive speech pattern, and said his "lip wound gave him
no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended. Over the
years, Bogart practiced all kinds of lip gymnastics, accompanied by
nasal tones, snarls, lisps and slurs. His painful wince, his leer, his
fiendish grin were the most accomplished ever seen on film."
Bogart returned home to find his father suffering from poor health,
his medical practice faltering, and much of the family's wealth lost
on bad investments in timber. During his naval days, Bogart's
character and values developed independently of family influence, and
he began to rebel somewhat against their values. He came to be a
liberal who hated pretensions, phonies, and snobs, and at times defied
conventional behavior and authority, traits he displayed in both life
and the movies. He did not, however, forsake good manners,
articulateness, punctuality, modesty, and a dislike of being
touched. After his naval service, he worked as a shipper and then
bond salesman. He joined the Coast Guard Reserve.
Bogart received plaudits in an October 15, 1922 newspaper review of
the stage play Swifty, which stated: "
Humphrey Bogart as the erring
young man, Tom Proctor, did an excellent bit of work in the main".
Bogart resumed his friendship with boyhood pal Bill Brady, Jr., whose
father had show business connections. Eventually Bogart got an office
job working for
William A. Brady
William A. Brady Sr.'s new company, World Films.
Bogart was able to try his hand at screenwriting, directing, and
production, but excelled at none. For a while he was stage manager for
Brady's daughter Alice's play A Ruined Lady. A few months later he
made his stage debut as a Japanese butler in Alice's 1921 play
Drifting, nervously speaking one line of dialog. Several appearances
followed in her subsequent plays.
While Bogart had been raised to believe that acting was beneath a
gentleman, he liked the late hours actors kept and enjoyed the
attention gotten on stage. He stated, "I was born to be indolent and
this was the softest of rackets." He spent a lot of his free time
in speakeasies and became a heavy drinker. A barroom brawl during this
time joins the list of purported causes of Bogart's lip damage, and
coincides better with the Brooks account.
Preferring to learn as he went, Bogart never took acting lessons. He
was persistent and worked steadily at his craft, appearing in at least
seventeen Broadway productions between 1922 and 1935. He played
juveniles or romantic second-leads in drawing room comedies, and is
said to have been the first actor to ask "Tennis, anyone?" on
Alexander Woollcott wrote of Bogart's early work
that he "is what is usually and mercifully described as
inadequate." Some reviews were kinder.
Heywood Broun, reviewing Nerves wrote, "
Humphrey Bogart gives the most
effective performance ... both dry and fresh, if that be
possible". He played juvenile lead, reporter Gregory Brown, in the
comedy Meet the Wife, written by Lynn Starling, which had a successful
run of 232 performances at the
Klaw Theatre from November 1923 through
July 1924. Bogart loathed these trivial, effeminate parts he had to
play early in his career, calling them "White Pants Willie" roles.
Early in his career, while playing double roles in the play Drifting
at the Playhouse Theatre in 1922, Bogart met actress Helen Menken.
They were married on May 20, 1926, at the
Gramercy Park Hotel
Gramercy Park Hotel in New
York City. Divorced on November 18, 1927, they remained friends.
In the divorce filing, Menken avers that Bogart valued his career more
than marital happiness, also citing neglect and abuse.  On April
3, 1928, he married Mary Philips, whom he'd met when they appeared in
the play Nerves during its very brief run at the Comedy Theatre in
September 1924, at her mother's apartment in Hartford, Connecticut.
After the stock market crash of 1929, stage production dropped off
sharply, and many of the more photogenic actors headed for Hollywood.
Bogart's film debut was with
Helen Hayes in the 1928 two-reeler The
Dancing Town, of which a complete copy has never been found. He also
Joan Blondell and
Ruth Etting in a
Broadway's Like That (1930) which was re-discovered in 1963.
Bogart then signed a contract with
Fox Film Corporation for $750 a
week. There he met Spencer Tracy, a serious Broadway actor whom Bogart
liked and admired, and they became close friends and drinking
companions. It was Tracy, in 1930, who first called him "Bogie".
Tracy made his film debut in the only film in which he and Bogart
appeared together, John Ford's early sound film
Up the River
Up the River (1930).
Both had major roles as inmates. Tracy received top billing and
Bogart's face was featured on the film's posters instead of
Bogart then had a minor supporting role in Bad Sister with Bette Davis
in 1931. Decades later, Tracy and Bogart planned to make The
Desperate Hours together, but both sought top billing, so Tracy
dropped out and was replaced by Fredric March.
Bogart shuttled back and forth between Hollywood and the New York
stage from 1930 to 1935, suffering long periods without work. His
parents had separated, his father dying in 1934 in debt, which Bogart
eventually paid off. Bogart inherited his father's gold ring which he
always wore, even in many of his films. At his father's deathbed,
Bogart finally told him how much he loved him. His second marriage
was on the rocks, and he was less than happy with his acting career.
He became depressed, irritable, and drank heavily.
The Petrified Forest
Bogart in the 1934 original theatrical trailer for The Petrified
Bogart starred in the Broadway play Invitation to a Murder at the
Theatre Masque, now the John Golden Theatre, in 1934. The producer
Arthur Hopkins heard the play from off-stage and sent for Bogart to
play escaped murderer Duke Mantee in Robert E. Sherwood's new play,
The Petrified Forest. Hopkins recalled:
When I saw the actor I was somewhat taken aback, for he was the one I
never much admired. He was an antiquated juvenile who spent most of
his stage life in white pants swinging a tennis racquet. He seemed as
far from a cold-blooded killer as one could get, but the voice (dry
and tired) persisted, and the voice was Mantee's.
James Cagney and
Jeffrey Lynn in The Roaring Twenties
(1939), the last film Cagney and Bogart made together
The play had 197 performances at the
Broadhurst Theatre in New York in
1935. Leslie Howard, though, was the star. New York Times critic
Brooks Atkinson said of the play, "a peach ... a roaring Western
Humphrey Bogart does the best work of his career as
an actor." Bogart said the play "marked my deliverance from the
ranks of the sleek, sybaritic, stiff-shirted, swallow-tailed
'smoothies' to which I seemed condemned to life." However, he was
still feeling insecure.
Warner Bros. bought the screen rights to The Petrified Forest. The
play seemed perfect for the studio, which was famous for its socially
realistic, urban, low-budget action pictures, especially for a public
entranced by real-life criminals like
John Dillinger (whom Bogart
resembled) and Dutch Schultz.
Bette Davis and Leslie Howard were
cast. Howard, who held production rights, made it clear he wanted
Bogart to star with him.
The studio tested several Hollywood veterans for the Duke Mantee role,
and chose Edward G. Robinson, who had first-rank star appeal and was
due to make a film to fulfill his expensive contract. Bogart cabled
news of this to Howard in Scotland, who replied: "Att: Jack Warner
Insist Bogart Play Mantee No Bogart No Deal L.H.". When Warner Bros.
saw Howard would not budge, they gave in and cast Bogart. Jack
Warner, famous for butting heads with his stars, tried to get Bogart
to adopt a stage name, but Bogart stubbornly refused.
