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HUGUENOTS (English pronunciation /ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /ˈhjuːɡənoʊ/ ; French : Les huguenots, ) are the ethnoreligious group of French Protestants
Protestants
who follow the Reformed tradition .

The term was used frequently to describe members of the Reformed Church of France
France
until the beginning of the 19th century. The term has its origin in 16th-century France. Huguenots were French Protestants mainly from northern France, who were inspired by the writings of John Calvin and endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism, contrary to the largely German Lutheran
Lutheran
population of Alsace
Alsace
, Moselle , and Montbéliard . Hans Hillerbrand in his Encyclopedia of Protestantism claims the Huguenot
Huguenot
community reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre , declining to 7–8% by the end of the 16th century, and further after heavy persecution began once again with the Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
by Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
.

Huguenot
Huguenot
numbers peaked near an estimated two million by 1562, concentrated mainly in the southern and western parts of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith, Catholic
Catholic
hostility grew, in spite of political concessions and edicts of toleration from the French crown. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion , fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598. The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d\'Albret , her son, the future Henry IV , and the princes of Condé. The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious, political, and military autonomy.

Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions in the 1620s prompted the abolishment of their political and military privileges. They retained religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
until the rule of Louis XIV . Louis XIV gradually increased persecution of them until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685), ending any legal recognition of Protestantism in France
France
and forcing the Huguenots to convert or flee in a wave of violent dragonnades . Louis XIV claimed the French Huguenot
Huguenot
population of 800,000 to 900,000 individuals was reduced to 1,000 or 1,500 individuals; a huge overestimate, although dragonnades were certainly the most devastating event for the minority. Nevertheless, a tiny minority of Huguenots remained and faced continued persecution under Louis XV . By the death of Louis XV in 1774, French Calvinism was almost completely wiped out. Persecution of Protestants
Protestants
officially ended with the Edict of Versailles ( Edict of Tolerance ), signed by Louis XVI in 1787. Two years later, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789 , Protestants
Protestants
gained equal rights as citizens.

The bulk of Huguenot
Huguenot
émigrés relocated to Protestant
Protestant
states such as England
England
, Wales
Wales
, Scotland
Scotland
, Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, the Dutch Republic , the Electorate of Brandenburg
Electorate of Brandenburg
and Electorate of the Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire , the Duchy of Prussia , the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
, as well as majority Catholic
Catholic
but Protestant-controlled Ireland
Ireland
. They also spread to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa
South Africa
, the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, the Caribbean
Caribbean
, New Netherland , and several of the English colonies in North America. Small contingents of families went to Orthodox Russia
Russia
and Catholic Quebec
Quebec
.

In the 21st century, most Huguenots have been assimilated into various societies and cultures, but remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes
Cévennes
, members of the United Protestant Church of France , French members of the largely German Protestant
Protestant
Reformed Church of Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine
Lorraine
, as well as the Huguenot
Huguenot
diaspora in England
England
and Australia
Australia
all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot
Huguenot
designation.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Demographics

* 3 History

* 3.1 Origins * 3.2 Criticisms of the Catholic
Catholic
Church * 3.3 Reform and growth * 3.4 Wars of religion * 3.5 Civil wars * 3.6 St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre * 3.7 Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
* 3.8 Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
* 3.9 End of persecution * 3.10 Modern times

* 4 Exodus

* 4.1 Early emigration * 4.2 South Africa
South Africa
* 4.3 North America * 4.4 Netherlands * 4.5 Wales
Wales
* 4.6 England
England
* 4.7 Ireland
Ireland
* 4.8 Germany and Scandinavia * 4.9 Effects

* 5 Symbol

* 6 Apology and honours

* 6.1 Legacy

* 6.1.1 France
France
* 6.1.2 United States
United States
* 6.1.3 England
England
* 6.1.4 Prussia
Prussia
* 6.1.5 Ireland
Ireland
* 6.1.6 South Africa
South Africa
* 6.1.7 Australia
Australia

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Texts

ETYMOLOGY

The Huguenot
Huguenot
cross

A term used originally in derision, Huguenot
Huguenot
has unclear origins. Various hypotheses have been promoted. The nickname may have been a combined reference to the Swiss politician Besançon Hugues (died 1532) and the religiously conflicted nature of Swiss republicanism in his time, using a clever derogatory pun on the name Hugues by way of the Dutch word Huisgenoten (literally housemates), referring to the connotations of a somewhat related word in German Eidgenosse (Confederates as in "a citizen of one of the states of the Swiss Confederacy"). Geneva
Geneva
was John Calvin
John Calvin
's adopted home and the centre of the Calvinist
Calvinist
movement. In Geneva
Geneva
, Hugues, though Catholic
Catholic
, was a leader of the "Confederate Party", so called because it favoured independence from the Duke of Savoy through an alliance between the city-state of Geneva
Geneva
and the Swiss Confederation . The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France
France
to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France
France
from the influential House of Guise
House of Guise
. The move would have had the side effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. Thus, Hugues plus Eidgenosse by way of Huisgenoten supposedly became Huguenot, a nickname associating the Protestant
Protestant
cause with politics unpopular in France.

A version of this complex hypothesis is promoted by O.I.A. Roche, who writes in his book, The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots (1965), that "Huguenot" is:

"a combination of a Dutch and a German word. In the Dutch-speaking North of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten ('housemates') while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or 'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicised into 'Huguenot', often used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honour and courage."

Some disagree with such double or triple non-French linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France
France
, who reigned long before the Reformation. He was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants
Protestants
as a noble man who respected people's dignity and lives. Janet Gray and other supporters of the hypothesis suggest that the name huguenote would be roughly equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo.

