Huldrych Zwingli[a] or Ulrich Zwingli[b] (1 January 1484 – 11
October 1531) was a leader of the
Reformation in Switzerland. Born
during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of
the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the
University of Vienna
University of Vienna and
the University of Basel, a scholarly center of Renaissance humanism.
He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in
later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of
In 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the
Grossmünster in Zurich
where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In
his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of
fasting during Lent. In his publications, he noted corruption in the
ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, and attacked the
use of images in places of worship. In 1525, Zwingli introduced a new
communion liturgy to replace the Mass. Zwingli also clashed with the
Anabaptists, which resulted in their persecution. Historians have
debated whether or not he turned
Zurich into a theocracy.
Reformation spread to other parts of the Swiss Confederation, but
several cantons resisted, preferring to remain Catholic. Zwingli
formed an alliance of
Reformed cantons which divided the Confederation
along religious lines. In 1529, a war between the two sides was
averted at the last moment. Meanwhile, Zwingli's ideas came to the
Martin Luther and other reformers. They met at the
Marburg Colloquy and although they agreed on many points of doctrine,
they could not reach an accord on the doctrine of the
Real Presence of
Christ in the Eucharist.
In 1531 Zwingli's alliance applied an unsuccessful food blockade on
the Catholic cantons. The cantons responded with an attack at a moment
Zurich was ill-prepared. Zwingli was killed in battle at the age
of 47. His legacy lives on in the confessions, liturgy, and church
orders of the
Reformed churches of today.
1 Historical context
2.1 Early years (1484–1518)
Zurich ministry begins (1519–1521)
2.3 First rifts (1522–1524)
Zurich disputations (1523)
2.4.1 First Disputation
2.4.2 Second Disputation
Reformation progresses in
2.6 Conflict with the
Reformation in the Confederation (1526–1528)
2.8 First Kappel War (1529)
Marburg Colloquy (1529)
2.10 Politics, confessions, the Kappel Wars, and death (1529–1531)
6 List of works
7 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Map of the Swiss Confederation in 1515
The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwingli's time consisted of
thirteen states (cantons) as well as affiliated areas and common
lordships. Unlike the modern state of Switzerland, which operates
under a federal government, each of the thirteen cantons was nearly
independent, conducting its own domestic and foreign affairs. Each
canton formed its own alliances within and without the Confederation.
This relative independence served as the basis for conflict during the
time of the
Reformation when the various cantons divided between
different confessional camps. Military ambitions gained an additional
impetus with the competition to acquire new territory and resources,
as seen for example in the Old
Zurich War of 1440–1446.
The wider political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th
centuries was also volatile. For centuries the relationship with the
Confederation's powerful neighbour, France, determined the foreign
policies of the Swiss. Nominally, the Confederation formed a part of
the Holy Roman Empire. However, through a succession of wars
culminating in the
Swabian War in 1499, the Confederation had become
de facto independent. As the two continental powers and minor regional
states such as the Duchy of Milan, the Duchy of Savoy, and the Papal
States competed and fought against each other, there were far-reaching
political, economic, and social consequences for the Confederation.
During this time the mercenary pension system became a subject of
disagreement. The religious factions of Zwingli's time debated
vociferously the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign
wars mainly for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities.
These internal and external factors contributed to the rise of a
Confederation national consciousness, in which the term fatherland
(Latin: patria) began to take on meaning beyond a reference to an
individual canton. At the same time, Renaissance humanism, with its
universal values and emphasis on scholarship (as exemplified by
Erasmus (1466–1536), the "prince of humanism"), had taken root in
the Confederation. Within this environment, defined by the confluence
of Swiss patriotism and humanism, Zwingli was born in 1484.
Early years (1484–1518)
House where Zwingli was born in
Wildhaus in what is now the Canton of
Huldrych Zwingli was born on 24 January 1484 in Wildhaus. He married
at the young age of 9 to Oliveas the Special, in the
of Switzerland, to a family of farmers, the third child of nine. His
father, Ulrich, played a leading role in the administration of the
Amtmann or chief local magistrate). Zwingli's primary
schooling was provided by his uncle, Bartholomew, a cleric in Weesen,
where he probably met Katharina von Zimmern. At ten years old,
Zwingli was sent to
Basel to obtain his secondary education where he
learned Latin under Magistrate Gregory Bünzli. After three years in
Basel, he stayed a short time in
Bern with the humanist, Henry
Wölfflin. The Dominicans in
Bern tried to persuade Zwingli to join
their order and it is possible that he was received as a novice.
However, his father and uncle disapproved of such a course and he left
Bern without completing his Latin studies. He enrolled in the
University of Vienna
University of Vienna in the winter semester of 1498 but was expelled,
according to the university's records. However, it is not certain that
Zwingli was indeed expelled, and he re-enrolled in the summer semester
of 1500; his activities in 1499 are unknown. Zwingli continued his
studies in Vienna until 1502, after which he transferred to the
University of Basel
University of Basel where he received the Master of Arts degree
(Magister) in 1506.
Zwingli was ordained in Constance, the seat of the local diocese, and
he celebrated his first Mass in his hometown, Wildhaus, on 29
September 1506. As a young priest he had studied little theology, but
this was not considered unusual at the time. His first ecclesiastical
post was the pastorate of the town of Glarus, where he stayed for ten
years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in
Europe, that Zwingli became involved in politics. The Swiss
Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours:
the French, the Habsburgs, and the Papal States. Zwingli placed
himself solidly on the side of the Roman See. In return, Pope Julius
II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension. He took
the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, including the
Battle of Novara in 1513. However, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in
Battle of Marignano
Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in
Glarus in favour of
the French rather than the pope. Zwingli, the papal partisan, found
himself in a difficult position and he decided to retreat to
Einsiedeln in the canton of Schwyz. By this time, he had become
convinced that mercenary service was immoral and that Swiss unity was
indispensable for any future achievements. Some of his earliest extant
writings, such as The Ox (1510) and The Labyrinth (1516), attacked the
mercenary system using allegory and satire. His countrymen were
presented as virtuous people within a French, imperial, and papal
triangle. Zwingli stayed in Einsiedeln for two years during which
he withdrew completely from politics in favour of ecclesiastical
activities and personal studies.
Zwingli's time as the pastor of
Glarus and Einsiedeln was
characterized by inner growth and development. He perfected his Greek
and he took up the study of Hebrew. His library contained over three
hundred volumes from which he was able to draw upon classical,
patristic, and scholastic works. He exchanged scholarly letters with a
circle of Swiss humanists and began to study the writings of Erasmus.