The film was highly successful, earning $500,000 at the box office,
and making Bogart a star. He never forgot Howard's favor, and in
1952 named his only daughter "Leslie Howard Bogart" after Howard, who
had died in
World War II
World War II under mysterious circumstances. Robert E.
Sherwood remained a close friend of Bogart's.
Early film career
Still from the
Invisible Stripes trailer
The film version of
The Petrified Forest
The Petrified Forest was released in 1936.
Bogart's performance was called "brilliant", "compelling", and
"superb." Despite his success in an "A movie," Bogart received a tepid
twenty-six-week contract at $550 per week and was typecast as a
gangster in a series of "B movie" crime dramas. Bogart was proud
of his success, but the fact that it came from playing a gangster
weighed on him. He once said: "I can't get in a mild discussion
without turning it into an argument. There must be something in my
tone of voice, or this arrogant face—something that antagonizes
everybody. Nobody likes me on sight. I suppose that's why I'm cast as
Bogart's roles were not only repetitive, but physically demanding and
draining (studios were not yet air-conditioned), and his regimented,
tightly scheduled job at Warners was anything but the indolent and
"peachy" actor's life he hoped for. However, he was always
professional and generally respected by other actors. He used these "B
movie" years to start developing his enduring film persona—the
wounded, stoical, cynical, charming, vulnerable, self-mocking loner
with a code of honor.
In spite of his success,
Warner Bros. had no interest in making Bogart
a top star. Shooting on a new movie might begin days or only hours
after the previous one wrapped. The studio system, then at its most
entrenched, restricted actors to their home lot, with only occasional
loan-outs. Any actor who refused a role could be suspended without
pay. Bogart disliked the roles chosen for him, but he worked steadily.
Between 1936 and 1940 he averaged a movie every two months, at times
working on two simultaneously.
Amenities at Warners were few compared to the prestigious
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Bogart thought that the Warners wardrobe
department was cheap, and often wore his own suits in his movies. In
High Sierra, Bogart used his own pet dog Zero to play his character's
dog, Pard. Bogart's disputes with
Warner Bros. over roles and money
were similar to those the studio waged with other high-spirited,
less-than-obedient stars such as Bette Davis, James Cagney, Errol
Flynn, and Olivia de Havilland.
Taking a back seat to
James Cagney in
The Roaring Twenties
The Roaring Twenties (1939)
The leading men ahead of Bogart at
Warner Bros. included not only such
marquee names as
James Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, but also
journeymen leads such as Victor McLaglen, George Raft, and Paul Muni.
Most of the studio's better movie scripts went to them, leaving Bogart
with what was left. He made films like Racket Busters, San Quentin,
and You Can't Get Away with Murder. The only substantial leading role
he got during this period was in Dead End (1937), while loaned to
Samuel Goldwyn, where he portrayed a gangster modeled after Baby Face
Bogart played violent roles so often that in Nevil Shute's 1939 novel
What Happened to the Corbetts
What Happened to the Corbetts the protagonist, when asked whether he
knows how to operate an automatic weapon, jokes "I've seen Humphrey
Bogart with one often enough ...". He did play a variety of
interesting supporting roles, such as in Angels with Dirty Faces
(1938) (in which his character got shot by James Cagney's). Bogart was
gunned down on film repeatedly by Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, among
others. In Black Legion (1937), for a change, he played a good man
caught up and destroyed by a racist organization, a movie Graham
Greene described as "intelligent and exciting, if rather earnest".
Warner Bros. put Bogart in a "hillbilly musical" called Swing
Your Lady as a wrestling promoter; he later apparently considered this
his worst film performance. In 1939, Bogart played a mad scientist
in The Return of Doctor X, his only horror film. He cracked, "If it'd
been Jack Warner's blood ... I wouldn't have minded so much. The
trouble was they were drinking mine and I was making this stinking
movie." During this time his wife Mary had a stage hit in A Touch of
Brimstone (1935), and refused to give up her Broadway career to go to
Hollywood. After the play closed she relented, but insisted on
continuing her career and the couple divorced in 1937.
Methot and Bogart with their dogs (1944)
On August 21, 1938, Bogart entered into a disastrous third marriage,
with actress Mayo Methot, a lively, friendly woman when sober but
paranoid and physical when drunk. She became convinced Bogart was
cheating on her. The more the two drifted apart, the more she drank,
in her fury throwing plants, crockery, anything close at hand, at him.
She set their house on fire, stabbed him with a knife, and slashed her
wrists on several occasions. Bogart for his part needled her
mercilessly and seemed to enjoy confrontation. Sometimes he turned
violent. The press accurately dubbed them "the Battling Bogarts".
"The Bogart-Methot marriage was the sequel to the Civil War," said
their friend Julius Epstein. A wag observed that there was "madness in
his Methot." During this time, Bogart bought a motor launch, which he
named Sluggy, his nickname for hot-tempered Methot. Despite his
proclamations that, "I like a jealous wife," "We get on so well
together (because) we don't have illusions about each other," and, "I
wouldn't give you two cents for a dame without a temper," it was a
highly destructive relationship.
Bogart had a lifelong disgust for the pretentious, fake or phony.
Sensitive yet caustic, he was once again disgusted by the inferior
movies he was performing in. He rarely saw his own films and avoided
premieres. He even issued phony press releases about his private life
to satisfy the curiosity of newspapers and the public. When he
thought an actor, director, or a movie studio had done something
shoddy, he spoke up about it and was willing to be quoted. He advised
Robert Mitchum that the only way to stay alive in Hollywood was to be
an "againster." As a result, he was not the most popular of actors,
and some in the Hollywood community shunned him privately to avoid
trouble with the studios. But the Hollywood press, unaccustomed to
candor, was delighted. Bogart once said:
All over Hollywood, they are continually advising me, "Oh, you mustn't
say that. That will get you in a lot of trouble," when I remark that
some picture or writer or director or producer is no good. I don't get
it. If he isn't any good, why can't you say so? If more people would
mention it, pretty soon it might start having some effect. The local
idea that anyone making a thousand dollars a week is sacred and is
beyond the realm of criticism never strikes me as particularly sound.
Rise to stardom
John Huston - writer, director, actor, and Bogart's close friend
High Sierra, a 1941 film directed by Raoul Walsh, had a screenplay
written by Bogart's friend and drinking partner, John Huston, adapted
from the novel by
W. R. Burnett (Little Caesar, etc.). Both Paul
George Raft turned down the lead role, giving Bogart the
opportunity to play a character of some depth, although legendary
director Walsh initially fought the casting of supporting player
Bogart as a leading man, much preferring Raft for the part. The film
was Bogart's last major film playing a gangster (only a supporting
role in 1942's
The Big Shot
The Big Shot followed). Bogart worked well with Ida
Lupino, and her relationship with him was close, provoking jealousy
from Bogart's wife, Mayo.