In this last connection, the name could suggest the derogatory inference of superstitious worship; popular fancy held that Huguon, the gate of King Hugo , was haunted by the ghost of le roi Huguet (regarded by Roman Catholics as an infamous scoundrel) and other spirits, who instead of being in Purgatory
Purgatory
came back to harm the living at night. It was in this place in Tours
Tours
that the prétendus réformés ("these supposedly 'reformed'") habitually gathered at night, both for political purposes, and for prayer and singing psalms . Such explanations have been traced to the contemporary Reguier de la Plancha (d. 1560), who in De l'Estat de France
France
offered the following account as to the origin of the name, as cited by The Cape Monthly:

The origin of the name is curious; it is not from the German Eidegenossen as has been supposed. Reguier de la Plancha accounts for it as follows: — "The name huguenand was given to those of the religion during the affair of Amboyse, and they were to retail it ever since. I'll say a word about it to settle the doubts of those who have strayed in seeking its origin. The superstition of our ancestors, to within twenty or thirty years thereabouts, was such that in almost all the towns in the kingdom they had a notion that certain spirits underwent their Purgatory
Purgatory
in this world after death, and that they went about the town at night, striking and outraging many people whom they found in the streets. But the light of the Gospel has made them vanish, and teaches us that these spirits were street-strollers and ruffians. In Paris the spirit was called le moine bourré; at Orleans, le mulet odet; at Blois le loup garon; at Tours, le Roy Huguet; and so on in other places. Now, it happens that those whom they called Lutherans were at that time so narrowly watched during the day that they were forced to wait till night to assemble, for the purpose of praying God, for preaching and receiving the Holy Sacrament; so that although they did not frighten nor hurt anybody, the priests, through mockery, made them the successors of those spirits which roam the night; and thus that name being quite common in the mouth of the populace, to designate the evangelical huguenands in the country of Tourraine and Amboyse, it became in vogue after that enterprise."

Some have suggested the name was derived, with similar intended scorn, from les guenon de Hus (the monkeys or apes of Jan Hus
Jan Hus
). While this and the many other theories offer their own measure of plausibility, attesting at least to the wit of later partisans and historians, "no one of the several theories advanced has afforded satisfaction."

DEMOGRAPHICS

Areas controlled and contested by Huguenots are marked purple and livid on this map of modern France.

The issue of demographic strength and geographical spread of the Reformed tradition in France
France
has been covered in a variety of sources. Most of them usually agree that the Huguenot
Huguenot
population reached as many as 10% of the total population, or roughly 2 million people on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572.

The new teaching attracted sizeable portions of the nobility and urban bourgeoisie. The number of French Protestants
Protestants
steadily swelled to ten percent of the population after John Calvin
John Calvin
introduced the Reformation
Reformation
in France, or roughly 1.8 million people in the decade between 1560 and 1570. During the same period there were some 1,400 Reformed churches operating in France. Hans J. Hillerbrand, an expert on the subject, in his Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set claims the Huguenot
Huguenot
community reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre , declining to 7-8% by the end of the 16th century, and further after heavy persecution began once again with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
.

Among the nobles, Calvinism peaked on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. Since then it has been sharply decreasing, as the Huguenots were no more tolerated by the French royalty and Catholic
Catholic
mass. By the end of the sixteenth century Huguenots constituted 7-8% of the whole population, or 1.2 million people. By the time Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
revoked the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
, Huguenots accounted for 800,000 to 1 million people.

Huguenots controlled sizeable areas in central and southern France. The population around the Massif Central
Massif Central
and the area around Dordogne was almost entirely Reformed. John Calvin
John Calvin
was a Frenchman and largely responsible for the introduction and spread of the Reformed tradition in France. He wrote in French, but unlike the Protestant
Protestant
development in Germany where Lutheran
Lutheran
writings were widely distributed and could be read by the common man, it was not the case in France
France
where only nobles adopted the new faith and the folk remained Catholic. This is true for areas in the west and south controlled by the Huguenot nobility. Although large portions of peasant population became Reformed, the people remained majority Catholic.

Overall, Huguenot
Huguenot
presence was heavily concentrated in the western and southern portions of the French kingdom, as nobles there secured practise of the new faith. That included Languedoc-Roussillon
Languedoc-Roussillon
, Gascony
Gascony
and even stretched into the Dauphiné . They lived on the Atlantic coast in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
, and spread across provinces of Normandy
Normandy
and Poitou
Poitou
. In the south, towns like Castres , Montauban
Montauban
, Montpellier
Montpellier
and Nimes
Nimes
were Huguenot
Huguenot
strongholds. In addition, a dense network of Protestant
Protestant
villages permeated the rural mountainous region of the Cevennes . It continues to be the backbone of French Protestantism. Roughly 80% of all Huguenots lived in the western and southern areas.

Today, there are some Reformed communities around the world that retain their Huguenot
Huguenot
identity apart from some Calvinists in the United Protestant Church of France and the Protestant
Protestant
Reformed Church of Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine
Lorraine
, including a rural community in the Cevennes . Huguenot
Huguenot
emigrees in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the United States
United States
, South Africa and Australia
Australia
still retain their identity.

HISTORY

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ORIGINS

Persecution of the Waldensians in the Massacre of Mérindol in 1545.

The availability of the Bible in vernacular languages was important to the spread of the Protestant
Protestant
movement and development of the Reformed church in France. The country had a long history of struggles with the papacy by the time the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
finally arrived. Around 1294, a French version of the Scriptures was prepared by the Roman Catholic
Catholic
priest, Guyard des Moulins . A two-volume illustrated folio paraphrase version based on his manuscript, by Jean de Rély, was printed in Paris in 1487.