Zwingli took the opportunity to meet him while
Erasmus was in Basel
between August 1514 and May 1516. Zwingli's turn to relative pacifism
and his focus on preaching can be traced to the influence of
In late 1518, the post of the Leutpriestertum (people's priest) of the
Zurich became vacant. The canons of the foundation
that administered the
Grossmünster recognised Zwingli's reputation as
a fine preacher and writer. His connection with humanists was a
decisive factor as several canons were sympathetic to Erasmian reform.
In addition, his opposition to the French and to mercenary service was
Zurich politicians. On 11 December 1518, the canons
elected Zwingli to become the stipendiary priest and on 27 December he
moved permanently to Zurich.
Zurich ministry begins (1519–1521)
Grossmünster in the centre of the medieval town of Zurich
On 1 January 1519, Zwingli gave his first sermon in Zurich. Deviating
from the prevalent practice of basing a sermon on the
Gospel lesson of
a particular Sunday, Zwingli, using Erasmus'
New Testament as a guide,
began to read through the
Gospel of Matthew, giving his interpretation
during the sermon, known as the method of lectio continua. He
continued to read and interpret the book on subsequent Sundays until
he reached the end and then proceeded in the same manner with the Acts
of the Apostles, the
New Testament epistles, and finally the Old
Testament. His motives for doing this are not clear, but in his
sermons he used exhortation to achieve moral and ecclesiastical
improvement which were goals comparable with Erasmian reform. Sometime
after 1520, Zwingli's theological model began to evolve into an
idiosyncratic form that was neither Erasmian nor Lutheran. Scholars do
not agree on the process of how he developed his own unique model.
One view is that Zwingli was trained as an Erasmian humanist and
Luther played a decisive role in changing his theology. Another
view is that Zwingli did not pay much attention to Luther's theology
and in fact he considered it as part of the humanist reform
movement. A third view is that Zwingli was not a complete follower
of Erasmus, but had diverged from him as early as 1516 and that he
independently developed his theology.
Zwingli's theological stance was gradually revealed through his
sermons. He attacked moral corruption and in the process he named
individuals who were the targets of his denunciations. Monks were
accused of indolence and high living. In 1519, Zwingli specifically
rejected the veneration of saints and called for the need to
distinguish between their true and fictional accounts. He cast doubts
on hellfire, asserted that unbaptised children were not damned, and
questioned the power of excommunication. His attack on the claim that
tithing was a divine institution, however, had the greatest
theological and social impact. This contradicted the immediate
economic interests of the foundation. One of the elderly canons who
had supported Zwingli's election, Konrad Hofmann, complained about his
sermons in a letter. Some canons supported Hofmann, but the opposition
never grew very large. Zwingli insisted that he was not an innovator
and that the sole basis of his teachings was Scripture.
Within the diocese of Constance, Bernhardin Sanson was offering a
special indulgence for contributors to the building of St Peter's in
Rome. When Sanson arrived at the gates of
Zurich at the end of January
1519, parishioners prompted Zwingli with questions. He responded with
displeasure that the people were not being properly informed about the
conditions of the indulgence and were being induced to part with their
money on false pretences. This was over a year after Martin Luther
Ninety-five theses (31 October 1517). The council of
Zurich refused Sanson entry into the city. As the authorities in Rome
were anxious to contain the fire started by Luther, the Bishop of
Constance denied any support of Sanson and he was recalled.
In August 1519,
Zurich was struck by an outbreak of the plague during
which at least one in four persons died. All of those who could afford
it left the city, but Zwingli remained and continued his pastoral
duties. In September, he caught the disease and nearly died. He
described his preparation for death in a poem, Zwingli's Pestlied,
consisting of three parts: the onset of the illness, the closeness to
death, and the joy of recovery. The final verses of the first part
Thuo, wie du wilt;
mich nüt befilt.
Din haf bin ich.
Mach gantz ald brich;
dann nimpst mich hin
der geiste min von diser Erd,
thuost du's, dass er nit böser werd,
ald anderen nit
befleck ir läben fromm und sit.
Thy purpose fulfil:
nothing can be too severe for me.
I am thy vessel,
for you to make whole or break to pieces.
Since, if you take hence
my spirit from this earth,
you do it so that it will not grow evil,
and will not mar
the pious lives of others.
In the years following his recovery, Zwingli's opponents remained in
the minority. When a vacancy occurred among the canons of the
Grossmünster, Zwingli was elected to fulfill that vacancy on 29 April
1521. In becoming a canon, he became a full citizen of Zurich. He also
retained his post as the people's priest of the Grossmünster.
First rifts (1522–1524)
The first public controversy regarding Zwingli's preaching broke out
during the season of
Lent in 1522. On the first fasting Sunday, 9
March, Zwingli and about a dozen other participants consciously
transgressed the fasting rule by cutting and distributing two smoked
sausages (the Wurstessen in Christoph Froschauer's workshop). Zwingli
defended this act in a sermon which was published on 16 April, under
the title Von Erkiesen und Freiheit der Speisen (Regarding the Choice
and Freedom of Foods). He noted that no general valid rule on food can
be derived from the Bible and that to transgress such a rule is not a
sin. The event, which came to be referred to as the Affair of the
Sausages, is considered to be the start of the
Switzerland. Even before the publication of this treatise, the
Constance reacted by sending a delegation to Zurich. The
city council condemned the fasting violation, but assumed
responsibility over ecclesiastical matters and requested the religious
authorities clarify the issue. The bishop responded on 24 May by
Grossmünster and city council and repeating the
Following this event, Zwingli and other humanist friends petitioned
the bishop on 2 July to abolish the requirement of celibacy on the
clergy. Two weeks later the petition was reprinted for the public in
German as Eine freundliche Bitte und Ermahnung an die Eidgenossen (A
Friendly Petition and Admonition to the Confederates). The issue was
not just an abstract problem for Zwingli, as he had secretly married a
widow, Anna Reinhard, earlier in the year. Their cohabitation was
well-known and their public wedding took place on 2 April 1524, three
months before the birth of their first child. They would
eventually have four children: Regula, William, Huldrych, and Anna. As
the petition was addressed to the secular authorities, the bishop
responded at the same level by notifying the
Zurich government to
maintain the ecclesiastical order. Other Swiss clergymen joined in
Zwingli's cause which encouraged him to make his first major statement
of faith, Apologeticus Archeteles (The First and Last Word). He
defended himself against charges of inciting unrest and heresy. He
denied the ecclesiastical hierarchy any right to judge on matters of
church order because of its corrupted state.