The film cemented a strong personal and professional connection
between Bogart and Huston. Bogart admired and somewhat envied Huston
for his skill as a writer. Though a poor student, Bogart was a
lifelong reader. He could quote Plato, Pope, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and
over a thousand lines of Shakespeare. He subscribed to the Harvard Law
Review. He admired writers, and some of his best friends were
screenwriters, including Louis Bromfield, Nathaniel Benchley, and
Nunnally Johnson. Bogart enjoyed intense, provocative conversation and
stiff drinks, as did Huston. Both were rebellious and liked to play
childish pranks. Huston was reported to be easily bored during
production, and admired Bogart (also bored easily off camera) not just
for his acting talent but for his intense concentration on the
The Maltese Falcon
Sam Spade in the trailer for The Maltese Falcon (1941)
Now regarded as a classic film noir, The Maltese Falcon (1941) was
John Huston's directorial debut. Originally a novel written by
Dashiell Hammett, it was first published in the pulp magazine Black
Mask in 1929, and had also served as the basis of two other movie
Satan Met a Lady
Satan Met a Lady (1936) starring Bette Davis.
Producer Hal Wallis initially offered the leading man role to George
Raft, a more established box office name than Bogart, whose contract
stipulated he did not have to appear in remakes. Fearing it would be
no more than a cleaned-up version of the pre-Production Code The
Maltese Falcon (1931), Raft turned it down in order to make Manpower
Raoul Walsh and cast members
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson and
Marlene Dietrich. Eagerly, Huston accepted Bogart as his Sam Spade.
Complementing Bogart were co-stars Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre,
Elisha Cook, Jr., and
Mary Astor as the treacherous female foil.
Bogart's sharp timing and facial expressions were praised by the cast
and director as vital to the quick action and rapid-fire dialogue.
The film was a huge hit in theaters and a major triumph for Huston.
Bogart was unusually happy with it, remarking, "it is practically a
masterpiece. I don't have many things I'm proud of ... but that's
Sydney Greenstreet in Casablanca (1942), a role that earned
Bogart the first of three Oscar nominations
Bogart gained his first real romantic lead in 1942's Casablanca,
playing Rick Blaine, a hard-pressed expatriate nightclub owner hiding
from a shady past while negotiating a fine line among Nazis, the
French underground, the Vichy prefect and unresolved feelings for his
ex-girlfriend. The film was directed by
Michael Curtiz and produced by
Hal Wallis, and featured Ingrid Bergman, Claude Rains, Sydney
Greenstreet, Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt,
Peter Lorre and Dooley
Wilson. An avid chess player, Bogart reportedly had the idea that Rick
Blaine be portrayed as one, a metaphor for the sparring relationship
he maintained with friends, enemies, and tenuous allies. In real life
Bogart played tournament level chess one division below master, often
enjoying games with crew members and cast, but finding his better in
the superior Paul Henreid.
The on-screen magic of Bogart and Bergman was the result of two actors
working at their best, not any real-life sparks, though Bogart's
perennially jealous wife assumed otherwise. Off the set, the co-stars
hardly spoke. Bergman, who had a reputation for affairs with her
leading men, later said of Bogart, "I kissed him but I never knew
him." Because Bergman was taller, Bogart had 3-inch (76 mm)
blocks attached to his shoes in certain scenes.
Casablanca won the 1943
Academy Award for Best Picture. Bogart was
nominated for an
Academy Award Best Actor in a Leading Role, but lost
Paul Lukas for his performance in Watch on the Rhine. The film
vaulted Bogart from fourth place to first in the studio's roster,
finally overtaking James Cagney. By 1946 he'd more than doubled his
annual salary to over $460,000, making him the highest-paid actor in
World War II
During part of 1943 and 1944, Bogart went on USO and War Bond tours
accompanied by Methot, enduring arduous travels to Italy and North
Africa, including Casablanca.
Bogart and Bacall
Further information: Lauren Bacall
To Have and Have Not
Lauren Bacall rocketed to fame in To Have and Have Not (1944)
Lauren Bacall while filming To Have and Have Not (1944), a
loose adaptation of the
Ernest Hemingway novel. The movie has many
similarities with Casablanca—the same enemies, the same kind of
hero, even a piano player sidekick (played by Hoagy Carmichael). When
they met, Bacall was 19 and Bogart 44. He nicknamed her "Baby." She
had been a model since 16 and had acted in two failed plays. Bogart
was drawn to Bacall's high cheekbones, green eyes, tawny blond hair,
and lean body, as well as her maturity, poise and earthy, outspoken
honesty. Reportedly he said, "I just saw your test. We'll have a
lot of fun together". Their physical and emotional rapport was
very strong from the start, their age difference and disparity in
acting experience allowing the dynamic of a mentor-student
relationship to emerge. Quite contrary to Hollywood norm, their affair
was Bogart's first with a leading lady. He was still married and
his early meetings with Bacall were discreet and brief, their
separations bridged by ardent love letters. The relationship made
it much easier for the newcomer to make her first film, and Bogart did
his best to put her at ease with jokes and quiet coaching. He let
her steal scenes and even encouraged it. Howard Hawks, for his part,
also did his best to boost her performance and highlight her role, and
found Bogart easy to direct.
Hawks at some point began to disapprove of the pair. He considered
himself Bacall's protector and mentor, and Bogart was usurping that
role. Married, and not usually drawn to his starlets, he too fell for
Bacall, telling her she meant nothing to Bogart and even threatening
to send her to Monogram, the worst studio in Hollywood. Bogart calmed
her down and then went after Hawks. Jack Warner settled the dispute
and filming resumed. Hawks said of Bacall: "Bogie fell in love
with the character she played, so she had to keep playing it the rest
of her life."
The Big Sleep
Bacall and Bogart in The Big Sleep (1946)
Just months after wrapping the film, Bogart and Bacall were reunited
for an encore, the film noir The Big Sleep, based on the novel by
Raymond Chandler, again with script help from William Faulkner.
Chandler thoroughly admired Bogart's performance: "Bogart can be tough
without a gun. Also, he has a sense of humor that contains that
grating undertone of contempt." The film was completed and slated
for release in 1945, then withdrawn and substantially re-edited to add
new, juiced-up scenes exploiting both the box office chemistry that
shone between Bogart and Bacall in To Have and Have Not, and the
notoriety of their personal relationship.
At director Howard Hawks' urging production partner Charles K. Feldman
agreed to Bacall's scenes being re-written to heighten the 'insolent'
quality that had intrigued critics and audiences in that film. By
chance, a 35-mm nitrate composite master positive (fine grain) of the
1945 version survived. The UCLA Film Archive, in association with
Turner Entertainment and with funding provided by Hugh Hefner,
restored and released it in 1996.