The first known translation of the Bible into one of France's regional languages, Arpitan or Franco-Provençal , had been prepared by the 12th-century pre-reformer Peter Waldo
Peter Waldo
(Pierre de Vaux). The Waldensians became more militant, creating fortified areas, as in Cabrières , perhaps attacking an abbey. They were suppressed by Francis I in 1545 in the Massacre of Mérindol .

Other predecessors of the Reformed church included the pro-reform and Gallican Roman Catholics, such as Jacques Lefevre (c. 1455–1536). The Gallicans briefly achieved independence for the French church, on the principle that the religion of France
France
could not be controlled by the Bishop of Rome, a foreign power. During the Protestant Reformation, Lefevre, a professor at the University of Paris , published his French translation of the New Testament
New Testament
in 1523, followed by the whole Bible in the French language
French language
in 1530. William Farel was a student of Lefevre who went on to become a leader of the Swiss Reformation, establishing a Protestant
Protestant
government in Geneva. Jean Cauvin ( John Calvin
John Calvin
), another student at the University of Paris, also converted to Protestantism. Long after the sect was suppressed by Francis I, the remaining French Waldensians , then mostly in the Luberon region, sought to join William Farel
William Farel
, Calvin and the Reformation, and Olivetan published a French Bible for them. The French Confession of 1559 shows a decidedly Calvinistic influence . Sometime between 1550 and 1580, members of the Reformed church in France
France
came to be commonly known as Huguenots.

Although usually Huguenots are lumped into one group, there were actually two types of Huguenots that emerged. Since the Huguenots had political and religious goals, it was commonplace to refer to the Calvinists as " Huguenots of religion" and those who opposed the monarchy as " Huguenots of the state", who were mostly nobles.

* The Huguenots of religion were influenced by John Calvin's works and established Calvinist
Calvinist
synods. They were determined to end religious oppression. * The Huguenots of the state opposed the monopoly of power the Guise family had and wanted to attack the authority of the crown. This group of Huguenots from Southern France
France
had frequent issues with the strict Calvinist
Calvinist
tenets that are outlined in many of John Calvin's letters to the synods of the Languedoc.

CRITICISMS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

See also: Criticism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Like other religious reformers of the time, they felt that the Catholic
Catholic
church needed radical cleansing of its impurities, and that the Pope represented a worldly kingdom, which sat in mocking tyranny over the things of God, and was ultimately doomed. Rhetoric like this became fiercer as events unfolded, and eventually stirred up a reaction in the Catholic
Catholic
establishment.

Fanatically opposed to the Catholic
Catholic
Church, the Huguenots attacked priests, monks, nuns, monasticism, images, and church buildings. Most of the cities in which the Huguenots gained a hold saw iconoclast riots in which altars and images in churches, and sometimes the buildings themselves were torn down. Ancient relics and texts were destroyed; the bodies of saints exhumed and burned. The cities of Bourges, Montauban
Montauban
and Orléans saw substantial activity in this regard.

The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant
Protestant
preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Henry of Navarre and the House of Bourbon allied themselves to the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant
Protestant
strength, which at its height grew to sixty fortified cities, and posed a serious threat to the Catholic
Catholic
crown and Paris over the next three decades.

The Catholic
Catholic
Church in France
France
and many of its members opposed the Huguenots. Some Huguenot
Huguenot
preachers and congregants were attacked as they attempted to meet for worship. The height of this persecution was the St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre when 5,000 to 30,000 were killed, although there were also underlying political reasons for this as well, as some of the Huguenots were nobles trying to establish separate centres of power in southern France. Retaliating against the French Catholics, the Huguenots had their own militia.

REFORM AND GROWTH

Huguenots faced persecution from the outset of the Reformation, but Francis I (reign 1515–1547) initially protected the dissidents from Parlementary measures seeking to exterminate them. After the 1534 Affair of the Placards he distanced himself from Huguenots and their protection.

Huguenot
Huguenot
numbers grew rapidly between 1555 and 1561, chiefly amongst nobles and city dwellers. During this time, their opponents first dubbed the Protestants
Protestants
Huguenots; but they called themselves reformés, or "Reformed". They organised their first national synod in 1558 in Paris.

By 1562, the estimated number of Huguenots peaked at approximately two million, concentrated mainly in the southern and central parts of France, compared to approximately sixteen million Catholics during the same period. Persecution diminished the number of Huguenots who remained in France, as many fled to Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, and England.

WARS OF RELIGION

Main article: French Wars of Religion

As the Huguenots gained influence and displayed their faith more openly, Roman Catholic
Catholic
hostility to them grew, even though the French crown offered increasingly liberal political concessions and edicts of toleration.

Following the accidental death of Henry II in 1559, his son succeeded as King Francis II along with his wife, the Queen Consort, also known as Mary Queen of Scots
Mary Queen of Scots
. During the eighteen months of the reign of Francis II, Mary encouraged a policy of rounding up French Huguenots on charges of heresy, in front of Catholic
Catholic
judges, and employing torture and burning as punishments for dissenters. Mary returned to Scotland
Scotland
a widow, in the summer of 1561.

In 1561, the Edict of Orléans declared an end to the persecution, and the Edict of Saint-Germain of January 1562 formally recognised the Huguenots for the first time. However, these measures disguised the growing tensions between Protestants
Protestants
and Catholics.

CIVIL WARS

Huguenots massacring Catholics in the Michelade
Michelade
in Nîmes
Nîmes
.