Zurich disputations (1523)
Relief of Zwingli preaching at the pulpit, Otto Münch, 1935
The events of 1522 brought no clarification on the issues. Not only
did the unrest between
Zurich and the bishop continue, tensions were
growing among Zurich's Confederation partners in the Swiss Diet. On 22
December, the Diet recommended that its members prohibit the new
teachings, a strong indictment directed at Zurich. The city council
felt obliged to take the initiative and find its own solution.
On 3 January 1523, the
Zurich city council invited the clergy of the
city and outlying region to a meeting to allow the factions to present
their opinions. The bishop was invited to attend or to send a
representative. The council would render a decision on who would be
allowed to continue to proclaim their views. This meeting, the first
Zurich disputation, took place on 29 January 1523.
The meeting attracted a large crowd of approximately six hundred
participants. The bishop sent a delegation led by his vicar general,
Johannes Fabri. Zwingli summarised his position in the Schlussreden
(Concluding Statements or the Sixty-seven Articles). Fabri,
who had not envisaged an academic disputation in the manner Zwingli
had prepared for, was forbidden to discuss high theology before
laymen, and simply insisted on the necessity of the ecclesiastical
authority. The decision of the council was that Zwingli would be
allowed to continue his preaching and that all other preachers should
teach only in accordance with Scripture.
In September 1523, Leo Jud, Zwingli's closest friend and colleague and
pastor of St. Peterskirche, publicly called for the removal of statues
of saints and other icons. This led to demonstrations and iconoclastic
activities. The city council decided to work out the matter of images
in a second disputation. The essence of the mass and its sacrificial
character was also included as a subject of discussion. Supporters of
the mass claimed that the eucharist was a true sacrifice, while
Zwingli claimed that it was a commemorative meal. As in the first
disputation, an invitation was sent out to the
Zurich clergy and the
bishop of Constance. This time, however, the lay people of Zurich, the
dioceses of Chur and Basel, the University of Basel, and the twelve
members of the Confederation were also invited. About nine hundred
persons attended this meeting, but neither the bishop nor the
Confederation sent representatives. The disputation started on 26
October 1523 and lasted two days.
Zwingli again took the lead in the disputation. His opponent was the
aforementioned canon, Konrad Hofmann, who had initially supported
Zwingli's election. Also taking part was a group of young men
demanding a much faster pace of reformation, who among other things
pleaded for replacing infant baptism with adult baptism. This group
was led by Conrad Grebel, one of the initiators of the Anabaptist
movement. During the first three days of dispute, although the
controversy of images and the mass were discussed, the arguments led
to the question of whether the city council or the ecclesiastical
government had the authority to decide on these issues. At this point,
Konrad Schmid, a priest from
Aargau and follower of Zwingli, made a
pragmatic suggestion. As images were not yet considered to be
valueless by everyone, he suggested that pastors preach on this
subject under threat of punishment. He believed the opinions of the
people would gradually change and the voluntary removal of images
would follow. Hence, Schmid rejected the radicals and their
iconoclasm, but supported Zwingli's position. In November the council
passed ordinances in support of Schmid's motion. Zwingli wrote a
booklet on the evangelical duties of a minister, Kurze, christliche
Einleitung (Short Christian Introduction), and the council sent it out
to the clergy and the members of the Confederation.
Reformation progresses in
Above the entrance to the
Grossmünster doors is inscribed Matthew
11:28, "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give
In December 1523, the council set a deadline of
Pentecost in 1524 for
a solution to the elimination of the mass and images. Zwingli gave a
formal opinion in Vorschlag wegen der Bilder und der Messe (Proposal
Concerning Images and the Mass). He did not urge an immediate, general
abolition. The council decided on the orderly removal of images within
Zurich, but rural congregations were granted the right to remove them
based on majority vote. The decision on the mass was postponed.
Evidence of the effect of the
Reformation was seen in early 1524.
Candlemas was not celebrated, processions of robed clergy ceased,
worshippers did not go with palms or relics on
Palm Sunday to the
Lindenhof, and triptychs remained covered and closed after Lent.
Opposition to the changes came from Konrad Hofmann and his followers,
but the council decided in favour of keeping the government mandates.
When Hofmann left the city, opposition from pastors hostile to the
Reformation broke down. The bishop of
Constance tried to intervene in
defending the mass and the veneration of images. Zwingli wrote an
official response for the council and the result was the severance of
all ties between the city and the diocese.
Although the council had hesitated in abolishing the mass, the
decrease in the exercise of traditional piety allowed pastors to be
unofficially released from the requirement of celebrating mass. As
individual pastors altered their practices as each saw fit, Zwingli
was prompted to address this disorganised situation by designing a
communion liturgy in the German language. This was published in Aktion
oder Brauch des Nachtmahls (Act or Custom of the Supper). Shortly
before Easter, Zwingli and his closest associates requested the
council to cancel the mass and to introduce the new public order of
worship. On Maundy Thursday, 13 April 1525, Zwingli celebrated
communion under his new liturgy. Wooden cups and plates were used to
avoid any outward displays of formality. The congregation sat at set
tables to emphasise the meal aspect of the sacrament. The sermon was
the focal point of the service and there was no organ music or
singing. The importance of the sermon in the worship service was
underlined by Zwingli's proposal to limit the celebration of communion
to four times a year.
For some time Zwingli had accused mendicant orders of hypocrisy and
demanded their abolition in order to support the truly poor. He
suggested the monasteries be changed into hospitals and welfare
institutions and incorporate their wealth into a welfare fund. This
was done by reorganising the foundations of the
Fraumünster and pensioning off remaining nuns and monks. The council
secularised the church properties (
Fraumünster handed over by
Zwingli's acquaintance Katharina von Zimmern) and established new
welfare programs for the poor. Zwingli requested permission to
establish a Latin school, the Prophezei (Prophecy) or Carolinum, at
the Grossmünster. The council agreed and it was officially opened on
19 June 1525 with Zwingli and Jud as teachers. It served to retrain
and re-educate the clergy. The
Zurich Bible translation, traditionally
attributed to Zwingli and printed by Christoph Froschauer, bears the
mark of teamwork from the Prophecy school. Scholars have not yet
attempted to clarify Zwingli's share of the work based on external and
Conflict with the
Shortly after the second
Zurich disputation, many in the radical wing
Reformation became convinced that Zwingli was making too many
concessions to the
Zurich council. They rejected the role of civil
government and demanded the immediate establishment of a congregation
of the faithful. Conrad Grebel, the leader of the radicals and the
Anabaptist movement, spoke disparagingly of Zwingli in
private. On 15 August 1524 the council insisted on the obligation to
baptise all newborn infants. Zwingli secretly conferred with Grebel's
group and late in 1524, the council called for official discussions.
