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The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy , education , and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development . A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by Indian Economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq , often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme .

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality )," and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Dimensions and calculation

* 2.1 New method (2010 Index onwards) * 2.2 Old method (before 2010 Index)

* 3 2016 Human Development Index

* 3.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI

* 4 2015 Human Development Index

* 4.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI

* 5 2014 Human Development Index

* 5.1 Countries not included * 5.2 Inequality-adjusted HDI

* 6 Past top countries

* 6.1 In each original HDI

* 7 Geographical coverage * 8 Country/region specific HDI lists * 9 Criticism * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links

ORIGINS

Mahbub ul Haq Amartya Sen

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies." To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten , Frances Stewart , Gustav Ranis , Keith Griffin , Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai . Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being .

DIMENSIONS AND CALCULATION

NEW METHOD (2010 INDEX ONWARDS)

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:

* A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth * Education index : Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling * A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)

In its 2010 Human Development Report , the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = LE 20 85 20 {displaystyle ={frac {{textrm {LE}}-20}{85-20}}} LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI) = MYSI + EYSI 2 {displaystyle ={frac {{textrm {MYSI}}+{textrm {EYSI}}}{2}}} 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) = MYS 15 {displaystyle ={frac {textrm {MYS}}{15}}} Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) = EYS 18 {displaystyle ={frac {textrm {EYS}}{18}}} Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II) = ln ( GNIpc ) ln ( 100 ) ln ( 75 , 000 ) ln ( 100 ) {displaystyle ={frac {ln({textrm {GNIpc}})-ln(100)}{ln(75,000)-ln(100)}}} II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI EI II 3 . {displaystyle {textrm {HDI}}={sqrt{{textrm {LEI}}cdot {textrm {EI}}cdot {textrm {II}}}}.} LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education) EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age) GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

OLD METHOD (BEFORE 2010 INDEX)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

* Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI * Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting). * Standard of living , as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity .

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004

OECD Europe not in the OECD and CIS Latin America and the Caribbean East Asia Arab League South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ). In general, to transform a raw variable , say x {displaystyle x} , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

* x index = x a b a {displaystyle x{text{ index}}={frac {x-a}{b-a}}}

where a {displaystyle a} and b {displaystyle b} are the lowest and highest values the variable x {displaystyle x} can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with  1⁄3 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

* Life Expectancy Index = L E 25 85 25 {displaystyle {frac {LE-25}{85-25}}}

* Education Index = 2 3 A L I + 1 3 G E I {displaystyle {frac {2}{3}}times ALI+{frac {1}{3}}times GEI}

* Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = A L R 0 100 0 {displaystyle {frac {ALR-0}{100-0}}} * Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) = C G E R 0 100 0 {displaystyle {frac {CGER-0}{100-0}}}

* GDP = log ( G D P p c ) log ( 100 ) log ( 40000 ) log ( 100 ) {displaystyle {frac {log left(GDPpcright)-log left(100right)}{log left(40000right)-log left(100right)}}}

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2016 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:

* = increase. * = steady. * = decrease. * The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2015 report.

RANK COUNTRY SCORE

2016 estimates for 2015 CHANGE IN RANK FROM PREVIOUS YEAR 2016 estimates for 2015 Change from previous year