These tensions spurred eight civil wars, interrupted by periods of relative calm, between 1562 and 1598. With each break in peace, the Huguenots' trust in the Catholic
Catholic
throne diminished, and the violence became more severe, and Protestant
Protestant
demands became grander, until a lasting cessation of open hostility finally occurred in 1598.

The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise , both of which—in addition to holding rival religious views—staked a claim to the French throne. The crown, occupied by the House of Valois
House of Valois
, generally supported the Catholic
Catholic
side, but on occasion switched over to the Protestant
Protestant
cause when politically expedient. Millais ' painting, Huguenot
Huguenot
Lovers on St. Bartholomew\'s Day .

The French Wars of Religion began with the Massacre of Vassy on 1 March 1562, when dozens (some sources say hundreds ) of Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded. It was in this year that some Huguenots destroyed the tomb and remains of Saint Irenaeus
Irenaeus
(d. 202), an early Church father and bishop who was a disciple of Polycarp .

The Huguenots became organised as a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant
Protestant
preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny . Henry of Navarre and the House of Bourbon allied with the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant
Protestant
strength. At its height, they controlled sixty fortified cities and posed a serious threat to the Catholic
Catholic
crown and Paris over the next three decades.

ST. BARTHOLOMEW\'S DAY MASSACRE

The St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre of French Protestants (1572). It was the climax of the French Wars of Religion , which were brought to an end by the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
(1598). In 1620, persecution was renewed and continued until the French Revolution
French Revolution
in 1789. Main article: St. Bartholomew\'s Day Massacre

In what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 24 August – 3 October 1572, Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots in Paris. Similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following. The main provincial towns and cities experiencing the Massacre were Aix, Bordeaux, Bourges, Lyons, Meaux, Orleans, Rouen, Toulouse, and Troyes. Nearly 3,000 Protestants
Protestants
were slaughtered in Toulouse alone. The exact number of fatalities throughout the country is not known. On 23–24 August, between about 2,000 and 3,000 Protestants
Protestants
were killed in Paris and between 3,000 and 7,000 more in the French provinces. By 17 September, almost 25,000 Protestants
Protestants
had been massacred in Paris alone. Beyond Paris, the killings continued until 3 October. An amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators.

EDICT OF NANTES

Main article: Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV , as Hercules vanquishing the Lernaean Hydra
Lernaean Hydra
(i.e., the Catholic
Catholic
League ), by Toussaint Dubreuil , circa 1600

The pattern of warfare, followed by brief periods of peace, continued for nearly another quarter-century. The warfare was definitively quelled in 1598, when Henry of Navarre, having succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV , and having recanted Protestantism in favour of Roman Catholicism, issued the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
. The Edict reaffirmed Catholicism as the state religion of France, but granted the Protestants
Protestants
equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains. The Edict simultaneously protected Catholic
Catholic
interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant
Protestant
churches in Catholic-controlled regions.

With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot
Huguenot
rights, pressures to leave France
France
abated. However, enforcement of the Edict grew increasingly irregular over time, making life so intolerable that many fled the country. The Huguenot
Huguenot
population of France
France
dropped to 856,000 by the mid-1660s, of which a plurality lived in rural areas. The greatest concentrations of Huguenots at this time resided in the regions of Guienne
Guienne
, Saintonge- Aunis - Angoumois and Poitou
Poitou
.

Montpellier
Montpellier
was among the most important of the 66 "villes de sûreté" that the Edict of 1598 granted to the Huguenots. The city's political institutions and the university were all handed over to the Huguenots. Tension with Paris led to a siege by the royal army in 1622. Peace terms called for the dismantling of the city's fortifications. A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic
Catholic
party. Even before the Edict of Alès (1629), Protestant
Protestant
rule was dead and the ville de sûreté was no more. Expulsion from La Rochelle
La Rochelle
of 300 Protestant families in November 1661

By 1620 the Huguenots were on the defensive, and the government increasingly applied pressure. A series of three small civil wars known as the Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions broke out, mainly in southwestern France, between 1621 and 1629. revolted against royal authority. The uprising occurred a decade following the death of Henry IV , a Huguenot
Huguenot
before converting to Catholicism, who had protected Protestants
Protestants
through the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
. His successor Louis XIII
Louis XIII
, under the regency of his Italian Catholic
Catholic
mother Marie de\' Medici , became more intolerant of Protestantism. The Huguenots respond by establishing independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and openly revolting against central power. The rebellions were implacably suppressed by the French Crown.

EDICT OF FONTAINEBLEAU

Louis XIV gained the throne in 1643 and acted increasingly aggressively to force the Huguenots to convert. At first he sent missionaries , backed by a fund to financially reward converts to Catholicism. Then he imposed penalties, closed Huguenot
Huguenot
schools and excluded them from favoured professions. Escalating, he instituted dragonnades , which included the occupation and looting of Huguenot homes by military troops, in an effort to forcibly convert them. In 1685, he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
, revoking the Edict of Nantes and declaring Protestantism illegal.

The revocation forbade Protestant
Protestant
services, required education of children as Catholics, and prohibited emigration. It proved disastrous to the Huguenots and costly for France. It precipitated civil bloodshed, ruined commerce, and resulted in the illegal flight from the country of hundreds of thousands of Protestants, many of whom became intellectuals, doctors and business leaders in Britain as well as Holland, Prussia, and South Africa. Four thousand emigrated to the North American colonies, where they settled in New York and Virginia, especially. The English welcomed the French refugees, providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation. Those Huguenots who stayed in France
France
became Catholics and were called "new converts".