When talks were broken off, Zwingli published Wer Ursache gebe zu
Aufruhr (Whoever Causes Unrest) clarifying the opposing
points-of-view. On 17 January 1525 a public debate was held and
the council decided in favour of Zwingli. Anyone refusing to have
their children baptised was required to leave Zurich. The radicals
ignored these measures and on 21 January, they met at the house of the
mother of another radical leader, Felix Manz. Grebel and a third
leader, George Blaurock, performed the first recorded
On February 2, the council repeated the requirement on the baptism of
all babies and some who failed to comply were arrested and fined, Manz
and Blaurock among them. Zwingli and Jud interviewed them and more
debates were held before the
Zurich council. Meanwhile, the new
teachings continued to spread to other parts of the Confederation as
well as a number of Swabian towns. On 6–8 November, the last debate
on the subject of baptism took place in the Grossmünster. Grebel,
Manz, and Blaurock defended their cause before Zwingli, Jud, and other
reformers. There was no serious exchange of views as each side would
not move from their positions and the debates degenerated into an
uproar, each side shouting abuse at the other.
Zurich council decided that no compromise was possible. On 7 March
1526 it released the notorious mandate that no one shall rebaptise
another under the penalty of death. Although Zwingli, technically,
had nothing to do with the mandate, there is no indication that he
disapproved. Felix Manz, who had sworn to leave
Zurich and not to
baptise any more, had deliberately returned and continued the
practice. After he was arrested and tried, he was executed on 5
January 1527 by being drowned in the Limmat. He was the first
Anabaptist martyr; three more were to follow, after which all others
either fled or were expelled from Zurich.
Reformation in the Confederation (1526–1528)
Further information: Swiss Reformation
Statue of Zwingli in front of the
Wasserkirche church in Zurich
On 8 April 1524, five cantons, Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and
Zug, formed an alliance, die fünf Orte (the Five States) to defend
themselves from Zwingli's Reformation. They contacted the
Martin Luther including John Eck, who had debated Luther
Leipzig Disputation of 1519. Eck offered to dispute Zwingli and
he accepted. However, they could not agree on the selection of the
judging authority, the location of the debate, and the use of the
Swiss Diet as a court. Because of the disagreements, Zwingli decided
to boycott the disputation. On 19 May 1526, all the cantons sent
delegates to Baden. Although Zurich's representatives were present,
they did not participate in the sessions. Eck led the Catholic party
while the reformers were represented by
Johannes Oecolampadius of
Basel, a theologian from
Württemberg who had carried on an extensive
and friendly correspondence with Zwingli. While the debate proceeded,
Zwingli was kept informed of the proceedings and printed pamphlets
giving his opinions. It was of little use as the Diet decided against
Zwingli. He was to be banned and his writings were no longer to be
distributed. Of the thirteen Confederation members, Glarus, Solothurn,
Appenzell as well as the Five States voted against
Zwingli. Bern, Basel, Schaffhausen, and
Zurich supported him.
The Baden disputation exposed a deep rift in the Confederation on
matters of religion. The
Reformation was now emerging in other states.
The city of St Gallen, an affiliated state to the Confederation, was
led by a reformed mayor, Joachim Vadian, and the city abolished the
mass in 1527, just two years after Zurich. In Basel, although Zwingli
had a close relationship with Oecolampadius, the government did not
officially sanction any reformatory changes until 1 April 1529 when
the mass was prohibited. Schaffhausen, which had closely followed
Zurich's example, formally adopted the
Reformation in September 1529.
In the case of Bern, Berchtold Haller, the priest at St Vincent
Münster, and Niklaus Manuel, the poet, painter, and politician, had
campaigned for the reformed cause. But it was only after another
Bern counted itself as a canton of the Reformation.
Four hundred and fifty persons participated, including pastors from
Bern and other cantons as well as theologians from outside the
Confederation such as
Martin Bucer and
Wolfgang Capito from
Ambrosius Blarer from Constance, and
Andreas Althamer from
Nuremberg. Eck and Fabri refused to attend and the Catholic cantons
did not send representatives. The meeting started on 6 January 1528
and lasted nearly three weeks. Zwingli assumed the main burden of
Reformation and he preached twice in the Münster. On 7
February 1528 the council decreed that the
Reformation be established
First Kappel War (1529)
Further information: First war of Kappel
Even before the
Bern disputation, Zwingli was canvassing for an
alliance of reformed cities. Once
Bern officially accepted the
Reformation, a new alliance, das Christliche
Burgrecht (the Christian
Civic Union) was created. The first meetings were held in Bern
between representatives of Bern, Constance, and
Zurich on 5–6
January 1528. Other cities, including Basel, Biel, Mülhausen,
Schaffhausen, and St Gallen, eventually joined the alliance. The Five
(Catholic) States felt encircled and isolated, so they searched for
outside allies. After two months of negotiations, the Five States
formed die Christliche Vereinigung (the Christian Alliance) with
Ferdinand of Austria on 22 April 1529.
1549 painting by Hans Asper
Soon after the Austrian treaty was signed, a reformed preacher, Jacob
Kaiser, was captured in
Uznach and executed in Schwyz. This triggered
a strong reaction from Zwingli; he drafted Ratschlag über den Krieg
(Advice About the War) for the government. He outlined justifications
for an attack on the Catholic states and other measures to be taken.
Zurich could implement his plans, a delegation from
Niklaus Manuel arrived in Zurich. The delegation called on
Zurich to settle the matter peacefully. Manuel added that an attack
Bern to further dangers as Catholic
Valais and the Duchy
of Savoy bordered its southern flank. He then noted, "You cannot
really bring faith by means of spears and halberds." Zurich,
however, decided that it would act alone, knowing that
Bern would be
obliged to acquiesce. War was declared on 8 June 1529.
Zurich was able
to raise an army of 30,000 men. The Five States were abandoned by
Austria and could raise only 9,000 men. The two forces met near
Kappel, but war was averted due to the intervention of Hans Aebli, a
relative of Zwingli, who pleaded for an armistice.
Zwingli was obliged to state the terms of the armistice. He demanded
the dissolution of the Christian Alliance; unhindered preaching by
reformers in the Catholic states; prohibition of the pension system;
payment of war reparations; and compensation to the children of Jacob
Kaiser. Manuel was involved in the negotiations.
Bern was not prepared
to insist on the unhindered preaching or the prohibition of the
Bern could not agree and the Five
(Catholic) States pledged only to dissolve their alliance with
Austria. This was a bitter disappointment for Zwingli and it marked
his decline in political influence. The first Land Peace of
Kappel, der erste Landfriede, ended the war on 24 June.