1

Norway 0.949 0.001

2

Australia 0.939 0.002

2

Switzerland 0.939 0.001

4

Germany 0.926 0.002

5 (1) Denmark 0.925 0.002

5 (6) Singapore 0.925 0.013

7 (1) Netherlands 0.924 0.001

8

Ireland 0.923 0.003

9

Iceland 0.921 0.002

10 (1) Canada 0.920 0.001

10 (1) United States 0.920 0.002

12

Hong Kong 0.917 0.001

13

New Zealand 0.915 0.002

14 (1) Sweden 0.913 0.004

15 (1) Liechtenstein 0.912 0.001

16

United Kingdom 0.909 0.001

17

Japan 0.903 0.001

18

South Korea 0.901 0.002

19

Israel 0.899 0.001

20

Luxembourg 0.898 0.002

21 (1) France 0.897 0.003

22 (1) Belgium 0.896 0.001

23

Finland 0.895 0.002

24

Austria 0.893 0.001

25

Slovenia 0.890 0.002

26 (1) Italy 0.887 0.006

27 (1) Spain 0.884 0.002

28

Czech Republic 0.878 0.003

29

Greece 0.866 0.001

30

Brunei 0.865 0.001

30 (1) Estonia 0.865 0.002

32

Andorra 0.858 0.001

33 (1) Cyprus 0.856 0.002

33 (2) Malta 0.856 0.003

33

Qatar 0.856 0.001

36

Poland 0.855 0.003

37

Lithuania 0.848 0.002

38

Chile 0.847 0.002

38

Saudi Arabia 0.847 0.002

40

Slovakia 0.845 0.003

41

Portugal 0.843 0.002

42

United Arab Emirates 0.840 0.004

43

Hungary 0.836 0.002

44

Latvia 0.830 0.002

45

Argentina 0.827 0.001

45 (1) Croatia 0.827 0.004

47 (1) Bahrain 0.824 0.001

48 (1) Montenegro 0.807 0.003

49 (1) Russia 0.804 0.001

50 (1) Romania 0.802 0.004

51 (1) Kuwait 0.800 0.001

INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HDI

Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

* Norway 0.898 * Iceland 0.868 * Netherlands 0.861 * Australia 0.861 * Germany 0.859 * Switzerland 0.859 * Denmark 0.858 * Sweden 0.851 * Ireland 0.850 * Finland 0.843 * Canada 0.839 * Slovenia 0.838 * United Kingdom 0.836 * Czech Republic 0.830 * Luxembourg 0.827 * Belgium 0.821 * Austria 0.815 * France 0.813 * United States 0.796 * Slovakia 0.793 * Japan 0.791 * Spain 0.791 * Estonia 0.788 * Malta 0.786 * Italy 0.784 * Israel 0.778 * Poland 0.774 * Hungary 0.771 * Cyprus 0.762 * Lithuania 0.759 * Greece 0.758 * Portugal 0.755 * South Korea 0.753 * Croatia 0.752 * Latvia 0.742 * Montenegro 0.736 * Russia 0.725 * Romania 0.714 * Argentina 0.698 * Chile 0.692

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand , Singapore , Hong Kong , Liechtenstein , Brunei , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Andorra , United Arab Emirates , Bahrain , and Kuwait .

2015 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:

* = increase. * = steady. * = decrease. * The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2014 report.

RANK COUNTRY SCORE

2015 estimates for 2014 CHANGE IN RANK FROM PREVIOUS YEAR 2015 estimates for 2014 Change from previous year

1

Norway 0.944 0.002

2

Australia 0.935 0.002

3

Switzerland 0.930 0.002

4

Denmark 0.923

5

Netherlands 0.922 0.002

6

Germany 0.916 0.001

6 (2) Ireland 0.916 0.004

8 (1) United States 0.915 0.002

9 (1) Canada 0.913 0.001

9 (1) New Zealand 0.913 0.002

11 (2) Singapore 0.912 0.003

12

Hong Kong 0.910 0.002

13

Liechtenstein 0.908 0.001

14

Sweden 0.907 0.002

14 (1) United Kingdom 0.907 0.005

16

Iceland 0.899

17

South Korea 0.898 0.003

18

Israel 0.894 0.001

18

Macau 0.894

19

Luxembourg 0.892 0.002

20 (1) Japan 0.891 0.001

21

Belgium 0.890 0.002

22

France 0.888 0.001

23

Austria 0.885 0.001

24

Finland 0.883 0.001

25

Taiwan 0.882

26

Slovenia 0.880 0.001

27

Spain 0.876 0.002

28

Italy 0.873

29

Czech Republic 0.870 0.002

30

Greece 0.865 0.002

31

Estonia 0.861 0.002

32

Brunei 0.856 0.004

33

Cyprus 0.850

33 (1) Qatar 0.850 0.001

34

Andorra 0.845 0.001

35 (1) Slovakia 0.844 0.005

36 (1) Poland 0.843 0.003

37

Lithuania 0.839 0.002

37

Malta 0.839 0.002

39

Saudi Arabia 0.837 0.001

40

Argentina 0.836 0.003

41 (1) United Arab Emirates 0.835 0.002

42

Chile 0.832 0.002

43

Portugal 0.830 0.002

44

Hungary 0.828 0.003

45

Bahrain 0.824 0.003

46 (1) Latvia 0.819 0.003

47 (1) Croatia 0.818 0.001

48 (1) Kuwait 0.816

49

Montenegro 0.802 0.001

INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HDI

Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (), red arrows (), and blue dashes () represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