Throughout filming Bogart was still torn between his new love and his
sense of duty to his marriage. The mood on the set was tense, the
actors both emotionally exhausted as Bogart tried to find a way out of
his dilemma. The dialogue, especially in the newly shot scenes, was
full of sexual innuendo supplied by Hawks, and Bogart proves
convincing and enduring as private detective Philip Marlowe. In the
end, the film was successful, though some critics found the plot
confusing and overcomplicated. Reportedly a bemused Chandler
himself could not answer baffled screenwriters' question over who
killed the limousine driver early in the story.
Louis Bromfield (center) at the wedding of Humphrey Bogart
Lauren Bacall at Malabar Farm (May 21, 1945)
Bogart filed for divorce from Methot in February 1945. He and Bacall
married in a small ceremony at the country home of Bogart's close
friend, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield, at Malabar
Farm near Lucas, Ohio, on May 21, 1945.
Bogart and Bacall moved into a $160,000 ($2,170,000 in 2017) white
brick mansion in an exclusive neighborhood in Los Angeles's Holmby
Hills. The marriage proved a happy one, though there were tensions
due to their differences. Bogart's drinking sometimes inflamed
tensions. He was a homebody and she liked nightlife; he loved the
sea, which made her seasick.
In California in 1945, Bogart bought a 55-foot (17 m) sailing
yacht, the Santana, from actor Dick Powell. He found the sea a
sanctuary, spending about thirty weekends a year on the water,
with a particular fondness for sailing around Catalina Island. He once
said, "An actor needs something to stabilize his personality,
something to nail down what he really is, not what he is currently
pretending to be." He also joined the Coast Guard Temporary
Reserve offering the use of his own yacht, Santana, for Coast Guard
use. It was rumored Bogart attempted to enlist but was turned
down because of his age.
Dark Passage and Key Largo
Bacall and Bogart in Dark Passage (1947)
The suspenseful Dark Passage (1947) was Bogart and Bacall's next
pairing. Its first third is shot from the Bogart's character's
point of view, with the camera seeing what he sees. After his plastic
surgery, the rest of the movie is shot normally, with Bogart intent on
finding the real murderer in a crime for which he was blamed and
sentenced to prison.
The couple next starred in the future classic, Key Largo. Directed by
John Huston, the film highlighted
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson as gangster
"Johnny Rocco," a seething older synthesis of many of his vicious
early bad guy roles. The characters are trapped during a spectacular
hurricane in a hotel owned by Bacall's screen father-in-law, played by
Claire Trevor won an
Academy Award for Best
Supporting Actress for her heart-wrenching performance as Rocco's
physically abused alcoholic girlfriend. Though Robinson had always had
top billing over Bogart in their previous films together, this time
Robinson's name appears to the right of Bogart's, but placed a little
higher on the posters and in the film's opening credits, to signify
Robinson's near-equal status. Robinson's image was also markedly
larger and centered on the original poster, with Bogart relegated to
In the film's trailer, Bogart is repeatedly mentioned first, but
Robinson's name is listed above Bogart's in a cast list at the
trailer's end. Robinson's role is evocative of Duke Mantee in The
Petrified Forest (1936), a Bogart leading man breakthrough the studio
had originally earmarked for Robinson.
Bogart became a first-time father at age 49 when Bacall gave birth to
Humphrey Bogart on January 6, 1949, during the filming of
Tokyo Joe. The name was drawn from Bogart's character's nickname
in To Have and Have Not, "Steve". Stephen would go on to become
an author and biographer, later hosting a television special about his
father on Turner Classic Movies. Three years later the couple's
daughter, Leslie Howard Bogart, was born on August 23, 1952 and she
would draw her name from Bogart's friend and The Petrified Forest
co-star, British actor Leslie Howard.
The enormous success of Casablanca redefined Bogart's career. For the
first time, Bogart could be cast successfully as both a tough, strong
man and vulnerable love interest. Despite his elevated standing, he
did not yet have a contractual right of script refusal. When he got
weak scripts he simply dug in his heels and locked horns again with
the front office, as he did on the film Conflict (1945). Though
he submitted to Jack Warner on it, he successfully turned down God is
My Co-Pilot (1945).
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
Bogart sports a trademark scruff in the trailer for The Treasure of
the Sierra Madre (1948).
Riding high in 1947 with a new contract which provided limited script
refusal and the right to form his own production company, Bogart
John Huston for The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, a
stark tale of greed played out by three gold prospectors in Mexico.
Without either a love interest or happy ending it was deemed a risky
project. Bogart later said of co-star (and John Huston's father)
Walter Huston, "He's probably the only performer in Hollywood to whom
I'd gladly lose a scene".
The film was shot in the heat of summer for greater realism and
atmosphere, proving grueling to make.
James Agee wrote, "Bogart
does a wonderful job with this character ... miles ahead of the
very good work he has done before".
John Huston won the Academy Award
for direction and screenplay and his father won Best Supporting Actor,
but the film had mediocre box office results. Bogart complained, "An
intelligent script, beautifully directed—something different—and
the public turned a cold shoulder on it".
House Un-American Activities Committee
Bogart, a liberal Democrat, organized a delegation to Washington,
D.C., called the Committee for the First Amendment, against what he
perceived to be the House Un-American Activities Committee's
harassment of Hollywood screenwriters and actors. He subsequently
wrote an article "I'm No Communist" in the March 1948 edition of
Photoplay magazine in which he distanced himself from The Hollywood
Ten to counter the negative publicity resulting from his appearance.
Bogart wrote: "The ten men cited for contempt by the House Un-American
Activities Committee were not defended by us."
In addition to being offered better, more diverse roles, Bogart
started his own production company in 1948, Santana Productions, named
after his sailing yacht (which also lent her name to the cabin cruiser
featured in the climax of that year's smash, Key Largo). Earning
the right to create his own production company had left Warner Bros.
head Jack Warner furious, and afraid other stars would do the same and
further erode the major studios' power. In addition to the pressure
they were bearing from freelancing actors like Bogart, James Stewart,
Henry Fonda and others, they were beginning to buckle from the eroding
impact of television and enforcement of anti-trust laws breaking up
theater chains. Bogart performed in his final films for Warners,
Chain Lightning, released early in 1950, and The Enforcer, early in
Dour as Dixon Steele, with
In A Lonely Place
In A Lonely Place co-star Gloria Grahame
Santana Productions released its films through Columbia
Pictures. Without letting up, Bogart starred in Knock on Any Door
(1949), Tokyo Joe (1949),
In a Lonely Place
In a Lonely Place (1950), Sirocco (1951) and
Beat the Devil (1953). Santana made two other films without him: And
Baby Makes Three (1949) and The Family Secret (1951).