Marburg Colloquy (1529)
Coloured woodcut of the
Marburg Colloquy, anonymous, 1557
While Zwingli carried on the political work of the Swiss Reformation,
he developed his theological views with his colleagues. The famous
disagreement between Luther and Zwingli on the interpretation of the
eucharist originated when Andreas Karlstadt, Luther's former colleague
from Wittenberg, published three pamphlets on the Lord's Supper in
which Karlstadt rejected the idea of a real presence in the elements.
These pamphlets, published in
Basel in 1524, received the approval of
Oecolampadius and Zwingli. Luther rejected Karlstadt's arguments and
considered Zwingli primarily to be a partisan of Karlstadt. Zwingli
began to express his thoughts on the eucharist in several publications
including de Eucharistia (On the Eucharist). He attacked the idea of
the real presence and argued that the word is in the words of the
institution—"This is my body, this is my blood"—means
signifies. Hence, the words are understood as a metaphor and
Zwingli claimed that there was no real presence during the eucharist.
In effect, the meal was symbolic of the Last Supper.
By spring 1527, Luther reacted strongly to Zwingli's views in the
treatise Dass Diese Worte Christi "Das ist mein Leib etc." noch fest
stehen wider die Schwarmgeister (That These Words of Christ "This is
My Body etc." Still Stand Firm Against the Fanatics). The controversy
continued until 1528 when efforts to build bridges between the
Lutheran and the Zwinglian views began.
Martin Bucer tried to mediate
while Philip of Hesse, who wanted to form a political coalition of all
Protestant forces, invited the two parties to
Marburg to discuss their
differences. This event became known as the
Zwingli accepted Philip's invitation fully believing that he would be
able to convince Luther. By contrast, Luther did not expect anything
to come out of the meeting and had to be urged by Philip to attend.
Zwingli, accompanied by Oecolampadius, arrived on 28 September 1529
with Luther and
Philipp Melanchthon arriving shortly thereafter. Other
theologians also participated including Martin Bucer, Andreas
Osiander, Johannes Brenz, and Justus Jonas. The debates were held
from 1–3 October and the results were published in the fifteen
Marburg Articles. The participants were able to agree on fourteen of
the articles, but the fifteenth article established the differences in
their views on the presence of Christ in the eucharist. Afterwards,
each side was convinced that they were the victors, but in fact the
controversy was not resolved and the final result was the formation of
two different Protestant confessions.
Politics, confessions, the Kappel Wars, and death (1529–1531)
Further information: Second war of Kappel
The Battle of Kappel, 11 October 1531, from Chronik by Johannes
"The murder of Zwingli", by
Karl Jauslin (1842–1904).
With the failure of the
Marburg Colloquy and the split of the
Confederation, Zwingli set his goal on an alliance with Philip of
Hesse. He kept up a lively correspondence with Philip.
Bern refused to
participate, but after a long process, Zurich, Basel, and Strasbourg
signed a mutual defence treaty with Philip in November 1530. Zwingli
also personally negotiated with France's diplomatic representative,
but the two sides were too far apart. France wanted to maintain good
relations with the Five States. Approaches to Venice and Milan also
As Zwingli was working on establishing these political alliances,
Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, invited Protestants to the Augsburg
Diet to present their views so that he could make a verdict on the
issue of faith. The Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession. Under
the leadership of Martin Bucer, the cities of Strasbourg, Constance,
Lindau produced the Tetrapolitan Confession. This
document attempted to take a middle position between the Lutherans and
Zwinglians. It was too late for the
Burgrecht cities to produce a
confession of their own. Zwingli then produced his own private
confession, Fidei ratio (Account of Faith) in which he explained his
faith in twelve articles conforming to the articles of the Apostles'
Creed. The tone was strongly anti-Catholic as well as anti-Lutheran.
The Lutherans did not react officially, but criticised it privately.
Zwingli's and Luther's old opponent, Johann Eck, counter-attacked with
a publication, Refutation of the Articles Zwingli Submitted to the
Philip of Hesse
Philip of Hesse formed the
Schmalkaldic League at the end of
1530, the four cities of the
Tetrapolitan Confession joined on the
basis of a
Lutheran interpretation of that confession. Given the
flexibility of the league's entrance requirements, Zurich, Basel, and
Bern also considered joining. However, Zwingli could not reconcile the
Tetrapolitan Confession with his own beliefs and wrote a harsh refusal
to Bucer and Capito. This offended Philip to the point where relations
with the League were severed. The
Burgrecht cities now had no external
allies to help deal with internal Confederation religious
The peace treaty of the First Kappel War did not define the right of
unhindered preaching in the Catholic states. Zwingli interpreted this
to mean that preaching should be permitted, but the Five States
suppressed any attempts to reform. The
Burgrecht cities considered
different means of applying pressure to the Five States.
Schaffhausen preferred quiet diplomacy while
Zurich wanted armed
conflict. Zwingli and Jud unequivocally advocated an attack on the
Bern took a middle position which eventually prevailed.
In May 1531,
Zurich reluctantly agreed to impose a food blockade. It
failed to have any effect and in October,
Bern decided to withdraw the
Zurich urged its continuation and the
Burgrecht cities began
to quarrel among themselves.
On 9 October 1531, in a surprise move, the Five States declared war on
Zurich. Zurich's mobilisation was slow due to internal squabbling and
on 11 October, 3500 poorly deployed men encountered a Five States
force nearly double their size near Kappel. Many pastors, including
Zwingli, were among the soldiers. The battle lasted less than one hour
and Zwingli was among the 500 casualties in the
Zwingli had considered himself first and foremost a soldier of Christ;
second a defender of his country, the Confederation; and third a
leader of his city, Zurich, where he had lived for the previous twelve
years. Ironically, he died at the age of 47, not for Christ nor for
the Confederation, but for Zurich.
In Tabletalk, Luther is recorded saying: "They say that Zwingli
recently died thus; if his error had prevailed, we would have
perished, and our church with us. It was a judgment of God. That was
always a proud people. The others, the papists, will probably also be
dealt with by our Lord God." .
Erasmus wrote, "We are freed from
great fear by the death of the two preachers, Zwingli and
Oecolampadius, whose fate has wrought an incredible change in the mind
of many. This is the wonderful hand of God on high."
died on 24 November.
Erasmus also wrote, "If Bellona had favoured
them, it would have been all over with us."
Main article: Theology of Huldrych Zwingli
According to Zwingli, the cornerstone of theology is the Bible.