* Norway 0.893 () * Netherlands 0.861 ( 1) * Switzerland 0.861 ( 1) * Australia 0.858 ( 2) * Denmark 0.856 ( 3) * Germany 0.853 ( 1) * Iceland 0.846 ( 1) * Sweden 0.846 ( 1) * Ireland 0.836 ( 1) * Finland 0.834 ( 1) * Canada 0.832 ( 2) * Slovenia 0.829 () * United Kingdom 0.829 ( 3) * Czech Republic 0.823 ( 1) * Luxembourg 0.822 ( 1) * Belgium 0.820 ( 1) * Austria 0.816 ( 4) * France 0.811 () * Slovakia 0.791 ( 2) * Estonia 0.782 ( 4) * Japan 0.780 ( 1) * Israel 0.775 ( 3) * Spain 0.775 ( 1) * Italy 0.773 ( 1) * Hungary 0.769 ( 2) * Malta 0.767 () * Poland 0.760 ( 2) * United States 0.760 () * Cyprus 0.758 ( 1) * Greece 0.758 ( 5) * Lithuania 0.754 () * South Korea 0.751 ( 1) * Portugal 0.744 ( 1) * Croatia 0.743 ( 1) * Belarus 0.741 * Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand , Singapore , Hong Kong , Liechtenstein , Brunei , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Andorra , United Arab Emirates , Bahrain , Cuba , and Kuwait .

2014 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:

* = increase. * = steady. * = decrease. * The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.

RANK COUNTRY HDI

New 2014 estimates for 2013 CHANGE IN RANK BETWEEN 2014 REPORT AND 2013 REPORT New 2014 estimates for 2013 Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report

1

Norway 0.944 0.011

2

Australia 0.933 0.002

3

Switzerland 0.917 0.001

4

Netherlands 0.915

5

United States 0.914 0.002

6

Germany 0.911

7

New Zealand 0.910 0.002

8

Canada 0.902 0.001

9 (3) Singapore 0.901 0.002

10

Denmark 0.900

11 (3) Ireland 0.899 0.017

12 (1) Sweden 0.898 0.001

13

Iceland 0.895 0.002

14

United Kingdom 0.892 0.002

14

Macau 0.892

15

Hong Kong 0.891 0.002

15 (1) South Korea 0.891 0.003

17 (1) Japan 0.890 0.002

18 (2) Liechtenstein 0.889 0.001

19

Israel 0.888 0.002

20

France 0.884

21

Taiwan 0.882

22

Austria 0.881 0.001

22

Belgium 0.881 0.001

22

Luxembourg 0.881 0.001

23

Finland 0.879

24

Slovenia 0.874

25

Italy 0.872

26

Spain 0.869

27

Czech Republic 0.861

28

Greece 0.853 0.001

29

Brunei 0.852

30

Qatar 0.851 0.001

31

Cyprus 0.845 0.003

32

Estonia 0.840 0.001

33

Saudi Arabia 0.836 0.003

34 (1) Lithuania 0.834 0.003

34 (1) Poland 0.834 0.001

35

Andorra 0.830

35 (1) Slovakia 0.830 0.001

36

Malta 0.829 0.002

37

United Arab Emirates 0.827 0.002

38 (1) Chile 0.822 0.003

38

Portugal 0.822

39

Hungary 0.818 0.001

40

Bahrain 0.815 0.002

40

Cuba 0.815 0.002

41 (2) Kuwait 0.814 0.001

42

Croatia 0.812

43

Latvia 0.810 0.002

44

Argentina 0.808 0.002

COUNTRIES NOT INCLUDED

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report: North Korea , Marshall Islands , Monaco , Nauru , San Marino , Somalia , South Sudan , Sudan , and Tuvalu .

INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HDI

Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (), red arrows (), and blue dashes () represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

* Norway 0.891 () * Australia 0.860 () * Netherlands 0.854 ( 1) * Switzerland 0.847 ( 3) * Germany 0.846 () * Iceland 0.843 ( 2) * Sweden 0.840 ( 4) * Denmark 0.838 ( 1) * Canada 0.833 ( 4) * Ireland 0.832 ( 4) * Finland 0.830 () * Slovenia 0.824 ( 2) * Austria 0.818 ( 1) * Luxembourg 0.814 ( 3) * Czech Republic 0.813 ( 1) * United Kingdom 0.812 ( 3) * Belgium 0.806 ( 2) * France 0.804 () * Israel 0.793 ( 1) * Japan 0.779 (New) * Slovakia 0.778 ( 1) * Spain 0.775 ( 2) * Italy 0.768 ( 1) * Estonia 0.767 ( 1) * Greece 0.762 ( 2) * Malta 0.760 ( 3) * Hungary 0.757 ( 1) * United States 0.755 ( 12) * Poland 0.751 ( 1) * Cyprus 0.752 ( 1) * Lithuania 0.746 ( 2) * Portugal 0.739 () * South Korea 0.736 ( 5) * Latvia 0.725 ( 1) * Croatia 0.721 ( 4) * Argentina 0.680 ( 7) * Chile 0.661 ( 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand , Singapore , Hong Kong , Liechtenstein , Brunei , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Andorra , United Arab Emirates , Bahrain , Cuba , and Kuwait .

PAST TOP COUNTRIES

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest thirteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

IN EACH ORIGINAL HDI

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

* 2017 (2015): Norway * 2015 (2014): Norway * 2014 (2013): Norway * 2013 (2012): Norway * 2011 (2011): Norway * 2010 (2010): Norway * 2009 (2007): Norway * 2008 (2006): Iceland * 2007 (2005): Iceland * 2006 (2004): Norway * 2005 (2003): Norway * 2004 (2002): Norway * 2003 (2001): Norway * 2002 (2000): Norway * 2001 (1999): Norway * 2000 (1998): Canada * 1999 (1997): Canada * 1998 (1995): Canada * 1997 (1994): Canada * 1996 (1993): Canada * 1995 (1992): Canada * 1994 (????): Canada * 1993 (????): Japan * 1992 (1990): Canada * 1991 (1990): Japan * 1990 (????): Japan

GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific , published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.

COUNTRY/REGION SPECIFIC HDI LISTS

* African countries * Argentine provinces * Brazilian states * Chilean regions * Chinese administrative divisions * European countries * Indian states * Indonesian provinces * Latin American countries * Mexican states * Pakistani districts * Philippine provinces * Russian federal subjects * South African provinces * U.S. states (American Human Development Report (AHDR)) * Venezuelan states

CRITICISM

HDI vs. ecological footprint

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because - they claim - the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to _ The Economist _ in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine which discusses the Wolff _et al._ paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff _et al._ in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

SEE ALSO

* Sustainable development portal

Indices

* List of countries by Human Development Index * Bhutan GNH Index * Broad measures of economic progress * Green national product * Green gross domestic product (Green GDP) * Gender Inequality Index * Gender-related Development Index * Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) * Global Peace Index (GPI) * Gross National Well-being (GNW) * Happy Planet Index (HPI) * Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) * Legatum Prosperity Index * Living planet index * Multidimensional Poverty Index * OECD Better Life Index (BLI) * Social Progress Index * Where-to-be-born Index * World Happiness Report

Other

* Economic development * Ethics of care * Happiness economics * Human Development and Capability Association * Human Poverty Index * International development * Least developed country * Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) * Right to an adequate standard of living * Subjective life satisfaction * Sustainable development * Sustainable Development Goals

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. * ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. * ^ " Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. * ^ "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. * ^ Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J. ; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". _NBER Working Paper No. 15902_. * ^ (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.) * ^ Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived 20 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). _United Nations Development Programme_. Retrieved 12 July 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme . Retrieved 21 March 2017. * ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2015 * ^ _A_ _B_ Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Human Development Report 2015 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"" (PDF). HDRO ( Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan ) as a sovereign state . The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO ( Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme . Retrieved 25 July 2014. * ^ Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". _United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02_. * ^ Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". _HumanSecurityIndex.org_. Information Note linked to data * ^ _A_ _B_ Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". _Economic Journal_. 121 (553): 843–870. doi :10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x . * ^ " UNDP Human Development Report Office\'s comments". _The Economist_. January 2011. * ^ " The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". 6 January 2011.

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