While the majority lost money at the box office, ultimately forcing
Santana's sale, at least two are well remembered today: In a Lonely
Place is considered by many a high point in film noir. Bogart plays
embittered writer Dixon Steele, whose history of violence lands him as
top suspect in a murder case. At the same time he falls in love with
an alluring but failed actress played by Gloria Grahame. It is
considered among his best performances, and many Bogart
biographers and actress/writer
Louise Brooks feel the role is the
closest to the real Bogart of any he played. She wrote that the film
"gave him a role that he could play with complexity, because the film
character's pride in his art, his selfishness, drunkenness, lack of
energy stabbed with lightning strokes of violence were shared by the
real Bogart". The character even mimics some of Bogart's personal
habits, including twice ordering Bogart's favorite meal of ham and
Something of a parody of The Maltese Falcon, Beat the Devil was
Bogart's last film with his close friend and favorite director John
Huston. Co-written by Truman Capote, the eccentrically filmed tale
follows an amoral group of rogues chasing an unattainable
Bogart sold his interest in Santana to Columbia for over
$1 million in 1955.
The African Queen
Katharine Hepburn in a promotional image for The African Queen
Working outside of his own Santana Productions, Bogart starred with
Katharine Hepburn in the
John Huston directed The African Queen in
1951. The C.S. Forester novel on which it was based was overlooked and
left undeveloped for fifteen years until producer
Sam Spiegel and
Huston bought the rights. Spiegel sent
Katharine Hepburn the book and
she suggested Bogart for the male lead, firmly believing that "he was
the only man who could have played that part". Huston's love of
adventure, deep, longstanding friendship–and success–with Bogart,
and a chance to work with Hepburn, convinced the actor to leave the
comfortable confines of Hollywood for a difficult shoot on location in
Belgian Congo in Africa. Bogart was to get 30 percent of the
profits and Hepburn 10 percent, plus a relatively small salary for
both. The stars met up in London and announced the happy prospect of
Bacall came for the four-month-plus duration, leaving their young
child to be cared for in L.A. The Bogarts started the trip with a
junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII.
Later, the glamor would be gone and Bacall would make herself useful
as a cook, nurse and clothes washer, earning her husband's praise: "I
don't know what we'd have done without her. She Luxed my undies in
darkest Africa". Just about everyone in the cast came down with
dysentery except Bogart and Huston, who subsisted on canned food and
alcohol. Bogart explained: "All I ate was baked beans, canned
asparagus and Scotch whisky. Whenever a fly bit Huston or me, it
dropped dead." Hepburn, a teetotaler in and out of character,
fared worse in the difficult conditions, losing weight and at one
point falling very ill. Bogart resisted Huston's insistence on using
real leeches in a key scene where Charlie has to drag his steam launch
through an infested marsh, until reasonable fakes were employed.
In the end, the crew overcame illness, soldier ant invasions, leaking
boats, poor food, attacking hippos, poor water filters, fierce heat,
isolation, and a boat fire to complete a memorable film. Despite
the discomfort of jumping from the boat into swamps, rivers and
marshes the film apparently rekindled Bogart's early love of boats. On
his return to California he bought a classic mahogany Hacker-Craft
runabout, which he kept until his death.
The role of cantankerous skipper Charlie Allnutt won Bogart his only
Academy Award in three nominations, for Best Actor in a Leading Role
in 1951. Bogart considered his performance to be the best of his film
career. He had vowed to friends that if he won, his speech would
break the convention of thanking everyone in sight. He advised Claire
Trevor, when she had been nominated for Key Largo, to "just say you
did it all yourself and don't thank anyone". But when Bogart won the
Academy Award, which he truly coveted despite his well-advertised
disdain for Hollywood, he said "It's a long way from the Belgian Congo
to the stage of this theatre. It's nicer to be here. Thank you very
much ... No one does it alone. As in tennis, you need a good
opponent or partner to bring out the best in you. John and Katie
helped me to be where I am now". Despite the thrilling win and the
recognition, Bogart later commented, "The way to survive an Oscar is
never to try to win another one ... too many stars ... win
it and then figure they have to top themselves ... they become
afraid to take chances. The result: A lot of dull performances in dull
The African Queen was the first
Technicolor film in which Bogart
appeared. He appeared in relatively few color films of any kind during
the rest of his career, which continued for another five years.
Just three years after his Best Actor triumph in African Queen, Bogart
dropped his asking price to get the role of Captain Queeg in Edward
Dmytryk's 1954 drama The Caine Mutiny. Though he griped with some of
his old bitterness about having to do so, he delivered a strong
performance in the lead, earning him his final Oscar nomination as
well as being the subject of the cover story in the June 7, 1954 issue
of TIME. Yet for all his success, Bogart was still his melancholy old
self, grumbling and feuding with the studio, while his health was
beginning to deteriorate. The character of Queeg mirrored in some ways
those Bogart had played in The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca and The Big
Sleep–the wary loner who trusts no one—but without either the
warmth or humor of those roles. Like his portrayal of Fred C. Dobbs in
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Bogart played a paranoid,
self-pitying character whose small-mindedness eventually destroyed
him. Three months before the film's release, Bogart appeared as Queeg
on the cover of TIME magazine, while on Broadway
Henry Fonda was
starring in the stage version (in a different role), both of which
generated strong publicity for the film.
Bogart and Hepburn
Billy Wilder wished to cast
Cary Grant as the older male
lead. Unable, he chose Bogart to play the elder, conservative brother
who competes with his younger playboy sibling (William Holden) for the
affection of the Cinderella-like Sabrina (Audrey Hepburn). Bogart was
lukewarm about the part, but agreed to it on a handshake with Wilder,
sans finished script but with the director's assurances he would take
good care of Bogart during the filming. Nevertheless, Bogart got
on poorly with his director and co-stars. He complained about the
script and its last-minute drafting and delivery, and accused Wilder
of favoring Hepburn and Holden on and off the set. At the root was
Wilder being the opposite of Bogart's ideal director, John Huston, in
both style and personality. Bogart groused to the press that Wilder
was "overbearing" and "is the kind of Prussian German with a riding
crop. He is the type of director I don't like to work with ...
the picture is a crock of crap. I got sick and tired of who gets
Sabrina." Wilder later claimed, "We parted as enemies but finally
made up." Despite the acrimony, the film was successful. The New York
Times crowed that Bogart was "incredibly adroit ... the skill
with which this old rock-ribbed actor blends the gags and such
duplicities with a manly manner of melting is one of the incalculable
joys of the show."
Years of smoking and alcohol abuse were clearly showing by 1954's The
The Barefoot Contessa, directed by Joseph Mankiewicz, was filmed in
Rome, and released in 1954. In this Hollywood back-story Bogart is
again a broken-down man, the cynical director-narrator who saves his
career by making a star of a flamenco dancer modeled on real life
movie sex goddess Rita Hayworth. Bogart was uneasy with
Ava Gardner in
the female lead, as she had just split from close "Rat Pack" buddy
Frank Sinatra and was carrying on an affair with bullfighter Luis
Miguel Dominguín. Bogart told her, "Half the world's female
population would throw themselves at Frank's feet and here you are
flouncing around with guys who wear capes and little ballerina
slippers." He was also annoyed by her inexperienced performance.
Later, Gardner credited Bogart with helping her both on and offscreen.