Zwingli appealed to scripture constantly in his writings. He placed
its authority above other sources such as the ecumenical councils or
the Church Fathers, although he did not hesitate to use other sources
to support his arguments. The principles that guide Zwingli's
interpretations are derived from his rationalist humanist education
Reformed understanding of the Bible. He rejected
literalist interpretations of a passage, such as those of the
Anabaptists, and used synecdoche  and analogies, methods he
describes in A Friendly Exegesis (1527). Two analogies that he used
quite effectively were between baptism and circumcision and between
the eucharist and Passover. He also paid attention to the
immediate context and attempted to understand the purpose behind it,
comparing passages of scripture with each other.
A rendition of
Huldrych Zwingli from the 1906 edition of the Meyers
Zwingli rejected the word sacrament in the popular usage of his time.
For ordinary people, the word meant some kind of holy action of which
there is inherent power to free the conscience from sin. For Zwingli,
a sacrament was an initiatory ceremony or a pledge, pointing out that
the word was derived from sacramentum meaning an oath. (However,
the word is also translated "mystery".) In his early writings on
baptism, he noted that baptism was an example of such a pledge. He
challenged Catholics by accusing them of superstition when they
ascribed the water of baptism a certain power to wash away sin. Later,
in his conflict with the Anabaptists, he defended the practice of
infant baptism, noting that there is no law forbidding the practice.
He argued that baptism was a sign of a covenant with God, thereby
replacing circumcision in the Old Testament.
Zwingli approached the eucharist in a similar manner to baptism.
During the first
Zurich disputation in 1523, he denied that an actual
sacrifice occurred during the mass, arguing that Christ made the
sacrifice only once and for all eternity. Hence, the eucharist was "a
memorial of the sacrifice". Following this argument, he further
developed his view, coming to the conclusion of the "signifies"
interpretation for the words of the institution. He used various
passages of scripture to argue against transubstantiation as well as
Luther's views, the key text being John 6:63, "It is the Spirit who
gives life, the flesh is of no avail". Zwingli's approach and
interpretation of scripture to understand the meaning of the eucharist
was one reason he could not reach a consensus with Luther.
The impact of Luther on Zwingli's theological development has long
been a source of interest and discussion among Zwinglian scholars.
Zwingli himself asserted vigorously his independence of Luther. The
most recent studies have lent credibility to this claim, although some
scholars still argue his theology was dependent upon Luther's. Zwingli
appears to have read Luther's books in search of confirmation from
Luther for his own views. Zwingli did, however, admire Luther greatly
for the stand he took against the pope. This, more than Luther's
theology, was a key influence on Zwingli's convictions as a
reformer. What Zwingli considered Luther's courageous stance at
Leipzig Disputation had a decisive impact on Zwingli during his
earliest years as a priest, and during this time Zwingli praised and
promoted Luther's writings to support his own similar ideas. Like
Luther, Zwingli was also a student and admirer of Augustine. His
later writings continued to show characteristic differences from
Luther such as the inclusion of non-Christians in heaven as described
in An Exposition of the Faith.
Zwingli enjoyed music and could play several instruments, including
the violin, harp, flute, dulcimer and hunting horn. He would sometimes
amuse the children of his congregation on his lute and was so well
known for his playing that his enemies mocked him as "the evangelical
lute-player and fifer". Three of Zwingli's Lieder or hymns have been
preserved: the Pestlied mentioned above, an adaptation of Psalm 65 (c.
1525), and the Kappeler Lied, which is believed to have been composed
during the campaign of the first war of Kappel (1529). These songs
were not meant to be sung during worship services and are not
identified as hymns of the Reformation, though they were published in
some 16th-century hymnals.
Zwingli criticised the practice of priestly chanting and monastic
choirs. The criticism dates from 1523 when he attacked certain worship
practices. His arguments are detailed in the Conclusions of 1525, in
which, Conclusions 44, 45 and 46 are concerned with musical practices
under the rubric of "prayer". He associated music with images and
vestments, all of which he felt diverted people's attention from true
spiritual worship. It is not known what he thought of the musical
practices in early
Lutheran churches. Zwingli, however, eliminated
instrumental music from worship in the church, stating that God had
not commanded it in worship. The organist of the People's Church
Zurich is recorded as weeping upon seeing the great organ broken
up. Although Zwingli did not express an opinion on congregational
singing, he made no effort to encourage it. Nevertheless, scholars
have found that Zwingli was supportive of a role for music in the
church. Gottfried W. Locher writes, "The old assertion 'Zwingli was
against church singing' holds good no longer ... Zwingli's
polemic is concerned exclusively with the medieval Latin choral and
priestly chanting and not with the hymns of evangelical congregations
or choirs". Locher goes on to say that "Zwingli freely allowed
vernacular psalm or choral singing. In addition, he even seems to have
striven for lively, antiphonal, unison recitative". Locher then
summarizes his comments on Zwingli's view of church music as follows:
"The chief thought in his conception of worship was always 'conscious
attendance and understanding'—'devotion', yet with the lively
participation of all concerned".
The as of today
Musikabteilung (literally: music departement), located
in the choir of the Predigern church in Zürich was founded in 1971,
being a scientific music collection of European importance. It
publishes the materials entrusted to it at irregular intervals as
CD's, the repertoire ranges of early 16th-century spiritual music of
Huldrych Zwingli's to the late 20th century, published under the label
"Musik aus der Zentralbibliothek Zürich".
Painting of Zwingli by Hans Asper
Zwingli was a humanist and a scholar with many devoted friends and
disciples. He communicated as easily with the ordinary people of his
congregation as with rulers such as Philip of Hesse. His
reputation as a stern, stolid reformer is counterbalanced by the fact
that he had an excellent sense of humour and used satiric fables,
spoofing, and puns in his writings. He was more conscious of
social obligations than Luther and he genuinely believed that the
masses would accept a government guided by God's word. He
tirelessly promoted assistance to the poor, who he believed should be
cared for by a truly Christian community.
In December 1531, the
Zurich council selected
Heinrich Bullinger as
his successor. He immediately removed any doubts about Zwingli's
orthodoxy and defended him as a prophet and a martyr. During
Bullinger's rule, the confessional divisions of the Confederation were
stabilised. He rallied the reformed cities and cantons and helped
them to recover from the defeat at Kappel. Zwingli had instituted
fundamental reforms, while Bullinger consolidated and refined
Scholars have found it difficult to assess Zwingli's impact on
history, for several reasons. There is no consensus on the definition
of "Zwinglianism"; by any definition, Zwinglianism evolved under his
successor, Heinrich Bullinger; and research into Zwingli's influence
on Bullinger and
John Calvin is still rudimentary. Bullinger
adopted most of Zwingli's points of doctrine. Like Zwingli, he
summarised his theology several times, the best-known being the Second
Helvetic Confession of 1566. Meanwhile, Calvin had taken over the
Reformation in Geneva. Calvin differed with Zwingli on the
eucharist and criticised him for regarding it as simply a metaphorical
event. In 1549, however, Bullinger and Calvin succeeded in overcoming
the differences in doctrine and produced the Consensus Tigurinus
Zurich Consensus). They declared that the eucharist was not just
symbolic of the meal, but they also rejected the
that the body and blood of Christ is in union with the elements. With
this rapprochement, Calvin established his role in the Swiss Reformed
Churches and eventually in the wider world.