After this, Huguenots (with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1,000,000 ) fled to surrounding Protestant
Protestant
countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, and Prussia
Prussia
– whose Calvinist
Calvinist
Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country. Following this exodus, Huguenots remained in large numbers in only one region of France: the rugged Cévennes
Cévennes
region in the south. In the early 18th century, a regional group known as the Camisards who were Huguenots rioted against the Catholic
Catholic
Church in the region, burning churches and killing clergy. It took French troops years to hunt down and destroy all the bands of Camisards, between 1702 and 1709.

END OF PERSECUTION

See also: Persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV and French Revolution The death of Jean Calas , who was broken on the wheel at Toulouse, 9 March 1762

By the 1760s, Protestants
Protestants
comprised about 700,000 people, or 2% of the population. It was no longer a favourite religion of the elite; most Protestants
Protestants
were peasants. It was still illegal and, although the law was seldom enforced, it could be a threat or a nuisance to Protestants. Calvinists lived primarily in the Midi; about 200,000 Lutherans lived in Alsace, where the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia still protected them.

Persecution of Protestants
Protestants
diminished in France
France
after 1724, finally ending with the Edict of Versailles , commonly called the Edict of Tolerance , signed by Louis XVI in 1787. Two years later, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789 , Protestants gained equal rights as citizens.

The government encouraged descendants of exiles to return, offering them French citizenship in a 15 December 1790 Law:

"All persons born in a foreign country and descending in any degree of a French man or woman expatriated for religious reason are declared French nationals (naturels français) and will benefit from rights attached to that quality if they come back to France, establish their domicile there and take the civic oath."

Article 4 of 26 June 1889 Nationality Law stated: "Descendants of families proscribed by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
will continue to benefit from the benefit of 15 December 1790 Law, but on the condition that a nominal decree should be issued for every petitioner. That decree will only produce its effects for the future."

Foreign descendants of Huguenots lost the automatic right to French citizenship in 1945 (by force of the Ordonnance du 19 octobre 1945, which revoked the 1889 Nationality Law). It states in article 3: "This application does not, however, affect the validity of past acts by the person or rights acquired by third parties on the basis of previous laws."

MODERN TIMES

In the 1920s and 1930s, members of the extreme-right Action Française movement expressed strong animus against Huguenots and other Protestants
Protestants
in general, as well as against Jews
Jews
and Freemasons
Freemasons
. They were regarded as groups supporting the French Republic, which Action Française
Action Française
sought to overthrow.

In World War II
World War II
, Huguenots led by André Trocmé in the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon in Cévennes
Cévennes
helped save many Jews
Jews
. They hid them in secret places or helped them get out of Vichy
Vichy
France
France
. André Trocmé preached against discrimination as the Nazis
Nazis
were gaining power in neighbouring Germany and urged his Protestant
Protestant
Huguenot congregation to hide Jewish
Jewish
refugees from the Holocaust
Holocaust
.

Approximately one million Protestants
Protestants
in modern France
France
represent some 2% of its population. Most are concentrated in Alsace
Alsace
in northeast France
France
and the Cévennes
Cévennes
mountain region in the south, who still regard themselves as Huguenots to this day. A diaspora of French Australians still considers itself Huguenot, even after centuries of exile. Long integrated into Australian society, it is encouraged by the Huguenot
Huguenot
Society of Australia
Australia
to embrace and conserve its cultural heritage, aided by the Society's genealogical research services.

In the United States
United States
there are several Huguenot
Huguenot
worship groups and societies. The Huguenot
Huguenot
Society of America has headquarters in New York City and has a broad national membership. One of the most active Huguenot
Huguenot
groups is in Charleston, South Carolina. While many American Huguenot
Huguenot
groups worship in borrowed churches, the congregation in Charleston has its own church. Although services are conducted largely in English, every year the church holds an Annual French Service, which is conducted entirely in French using an adaptation of the Liturgies of Neufchatel (1737) and Vallangin (1772). Typically the Annual French Service takes place on the first or second Sunday after Easter in commemoration of the signing of the Edict of Nantes.

EXODUS

Most French Huguenots were either unable or unwilling to emigrate to avoid forced conversion to Catholicism. As a result, more than three-quarters of the Protestant
Protestant
population accepted the change in faith; some 500,000 fled in exodus.

EARLY EMIGRATION

See also: France Antarctique
France Antarctique
and French Florida Etching of Fort Caroline

The first Huguenots to leave France
France
sought freedom from persecution in Switzerland
Switzerland
and the Netherlands. A group of Huguenots was part of the French colonisers who arrived in Brazil in 1555 to found France Antarctique . A couple of ships with around 500 people arrived at the Guanabara Bay, present-day Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, and settled in a small island. A fort, named Fort Coligny , was built to protect them from attack from the Portuguese troops and Brazilian Native Americans. It was an attempt to establish a French colony in South America. The fort was destroyed in 1560 by the Portuguese, who captured part of the Huguenots. The Portuguese threatened the prisoners with death if they did not convert to Catholicism. The Huguenots of Guanabara, as they are now known, produced a declaration of faith to express their beliefs to the Portuguese. This was their death sentence. This document, the Guanabara Confession of Faith , became the first Protestant
Protestant
confession of faith in the whole of the Americas.

In 1564 a group of Norman Huguenots under the leadership of Jean Ribault established the small colony of Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
on the banks of the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
in what is today Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
. This was the first French attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present-day continental United States
United States
, although previous Spanish attempts had been made as early as 1526 ( San Miguel de Gualdape ). A September 1565 French naval attack against the new Spanish colony at St. Augustine failed when its ships were hit by a hurricane on their way to the Spanish encampment at Fort Matanzas. Hundreds of French soldiers were stranded and surrendered to the numerically inferior Spanish forces led by Pedro Menendez. Menendez proceeded to massacre the defenceless Huguenots, after which he wiped out the Fort Caroline garrison.