Bogart's performance was generally praised as the strongest part of
the film. During the filming, while Bacall was home, Bogart
resumed his discreet affair with Verita Bouvaire-Thompson, his
long-time studio assistant, whom he took sailing and enjoyed drinking
with. When his wife suddenly arrived on the scene discovering them
together, she took it quite well, extracting an expensive shopping
spree from her husband, the three traveling together after the
Bogart could be generous with actors, particularly those who were
blacklisted, down on their luck, or having personal problems. During
the filming of the
Edward Dmytryk directed The Left Hand of God
(1955), he noticed his co-star
Gene Tierney having a hard time
remembering her lines and behaving oddly. He coached Tierney, feeding
her lines. He was familiar with mental illness from his sister's bouts
of depression, and encouraged Tierney to seek treatment. He
also stood behind
Joan Bennett and insisted on her as his co-star in
Michael Curtiz's We're No Angels when an ugly public scandal made her
persona non grata with Jack Warner.
Bogart rounded out 1955 with The Desperate Hours, directed by William
Wyler. Mark Robson's
The Harder They Fall
The Harder They Fall (1956) was his last film.
Television and radio
Bacall, Bogart and
Henry Fonda in the television version of The
Petrified Forest (1955)
While Bogart rarely performed on television, he and Bacall appeared on
Edward R. Murrow's
Person to Person in which they disagreed in
answering every question. Bogart was also featured on The Jack Benny
Show. The surviving kinescope of the live telecast captures him in his
only TV sketch comedy outing.
Bogart and Bacall also worked together on an early color telecast in
NBC adaptation of
The Petrified Forest
The Petrified Forest for Producers'
Showcase, with Bogart receiving top billing and
Henry Fonda playing
Leslie Howard's role; a black and white kinescope of the live telecast
has also survived.
Bogart performed radio adaptations of some of his best known films,
such as Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon. He also recorded a radio
Bold Venture with Lauren Bacall.
In 1995 newly developed digital technology allowed Bogart's image to
be inserted in the Tales from the Crypt television episode "You,
Murderer" as one of its many Casablanca references. The "Ingrid
Bergman" character was played by her daughter Isabella Rossellini.
Bogart was a founding member and the original leader of the so-called
Hollywood Rat Pack. In the spring of 1955, after a long party in Las
Vegas attended by Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, her husband Sid Luft,
Mike Romanoff and wife Gloria, David Niven,
Angie Dickinson and
Lauren Bacall surveyed the wreckage and declared, "You look
like a goddamn rat pack."
The name stuck and was made official at Romanoff's in Beverly Hills.
Sinatra was tabbed Pack Leader, Bacall, Den Mother; Bogie, Director of
Public Relations; and Sid Luft, Acting Cage Manager. When asked
by columnist Earl Wilson what the group's purpose was, Bacall stated:
"To drink a lot of bourbon and stay up late."
Once, after signing a long-term deal with Warner Bros., Bogart had
predicted with glee that his teeth and hair would fall out before the
contract ended. By 1955, though he was well established as an
independent producer, the sometime actor's health was failing. In the
Santana Productions he had formed a new company and had
anxious plans for a film, Melville Goodwin, U.S.A., in which he would
play a General and Bacall a press magnate. However, his persistent
cough and difficulty eating became too serious to ignore and he
dropped the project.
Bogart, a heavy smoker and drinker, had developed cancer of the
esophagus. He almost never spoke of his failing health and refused to
see a doctor until January 1956 after much persistence from Bacall. A
diagnosis of cancer was made several weeks later. He underwent a
surgical operation on March 1, 1956, where his entire esophagus, two
lymph nodes, and a rib were removed but, by then, it was too late to
halt the disease, even with chemotherapy. He underwent corrective
surgery in November 1956 after the cancer had spread. With time,
he grew too weak to walk up and down stairs, fighting the pain yet
still able to joke: "Put me in the dumbwaiter and I'll ride down to
the first floor in style." It was then altered to accommodate his
Frank Sinatra was a frequent visitor, as were
Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy. In an interview, Hepburn
described the last time she and Tracy saw their dear friend, on the
evening of January 13, 1957, the day before Bogart's death:
Spence patted him on the shoulder and said, "Goodnight, Bogie." Bogie
turned his eyes to Spence very quietly and with a sweet smile covered
Spence's hand with his own and said, "Goodbye, Spence." Spence's heart
stood still. He understood.
Bogart's memorial in the Garden of Memory, Forest Lawn Memorial Park
Bogart fell into a coma and died in his bed the next day. He had just
turned 57 twenty days prior and weighed only 80 pounds (36 kg).
His simple funeral was held at All Saints Episcopal Church, with
musical selections from favorite composers
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach and
Claude Debussy. The ceremony was attended by some of Hollywood's
biggest stars, including Hepburn, Tracy, Judy Garland, David Niven,
Ronald Reagan, James Mason, Bette Davis, Danny Kaye, Joan Fontaine,
Marlene Dietrich, James Cagney, Errol Flynn, Gregory Peck, Gary
Cooper, Billy Wilder, and Jack Warner. Bacall had asked Tracy to give
the eulogy, but he was too upset, so
John Huston spoke instead. He
reminded the gathered mourners that while Bogart's life had ended far
too soon, it had been a rich one:
Himself, he never took too seriously—his work most seriously. He
regarded the somewhat gaudy figure of Bogart, the star, with an amused
cynicism; Bogart, the actor, he held in deep respect ... In each
of the fountains at Versailles there is a pike which keeps all the
carp active; otherwise they would grow overfat and die. Bogie took
rare delight in performing a similar duty in the fountains of
Hollywood. Yet his victims seldom bore him any malice, and when they
did, not for long. His shafts were fashioned only to stick into the
outer layer of complacency, and not to penetrate through to the
regions of the spirit where real injuries are done ... He is
quite irreplaceable. There will never be another like him.
Bogart's cremated remains were interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park
Cemetery, Glendale, California, in the Garden of Memory, Columbarium
of Eternal Light. He was buried with a small, gold whistle once part
of a charm bracelet he had given to
Lauren Bacall before they married.
On it was inscribed an allusion to a line from their first movie
together, in 1944, To Have and Have Not, where Bacall had said to him
shortly after their first meeting: "You know how to whistle, don't
you, Steve? You just put your lips together and blow". The inscription
read: "If you want anything, just whistle."
The probate value of Bogart's estate was $910,146 gross and $737,668
net ($7.9 million and $6.4 million in 2017, respectively).
Legacy and tributes
Street art with Bogart and Bacall, Spain (2015)
After his death, a "Bogie Cult" formed at the
Brattle Theatre in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, as well as Greenwich Village,
Manhattan, New York, and in France, which contributed to his spike in
popularity in the late 1950s and 1960s. In 1997, Entertainment Weekly
magazine named Bogart the number one movie legend of all time. In
American Film Institute
American Film Institute ranked him the Greatest Male Star of
Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960) was the first film to pay tribute
to Bogart. Later, in Woody Allen's comic paean to Bogart, Play It
Again, Sam (1972), Bogart's ghost comes to the aid of Allen's bumbling
character, a movie critic with women troubles whose "sex life has
turned into the 'Petrified Forest'".