Outside of Switzerland, no church counts Zwingli as its founder.
Scholars speculate as to why Zwinglianism has not diffused more
widely, even though Zwingli's theology is considered the first
Reformed theology. Although his name is not widely
recognised, Zwingli's legacy lives on in the basic confessions of the
Reformed churches of today. He is often called, after Martin
Luther and John Calvin, the "Third Man of the Reformation".
List of works
Zwingli's collected works are expected to fill 21 volumes. A
collection of selected works was published in 1995 by the
Zwingliverein in collaboration with the Theologischer Verlag
Zürich This four-volume collection contains the following
Volume 1: 1995, 512 pages, ISBN 3-290-10974-7
Pestlied (1519/20) "The Plague Song"
Die freie Wahl der Speisen (1522) "Choice and Liberty regarding Food"
Eine göttliche Ermahnung der Schwyzer (1522) "A Solemn Exhortation
[to the people of Schwyz]"
Die Klarheit und Gewissheit des Wortes Gottes (1522) "The Clarity and
Certainty of the Word of God"
Göttliche und menschliche Gerechtigkeit (1523) "Divine and Human
Wie Jugendliche aus gutem Haus zu erziehen sind (1523) "How to educate
adolescents from a good home"
Der Hirt (1524) "The Shepherd"
Eine freundschaftliche und ernste Ermahnung der Eidgenossen (1524)
"Zwingli's Letter to the Federation"
Wer Ursache zum Aufruhr gibt (1524) "Those Who Give Cause for Tumult"
Volume 2: 1995, 556 pages, ISBN 3-290-10975-5
Auslegung und Begründung der Thesen oder Artikel (1523)
"Interpretation and justification of the theses or articles"
Volume 3: 1995, 519 pages, ISBN 3-290-10976-3
Empfehlung zur Vorbereitung auf einen möglichen Krieg (1524) "Plan
for a Campaign"
Kommentar über die wahre und die falsche Religion (1525) "Commentary
on True and False Religion"
Volume 4: 1995, 512 pages, ISBN 3-290-10977-1
Antwort auf die Predigt Luthers gegen die Schwärmer (1527) "A
Refutation of Luther's sermon against vain enthusiasm"
Die beiden Berner Predigten (1528) "The Berne sermons"
Rechenschaft über den Glauben (1530) "An Exposition of the Faith"
Die Vorsehung (1530) "Providence"
Erklärung des christlichen Glaubens (1531) "Explanation of the
The complete 21-volume edition is being undertaken by the
Zwingliverein in collaboration with the Institut für schweizerische
Reformationsgeschichte, and is projected to be organised as follows:
vols. I–VI Werke: Zwingli's theological and political writings,
essays, sermons etc., in chronological order. This section was
completed in 1991.
vols. VII–XI Briefe: Letters
vol. XII Randglossen: Zwingli's glosses in the margin of books
vols XIII ff. Exegetische Schriften: Zwingli's exegetical notes on the
Vols. XIII and XIV have been published, vols. XV and XVI are under
preparation. Vols. XVII to XXI are planned to cover the New Testament.
Older German / Latin editions available online include:
Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke, vol. 1, Corpus Reformatorum vol.
88, ed. Emil Egli. Berlin: Schwetschke, 1905.
Analecta Reformatoria: Dokumente und Abhandlungen zur Geschichte
Zwinglis und seiner Zeit, vol. 1, ed. Emil Egli. Zürich: Züricher
and Furrer, 1899.
Huldreich Zwingli's Werke, ed. Melchior Schuler and Johannes
Schulthess, 1824ff.: vol. I; vol. II;vol. III; vol. IV; vol. V; vol.
VI, 1; vol. VI, 2; vol. VII; vol. VIII.
Der evangelische Glaube nach den Hauptschriften der Reformatoren, ed.
Paul Wernle. Tübingen: Mohr, 1918.
Von Freiheit der Speisen, eine Reformationsschrift, 1522, ed. Otto
Walther. Halle: Niemeyer, 1900.
See also the following English translations of selected works by
The Christian Education of Youth. Collegeville: Thompson Bros., 1899.
Selected Works of Huldreich Zwingli (1484–1531). Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania, 1901.
The Latin Works and the Correspondence of Huldreich Zwingli, Together
with Selections from his German Works.
Vol. 1, 1510–1522, New York: G.P. Putnam and Sons, 1912.
Vol. 2, Philadelphia: Heidelberg Press, 1912.
Vol. 3, Philadelphia: Heidelberg Press, 1912.
Timeline of Huldrych Zwingli
Reformation in Zürich
^ Huldrych pronunciation: [ˈhʊldriːç]; Ulrich: [ˈʊlrɪç];
Zwingli: /ˈzwɪŋɡli/, [ˈtsvɪŋli] (Random House Webster's
Unabridged Dictionary: "Zwingli").
^ Potter 1976, p. 1. According to Potter, "Huldrych" was the
spelling Zwingli preferred. However, Potter uses "Ulrich", while
Gäbler, Stephens, and Furcha use "Huldrych". His signature at the
Marburg Colloquy was
Latinised name "Huldrychus Zwinglius" (Bainton
1995, p. 251). For more on his name, see Rother, Rea. "Huldrych
– Ulrich" (in German). Evangelisch-reformierte Landeskirche des
Kantons Zürich. Archived from the original on September 20, 2008.
^ Robert Walton, Zwingli's
Theocracy (Toronto University Press. 1967).
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 1–4
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 4–6
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 6–7
^ Potter 1976, p. 6
^ "Katharina von Zimmern". frauen-und-reformation.de. Retrieved
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 24; Potter 1976, p. 9. Potter mentions
this possibility. Gäbler states that Zwingli did not refute later
claims by opponents that he had been a monk in Bern.
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 24; Potter 1976, p. 9
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 25. The word exclusus (expelled) was added to
his matriculation entry. Gäbler notes that without a date and reason,
it does not conform to what was customary at the time.
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 26
^ Stephens 1986, p. 8; Potter 1976, pp. 35, 37
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 29–33
^ Potter 1976, pp. 22–40
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 33–41
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 43–44
^ Potter 1976, pp. 45–46
^ Old 1998, pp. 46–47
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 44–45
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 46. Proponents of this view are Oskar Farner
and Walther Köhler.