SOUTH AFRICA

Main article: Huguenots in South Africa
South Africa

Individual Huguenots settled at the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
from as early as 1671 with the arrival of François Villion (Viljoen) . The first Huguenot
Huguenot
to arrive at the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
was however Maria de la Quellerie , wife of commander Jan van Riebeeck (and daughter of a Walloon church minister), who arrived on 6 April 1652 to establish a settlement at what is today Cape Town
Cape Town
. The couple left for the Batavia ten years later. On 31 December 1687 the first organised group of Huguenots set sail from the Netherlands to the Dutch East India Company post at the Cape of Good Hope. The largest portion of the Huguenots to settle in the Cape arrived between 1688 and 1689 in seven ships as part of the organised migration, but quite a few arrived as late as 1700; thereafter, the numbers declined and only small groups arrived at a time. The Huguenot
Huguenot
Monument of Franschhoek , Western Cape, South Africa
South Africa

Many of these settlers were settled in an area that was later called Franschhoek (Dutch for French Corner), in the present-day Western Cape province of South Africa. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa
South Africa
was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek , where the Huguenot
Huguenot
Memorial Museum was erected in 1957.

The official policy in the Dutch East India governors was to integrate the Huguenot
Huguenot
and the Dutch communities . When Paul Roux, a pastor who arrived with the main group of Huguenots, died in 1724, the Dutch administration, as a special concession, permitted another French cleric to take his place "for the benefit of the elderly who spoke only French". However, within three generations French was replaced by Dutch as the home language of most of the Huguenot descendants.

Many of the farms in the Western Cape
Western Cape
province in South Africa
South Africa
still bear French names. Many families, today mostly Afrikaans
Afrikaans
-speaking, have surnames indicating their French Huguenot
Huguenot
ancestry. Examples include: Blignaut, Cilliers, de Klerk (Le Clercq), de Villiers , du Plessis, Du Preez (Des Pres), du Randt (Durand), du Toit, Duvenhage(Du Vinage), Franck, Fouché, Fourie (Fleurit), Gervais, Giliomee (Guilliaume), Gous/Gouws (Gauch), Hugo, Jordaan (Jourdan), Joubert
Joubert
, Kriek, Labuschagne (la Buscagne), le Roux , Lombard, Malan , Malherbe , Marais, Maree, Minnaar (Mesnard), Nel (Nell), Naude', Nortje (Nortier), Pienaar (Pinard), Retief (Retif), Rossouw (Rousseau ), Taljaard (Taillard), TerBlanche, Theron, Viljoen (Villion) and Visagie (Visage). The wine industry in South Africa
South Africa
owes a significant debt to the Huguenots, some of whom had vineyards in France, or were brandy distillers, and used their skills in their new home.

NORTH AMERICA

For more details on this topic, see Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
. Walloon Monument in Battery Park , Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City

French Huguenots made two attempts to establish a haven in North America. In 1562, naval officer Jean Ribault led an expedition that explored Florida and the present-day Southeastern US, and founded the outpost of Charlesfort on Parris Island, South Carolina
Parris Island, South Carolina
. The Wars of Religion precluded a return voyage, and the outpost was abandoned. In 1564, Ribault's former lieutenant René Goulaine de Laudonnière launched a second voyage to build a colony; he established Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
. War at home again precluded a resupply mission, and the colony struggled. In 1565 the Spanish decided to enforce their claim to La Florida , and sent Pedro Menéndez de Avilés , who established the settlement of St. Augustine near Fort Caroline. Menéndez' forces routed the French and executed most of the Protestant
Protestant
captives.

Barred by the government from settling in New France
New France
, Huguenots led by Jessé de Forest , sailed to North America in 1624 and settled instead in the Dutch colony of New Netherland (later incorporated into New York and New Jersey); as well as Great Britain's colonies, including Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
. A number of New Amsterdam's families were of Huguenot
Huguenot
origin, often having emigrated as refugees to the Netherlands in the previous century. In 1628 the Huguenots established a congregation as L'Église française à la Nouvelle-Amsterdam (the French church in New Amsterdam). This parish continues today as L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit, part of the Episcopal (Anglican) communion, and welcomes Francophone New Yorkers from all over the world. Upon their arrival in New Amsterdam, Huguenots were offered land directly across from Manhattan
Manhattan
on Long Island for a permanent settlement and chose the harbour at the end of Newtown Creek , becoming the first Europeans to live in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, then known as Boschwick, in the neighbourhood now known as Bushwick . Jean Hasbrouck House
Jean Hasbrouck House
(1721) on Huguenot
Huguenot
Street in New Paltz, New York

Huguenot
Huguenot
immigrants did not disperse or settle in different parts of the country, but rather, formed three societies or congregations; one in the city of New York, another 21 miles north of New York in a town which they named New Rochelle , and a third further upstate in New Paltz . The " Huguenot
Huguenot
Street Historic District " in New Paltz has been designated a National Historic Landmark site and contains the oldest street in the United States
United States
of America. A small group of Huguenots also settled on the south shore of Staten Island
Staten Island
along the New York Harbor , for which the current neighbourhood of Huguenot
Huguenot
was named.