Awards and honors
On August 21, 1946, Bogart was honored in a ceremony at Grauman's
Chinese Theater to record his hand and footprints in cement. On
February 8, 1960, he was posthumously inducted into the Hollywood Walk
of Fame with a motion pictures star located at 6322 Hollywood
Boulevard. During his career, Bogart was nominated for several
awards including the BAFTA award for Best Foreign Actor in 1952 for
The African Queen and three Academy Awards.
The African Queen
The Caine Mutiny
In 1997, the
United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service honored Bogart with a stamp
bearing his image in its "Legends of Hollywood" series as the third
figure to be recognized. At a formal ceremony attended by Lauren
Bacall, and the Bogart children, Stephen and Leslie, Tirso del Junco,
the chairman of the governing board of the USPS, provided an eloquent
"Today, we mark another chapter in the Bogart legacy. With an image
that is small and yet as powerful as the ones he left in celluloid, we
will begin today to bring his artistry, his power, his unique star
quality, to the messages that travel the world."
On June 24, 2006, a section of 103rd Street, between Broadway and West
End Avenue, in
New York City
New York City was renamed "
Humphrey Bogart Place."
Lauren Bacall and her son Stephen Bogart were present at the
commemorative event. "Bogie would never have believed it," Lauren
Bacall expressed to the assembled group of city officials and
onlookers in attendance.
In popular culture
Humphrey Bogart's life has inspired writers and others:
Bugs Bunny cartoons featured Bogart:
Slick Hare (1947), Bogart orders fried rabbit in a Hollywood
restaurant. Told that they do not have any, he becomes insistent,
Elmer Fudd to try to serve Bugs as the meal. Bogart
finally gives up, saying: "Baby will just have to have a ham sandwich
instead." Bugs, upon hearing the name, then presents himself to
8 Ball Bunny
8 Ball Bunny (1950), Bugs decides to take a baby penguin back to
the South Pole. At intervals, "Fred C. Dobbs" (Bogart's character in
Treasure of the Sierra Madre) appears and asks Bugs to "help out a
fellow American who's down on his luck"—a line Bogart says a number
of times in the film to John Huston, playing an American gringo.
Bogart is featured in four
Mad Magazine spoofs from 1955, 1993 and
2001. The January 1955 issue No.19 in "The Cane Mutiny!" and the May
1955 issue No.23 in "The Barefoot Nocountessa!" and September 1993
issue No. 321 in "Star Blecch: Deep Space Swine as
Rick Blaine and
January 2001 issue No.300 in "Casabonkers"
Bogart is mentioned several times as an inspiration for the
protagonist in Jean-Luc Godard's classic film Breathless (1960).
Bogart is featured in one of Woody Allen's comic movies, Play It
Again, Sam (1972), which relates the story of a young man obsessed by
2HB is a song written by
Bryan Ferry and first recorded by Roxy Music
for their 1972 debut album, Roxy Music. Ferry also recorded a version
for his 1976 solo album, Let's Stick Together. The title is a pun, not
about the European nomenclature of pencil leads, but a dedication to
Bogart ("2HB" = "to Humphrey Bogart"). In particular, the song
references Casablanca, including the line "Here's looking at you kid,
hard to forget".
In the murder mystery spoof
Murder by Death
Murder by Death (Columbia, 1976) Peter
Falk imitates Bogart with his portrayal of detective Sam Diamond,
Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon. Falk reprises the
The Cheap Detective
The Cheap Detective (1978), although this time the
detective was named Lou Peckinpaugh. Scenes from Bogart's movies
Casablanca, The Maltese Falcon, and To Have and Have Not were spoofed
in this film.
Issue No.70 of the US
The Phantom (1977) comic book is known as the
"Bogart" issue, as the story stars Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall,
Peter Lorre and
Claude Rains and is a mixture of
Casablanca, The African Queen, The Maltese Falcon, and The Treasure of
the Sierra Madre.
The Man with Bogart's Face
The Man with Bogart's Face (1981) was an homage to Bogart which
starred Bogart lookalike Robert Sacchi.
Umperio Bogarto, the associate of
Fethry Duck in a down at heel
detective agency, created in 1982 by the Italian Disney cartoonists
Carlo Chendi and Giorgio Cavazzano, is, as his name clearly shows, a
parody of the tough private eyes played by Bogart.
The slang term "bogarting" refers to taking an unfairly long time with
a shared marijuana joint. Allegedly, it derives from Bogart's style of
cigarette smoking, leaving his cigarette dangling from his mouth
The 1968 song Don't Bogart Me (also known as Don't Bogart That Joint)
by U.S. band
Fraternity of Man became popular in counterculture
through its inclusion in the soundtrack of the 1969 film Easy Rider.
The lyric's refrain: "Don't bogart that joint, my friend; Pass it over
"Bogart" can refer to coercion or bullying in African American
Bogart outtakes (mostly from The Big Sleep) play a critical
role in Carl Reiner's 1982 parody of mystery films,
Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid.
The 1981 song "Key Largo" by
Bertie Higgins references both Key Largo
and Casablanca in the lyrics and directly mentions Bogart and his wife
Lauren Bacall in the song's chorus. ("Just like Bogie and Bacall", and
"Here's looking at you kid")
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Humphrey Bogart
Bogart is credited with five of the American Film Institute's top 100
quotations in American cinema, the most by any actor:
5th: "Here's looking at you, kid"—Casablanca
14th: "The stuff that dreams are made of."—The Maltese Falcon
20th: "Louie, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful
43rd: "We'll always have Paris."—Casablanca
67th: "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she
walks into mine."—Casablanca
Bogart is also credited with one of the top movie misquotations, "Play
it again, Sam". In Casablanca, neither his
Rick Blaine character nor
anyone else says the line, although it is widely credited to him and
is the verbatim title of a
Woody Allen tribute movie.
When Blaine's former love, Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman), first enters his
Café Americain, she spots Sam, the piano player (Dooley Wilson), and
asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." When he feigns
ignorance, she persists, "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By.'" Later
that night, alone with Sam, Rick demands, "You played it for her —
you can play it for me." Sam once again resists, prompting Blaine to
shout: "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!"
Humphrey Bogart filmography
April 17, 1939
Lux Radio Theatre
Bullets or Ballots
The Gulf Screen Guild Theater
The Petrified Forest
The Gulf Screen Guild Theater
If Only She Could Cook
The Gulf Screen Guild Theater
The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse
The Gulf Screen Guild Theater
If You Could Only Cook
January 4, 1942
The Screen Guild Theater
The Screen Guild Theater
September 20, 1943
The Screen Guild Theater
The Maltese Falcon
Screen Guild Players
April 30, 1945
Lux Radio Theatre
July 3, 1946
Academy Award Theater
The Maltese Falcon 
Lux Radio Theatre
To Have and Have Not
April 18, 1949
Lux Radio Theatre
Treasure Of The Sierra Madre
Series - 78 episodes
Stars in the Air
The House on 92nd Street
The House on 92nd Street 
Lux Radio Theatre
The African Queen
Book: Humphrey Bogart
List of famous amateur chess players
List of actors with
Academy Award nominations
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^ Birthday of Reckoning.