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 46. Proponents of this view are Arthur Rich
and Cornelius Augustijn.
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 46–47. A proponent of this view is
Gottfried W. Locher.
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 50
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 49–52
^ Potter 1976, p. 66
^ Bainton 1995, p. XII
^ Potter 1976, pp. 44, 66–67
^ see e.g. Potter 1976, pp. 69–70
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 51
^ Potter 1976, p. 73
^ Denis Janz (2008). A
Reformation reader: primary texts with
introductions. Fortress Press. p. 183.
ISBN 978-0-8006-6310-0. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 52–56
^ Potter 1976, p. 80
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 57–59
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 63–65
^ Potter 1976, pp. 97–100
^ Potter 1976, p. 99
^ The Sixty-seven Articles are contained in Selected Works of
Huldreich Zwingli, Philadelphia, 1901, pp. 111–117. At Internet
Archive. Accessed 13 March 2015.
^ Cameron 1991, pp. 108
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 67–71
^ Potter 1976, pp. 100–104
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 72, 76–77
^ Potter 1976, pp. 130–131
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 78–81
^ Potter 1976, pp. 131–135
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 81–82
^ a b Potter 1976, p. 138
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 82–83
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 105–106
^ According to Gäbler 1986, p. 102, the first complete Bible was
printed in 1531. Other sources say 1529 or 1530. See Estep 1986,
p. 96 and Greenslade 1975, p. 106. Early editions were
called the Froschauer Bible, see Chadwick 2001, p. 35.
^ Potter 1976, pp. 222–223
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 97–103
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 125–126
^ Potter 1976, pp. 177–182
^ Potter 1976, pp. 183–186
^ Potter 1976, p. 187
^ Potter 1976, pp. 186–188
^ Sharp, John (July 2004). "The
Reformation and the Anabaptists: Steps
to Reconciliation, 26 June, 2004, Zurich, Switzerland". Mennonite
Historical Committee. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24.
Retrieved 2012-12-23. The descendants of the Zwinglian
Reformed Church of Zurich, and the descendants of the
Anabaptist movement (Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites) held a
Reconciliation Conference at the
Grossmünster on 26 June 2004. This
link includes the conference program, and all statements made at that
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 111–113
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 113–119
^ Locher 1981, p. 109. Potter also translates
Burgrecht as "Civic
Union", while Gäbler 1986, p. 119 translates it as "Fortress
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 119–120
^ Potter 1976, pp. 352–355
^ Potter 1976, p. 364. In Early Modern German, "Warlich man mag
mit spiess und halberten den glouben nit ingeben."
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 120–121
^ Potter 1976, pp. 362–367
^ Potter 1976, pp. 367–369
^ Potter 1976, p. 371
^ Potter 1976, p. 157
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 131–135
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 135–136
^ Bainton 1995, p. 251
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 136–138
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 141–143
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 143–146
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 148
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 148–150
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 150–152
^ Potter 1976, p. 414
^ Luther Works Tabletalk No. 94: God’s Punishment of the Godless
(Early November, 1531)
^ Philip Hughes (1957), A Popular History of the Reformation, 1960
reprint, Garden City, NY: Image Books, Ch. 4, "Luther. The First
Protestants", Sec. v, "Zwingli", p. 139.
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 51–52
^ Stephens 1986, p. 59
^ Yoder, John Howard (2004),
Switzerland: An Historical and Theological Analysis of the Dialogues
Anabaptists and Reformers, Kitchener, Ontario: Pandora Press,
pp. 197–202, ISBN 1-894710-44-4
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 64–66
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 180–185
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 194–206
^ Huldreich Zwinglis Samtliche Werke, Vol. I, 460.6–10, as quoted in
Stephens 1986, p. 219
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 218–250
^ Stephens 1986, p. 22
^ Stephens 1986, p. 17
^ Stephens 1986, pp. 48–49
^ Hannes Reimann,
Huldrych Zwingli – der Musiker, Archiv für
Musikwissenschaft 17 2./3. (1960), pp. 126–141
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 108
^ Leith, John H, Introduction to the
Reformed Tradition, Westminster
John Knox Press, ISBN 0-8042-0479-9 pp. 210–211
^ Chadwick, Owen, The Reformation, Penguin, 1990, p. 439
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 107–108
^ Locher 1981, pp. 61–62
^ "Musikabteilung" (in German). Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Retrieved
^ Potter 1976, pp. 417–418
^ Schmidt-Clausing, Fritz; West, Jim (2007), The Humor of Huldrych
Zwingli: The Lighter Side of the Protestant Reformation, Lewiston, New
York: Edwin Mellen Press Ltd, ISBN 978-0-7734-5482-8 .
^ Potter 1976, p. 418
^ Wandel 1990, p. 45
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 157–158
^ Steinmetz 2001, p. 98
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 155–156
^ Foster, Herbert Darling (Jan 1903). "
Geneva Before Calvin
(1387–1536). The Antecedents of a Puritan State". The American
Historical Review. 8 (2): 217–240. doi:10.2307/1832923.
^ Furcha 1985, pp. 179–195, J. C. McLelland, "Meta-Zwingli or
Anti-Zwingli? Bullinger and Calvin in Eucharistic Concord"
^ Gäbler 1986, pp. 158–159
^ Furcha 1985, pp. 1–12, Ulrich Gäbler, "Zwingli the Loser".
^ Stephens 2004, p. 99
^ Gäbler 1986, p. 160
^ Rilliet 1964
^ Huldrych Zwingli, Schriften (4 vols.), eds. Th. Brunnschweiler and
S. Lutz, Zürich (1995), ISBN 978-3-290-10978-3
^ English titles are those of Stephens 1992, pp. 171ff
Bainton, Roland H. (1995), Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther, New
York: Meridian, ISBN 0-452-01146-9 .
Cameron, Euan (1991), The European Reformation, New York: Oxford
University Press, ISBN 0-19-873093-4 .
Chadwick, Owen (2001), The Early
Reformation on the Continent, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-926578-X .
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Huldrych Zwingli.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Biography of Anna Reinhard, wife of Zwingli in Leben magazine from a
seminary of the
Reformed Church in the United States
Website of the Zwingli Association and Zwingliana journal (in German)
Huldrych Zwingli at Post-
Reformation Digital Library
Selected Works of
Huldrych Zwingli at Online Library of Libery
Zwingli and Luther: The Giant vs. Hercules, John B. Payne, Christian
History, Issue 4, 1984.
Antistes of Zürich
History of Christianity
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