New Rochelle , located in the county of Westchester on the north shore of Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, seemed to be the great location of the Huguenots in New York. It is said that they landed on the coastline peninsula of Davenports Neck called "Bauffet's Point" after travelling from England
England
where they had previously taken refuge on account of religious persecution, four years before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They purchased from John Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor , a tract of land consisting of six thousand one hundred acres with the help of Jacob Leisler . It was named New Rochelle after La Rochelle, their former strong-hold in France. A small wooden church was first erected in the community, followed by a second church that built of stone. Previous to the erection of it, the strong men would often walk twenty-three miles on Saturday evening, the distance by the road from New Rochelle to New York, to attend the Sunday service. The church was eventually replaced by a third, Trinity-St. Paul\'s Episcopal Church , which contains heirlooms including the original bell from the French Huguenot
Huguenot
Church "Eglise du St. Esperit" on Pine Street in New York City, which is preserved as a relic in the tower room. The Huguenot cemetery, or " Huguenot
Huguenot
Burial Ground", has since been recognised as a historic cemetery that is the final resting place for a wide range of the Huguenot
Huguenot
founders, early settlers and prominent citizens dating back more than three centuries.

Some Huguenot
Huguenot
immigrants settled in Central and Eastern Pennsylvania, such as Philip Woodring born 1741 in Alsace, France, and died 1819 in Northampton County, Pennsylvania. They assimilated with the predominantly Pennsylvania German settlers of the area.

In 1700 several hundred French Huguenots migrated from England
England
to the colony of Virginia, where the English Crown had promised them land grants in Lower Norfolk County . When they arrived, colonial authorities offered them instead land 20 miles above the falls of the James River, at the abandoned Monacan village known as Manakin Town , now in Powhatan County . Some settlers landed in present-day Chesterfield County . On 12 May 1705, the Virginia General Assembly passed an act to naturalise the 148 Huguenots still resident at Manakintown. Of the original 390 settlers in the isolated settlement, many had died; others lived outside town on farms in the English style; and others moved to different areas. Gradually they intermarried with their English neighbours. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, descendants of the French migrated west into the Piedmont, and across the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
into the West of what became Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and other states. In the Manakintown area, the Huguenot
Huguenot
Memorial Bridge across the James River and Huguenot Road were named in their honour, as were many local features, including several schools, including Huguenot
Huguenot
High School . French Huguenot
Huguenot
Church in Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina

In the early years, many Huguenots also settled in the area of present-day Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
. In 1685, Rev. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France, was among the first to settle there. He became pastor of the first Huguenot
Huguenot
church in North America in that city. After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
in 1685, several Huguenots including Edmund Bohun of Suffolk, England, Jean Postell of Dieppe France, Alexander Pepin , Antoine Poitevin of Orsement France, and Jacques de Bordeaux of Grenoble, immigrated to the Charleston Orange district. They were very successful at marriage and property speculation. After petitioning the British Crown in 1697 for the right to own land in the Baronies, they prospered as slave owners on the Cooper, Ashepoo, Ashley and Santee River plantations they purchased from the British Landgrave Edmund Bellinger . Some of their descendants moved into the Deep South and Texas, where they developed new plantations.

The French Huguenot
Huguenot
Church of Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot
Huguenot
congregation in the United States. L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit in New York, founded in 1628, is older, but it left the French Reformed movement in 1804 to become part of the Episcopal Church .

Most of the Huguenot
Huguenot
congregations (or individuals) in North America eventually affiliated with other Protestant
Protestant
denominations with more numerous members. The Huguenots adapted quickly and often married outside their immediate French communities, which led to their assimilation. Their descendants in many families continued to use French first names and surnames for their children well into the nineteenth century. Assimilated, the French made numerous contributions to United States
United States
economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. For example, E.I. du Pont , a former student of Lavoisier
Lavoisier
, established the Eleutherian gunpowder mills . . Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
, famed investor, pilot, film director, and philanthropist, was also of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent and descendant from Rev. John Gano .

Paul Revere
Paul Revere
was descended from Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees, as was Henry Laurens , who signed the Articles of Confederation for South Carolina; Jack Jouett , who made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king; Reverend John Gano was a Revolutionary War chaplain and spiritual advisor to George Washington ; Francis Marion , and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution and later statesmen. The last active Huguenot
Huguenot
congregation in North America worships in Charleston, South Carolina, at a church that dates to 1844. The Huguenot
Huguenot
Society of America maintains Manakin Episcopal Church in Virginia as an historic shrine with occasional services. The Society has chapters in numerous states, with the one in Texas being the largest.

NETHERLANDS

Some Huguenots fought in the Low Countries alongside the Dutch against Spain during the first years of the Dutch Revolt (1568–1609). The Dutch Republic rapidly became a destination for Huguenot
Huguenot
exiles. Early ties were already visible in the "Apologie" of William the Silent
William the Silent
, condemning the Spanish Inquisition , which was written by his court minister, the Huguenot
Huguenot
Pierre L'Oyseleur, lord of Villiers. Louise de Coligny
Louise de Coligny
, daughter of the murdered Huguenot
Huguenot
leader Gaspard de Coligny , married William the Silent, leader of the Dutch (Calvinist) revolt against Spanish (Catholic) rule. As both spoke French in daily life, their court church in the Prinsenhof in Delft held services in French. The practice has continued to the present day. The Prinsenhof is one of the 14 active Walloon churches of the Dutch Reformed Church . The ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the House of Orange-Nassau , which existed since the early days of the Dutch Revolt, helped support the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies. They settled at the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
in South Africa
South Africa
and New Netherland in North America.

Stadtholder William III of Orange , who later became King of England, emerged as the strongest opponent of king Louis XIV after the French attacked the Dutch Republic in 1672. William formed the League of Augsburg as a coalition to oppose Louis and the French state. Consequently, many Huguenots considered the wealthy and Calvinist Dutch Republic, which led the opposition to Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They also found many French-speaking Calvinist
Calvinist
churches there.