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^ Interview of son Stephen with
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies host Robert
Osborne in 1999
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 125.
^ Meyers 1997, p. 131.
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^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 201.
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^ a b Meyers 1997, p. 151.
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^ Meyers 1997, pp. 166–167.
^ a b c d e f g Bacall, Lauren. By Myself and Then Some,
HarperCollins, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-06-075535-0
^ Meyers 1997, pp. 173–174.
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 168.
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^ "8th Annual Festival of Preservation Program." UCLA Film &
Television Archive, June 27, 1996.
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^ Meyers 1997, pp. 188–191.
^ Interview with John Huston.
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Father. Untreed Reads. p. 19. ISBN 9781611874952. Retrieved
January 1, 2016.
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^ Porter 2003, p. 9.
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 236.
^ Meyers 1997, p. 235.
In a Lonely Place
In a Lonely Place at Rotten Tomatoes
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 258.
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 294.
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^ The film was subsequently renamed Top Secret Affair and made with
Kirk Douglas and Susan Hayward: Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 509–510.
^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 510.
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^ Meyers 1997, p. 315.
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Humphrey Bogart Legends of Hollywood Stamp." reuters.com,
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^ Kanfer 2011, p. 249.
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Book Fanzines: Chain Letters for
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^ "Bogart." Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition via
wordorigins.org. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
^ Tung, Angela. "Mad Men Soup: 15 Groovy words from Season 6."
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Lauren Bacall Dies: Her Top 5 Pop
Song References". Billboard. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
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^ Bogart, Humphrey; Ingrid Bergman, Paul Henreid, (1942). Casablanca:
The Ultimate Collector's Edition (DVD (multi-disc set))format=
requires url= (help) (Audio (archived radio broadcast)). Warner Home
^ Terrace, Vincent (1999). Radio Programs, 1924–1984:A Catalog of
Over 1800 Shows. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
^ a b Bogart, Humphrey; Mary Astor, Gladys George, (1941). The Maltese
Falcon 3 Disc
Special Edition (DVD (multi-disc set))format= requires
url= (help) (Audio (archived radio broadcast)). Warner Home
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^ "Those Were the Days". Nostalgia Digest. 35 (2): 32–39. Spring
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Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 54.
Bacall, Lauren. By Myself. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979.
Bogart, Stephen Humphrey. Bogart: In Search of My Father. New York:
Dutton, 1995. ISBN 0-525-93987-3.
Citro, Joseph A., Mark Sceurman and Mark Moran.Weird New England. New
York: Sterling, 2005. ISBN 1-4027-3330-5.
Halliwell, Leslie. Halliwell's Film, Video and DVD Guide. New York:
Harper Collins Entertainment, 2004. ISBN 0-00-719081-6.
Hepburn, Katharine. The Making of the African Queen. New York: Alfred
Knopf, 1987. ISBN 0-394-56272-0.
Hill, Jonathan and Jonah Ruddy. Bogart: The Man and the Legend.
London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966.
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Hyams, Joe. Bogart and Bacall: A Love Story. New York: David McKay
Co., Inc., 1975. ISBN 0-446-91228-X.
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American Library, 1966 (later editions renamed as: Bogie: The
Definitive Biography of Humphrey Bogart). ISBN 0-451-09189-2.
Kanfer, Stefan. Tough Without A Gun: The Life and Extraordinary
Afterlife of Humphrey Bogart. New York: Knopf, 2011.
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Deutsch. ISBN 978-0-3957-7399-4.
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Bonanza Books, 1965. No ISBN.
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(1899–1931). New York: Georgia Literary Association, 2003.
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Wyden, 1979. ISBN 0-88326-152-9.
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Book of Lists. Edinburgh,
Scotland: Canongate, 2005. ISBN 1-84195-719-4.
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Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
ISBN 1-55750-937-9. OCLC 36824724
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Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2005, ISBN 0-8131-2360-7.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Humphrey Bogart.
Humphrey Bogart at the
Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
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Humphrey Bogart Official Website
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Works by or about
Humphrey Bogart in libraries (
Bogie Online: The online resource for
Humphrey Bogart fans
Humphrey Bogart player profile and games at Chessgames.com
Film Noir Portraits of
Humphrey Bogart from Dead Reckoning, 1947 by
Academy Award for Best Actor
Emil Jannings (1928)
Warner Baxter (1929)
George Arliss (1930)
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Victor McLaglen (1935)
Paul Muni (1936)
Spencer Tracy (1937)
Spencer Tracy (1938)
Robert Donat (1939)
James Stewart (1940)
Gary Cooper (1941)
James Cagney (1942)
Paul Lukas (1943)
Bing Crosby (1944)
Ray Milland (1945)
Fredric March (1946)
Ronald Colman (1947)
Laurence Olivier (1948)
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Humphrey Bogart (1951)
Gary Cooper (1952)
William Holden (1953)
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Ernest Borgnine (1955)
Yul Brynner (1956)
Alec Guinness (1957)
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Gregory Peck (1962)
Sidney Poitier (1963)
Rex Harrison (1964)
Lee Marvin (1965)
Paul Scofield (1966)
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John Wayne (1969)
George C. Scott1 (1970)
Gene Hackman (1971)
Marlon Brando1 (1972)
Jack Lemmon (1973)
Art Carney (1974)
Jack Nicholson (1975)
Peter Finch (1976)
Richard Dreyfuss (1977)
Jon Voight (1978)
Dustin Hoffman (1979)
Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro (1980)
Henry Fonda (1981)
Ben Kingsley (1982)
Robert Duvall (1983)
F. Murray Abraham
F. Murray Abraham (1984)
William Hurt (1985)
Paul Newman (1986)
Michael Douglas (1987)
Dustin Hoffman (1988)
Daniel Day-Lewis (1989)
Jeremy Irons (1990)
Anthony Hopkins (1991)
Al Pacino (1992)
Tom Hanks (1993)
Tom Hanks (1994)
Nicolas Cage (1995)
Geoffrey Rush (1996)
Jack Nicholson (1997)
Roberto Benigni (1998)
Kevin Spacey (1999)
Russell Crowe (2000)
Denzel Washington (2001)
Adrien Brody (2002)
Sean Penn (2003)
Jamie Foxx (2004)
Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman (2005)
Forest Whitaker (2006)
Daniel Day-Lewis (2007)
Sean Penn (2008)
Jeff Bridges (2009)
Colin Firth (2010)
Jean Dujardin (2011)
Daniel Day-Lewis (2012)
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