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the Dutch Republic received the largest group of Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees, an estimated total of 75,000 to 100,000 people. Amongst them were 200 clergy. Many came from the region of the Cévennes
Cévennes
, for instance, the village of Fraissinet-de-Lozère . This was a huge influx as the entire population of the Dutch Republic amounted to ca. 2 million at that time. Around 1700, it is estimated that nearly 25% of the Amsterdam population was Huguenot. In 1705, Amsterdam and the area of West Frisia were the first areas to provide full citizens rights to Huguenot
Huguenot
immigrants, followed by the Dutch Republic in 1715. Huguenots intermarried with Dutch from the outset.

One of the most prominent Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees in the Netherlands was Pierre Bayle . He started teaching in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
, where he finished writing and publishing his multi-volume masterpiece, Historical and Critical Dictionary . It became one of the 100 foundational texts of the US Library of Congress . Some Huguenot
Huguenot
descendants in the Netherlands may be noted by French family names, although they typically use Dutch given names. Due to the Huguenots' early ties with the leadership of the Dutch Revolt and their own participation, some of the Dutch patriciate are of part- Huguenot
Huguenot
descent. Some Huguenot families have kept alive various traditions, such as the celebration and feast of their patron Saint Nicolas , similar to the Dutch Sint Nicolaas ( Sinterklaas ) feast.

WALES

A number of French Huguenots settled in Wales, in the upper Rhymney valley of the current Caerphilly County Borough . The community they created there is still known as Fleur de Lys (the symbol of France), an unusual French village name in the heart of the valleys of Wales. Nearby villages are Hengoed , and Ystrad Mynach . Apart from the French village name and that of the local rugby team, Fleur De Lys RFC , little remains of the French heritage.

ENGLAND

Huguenot
Huguenot
weavers' houses at Canterbury
Canterbury

Both before and after the 1708 passage of the Foreign Protestants Naturalization Act , an estimated 50,000 Protestant
Protestant
Walloons and Huguenots fled to England, with many moving on to Ireland
Ireland
and elsewhere. In relative terms, this was one of the largest waves of immigration ever of a single ethnic community to Britain. Andrew Lortie (born André Lortie), a leading Huguenot
Huguenot
theologian and writer who led the exiled community in London, became known for articulating their criticism of the Pope and the doctrine of transubstantiation during Mass.

Of the refugees who arrived on the Kent
Kent
coast, many gravitated towards Canterbury
Canterbury
, then the county's Calvinist
Calvinist
hub. Many Walloon and Huguenot
Huguenot
families were granted asylum there. Edward VI granted them the whole of the western crypt of Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral for worship. In 1825, this privilege was reduced to the south aisle and in 1895 to the former chantry chapel of the Black Prince . Services are still held there in French according to the Reformed tradition every Sunday at 3 pm.

Other evidence of the Walloons and Huguenots in Canterbury
Canterbury
includes a block of houses in Turnagain Lane, where weavers\' windows survive on the top floor, as many Huguenots worked as weavers. The Weavers, a half-timbered house by the river, was the site of a weaving school from the late 16th century to about 1830. (It has been adapted as a restaurant—see illustration above. The house derives its name from a weaving school which was moved there in the last years of the 19th century, reviving an earlier use.) Other refugees practised the variety of occupations necessary to sustain the community as distinct from the indigenous population. Such economic separation was the condition of the refugees' initial acceptance in the City. They also settled elsewhere in Kent, particularly Sandwich , Faversham and Maidstone
Maidstone
—towns in which there used to be refugee churches.

The French Protestant
Protestant
Church of London was established by Royal Charter in 1550. It is now located at Soho Square . Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees flocked to Shoreditch
Shoreditch
, London. They established a major weaving industry in and around Spitalfields (see Petticoat Lane and the Tenterground ) in East London. In Wandsworth , their gardening skills benefited the Battersea market gardens. The flight of Huguenot refugees from Tours
Tours
, France
France
drew off most of the workers of its great silk mills which they had built. Some of these immigrants moved to Norwich
Norwich
, which had accommodated an earlier settlement of Walloon weavers. The French added to the existing immigrant population, then comprising about a third of the population of the city.

Some Huguenots settled in Bedfordshire, one of the main centres of the British lace industry at the time. Although 19th-century sources have asserted that some of these refugees were lacemakers and contributed to the East Midlands lace industry, this is contentious. The only reference to immigrant lacemakers in this period is of twenty-five widows who settled in Dover, and there is no contemporary documentation to support there being Huguenot
Huguenot
lacemakers in Bedfordshire. The implication that the style of lace known as 'Bucks Point' demonstrates a Huguenot
Huguenot
influence, being a "combination of Mechlin patterns on Lille ground", is fallacious: what is now known as Mechlin lace did not develop until the first half of the eighteenth century and lace with Mechlin patterns and Lille ground did not appear until the end of the 18th century, when it was widely copied throughout Europe.

Many Huguenots from the Lorraine
Lorraine
region also eventually settled in the area around Stourbridge
Stourbridge
in Worcestershire
Worcestershire
where they found the raw materials and fuel to continue their glassmaking tradition. Anglicised names such as Tyzack, Henzey and Tittery are regularly found amongst the early glassmakers, and the region went on to become one of the most important glass regions in the country.

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
was probably one of the most prominent people of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent, deriving from his American grandfather Leonard Jerome
Jerome
.

IRELAND

Following the French Crown's revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
, many Huguenots settled in Ireland
Ireland
in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, encouraged by an act of parliament for Protestants' settling in Ireland. Huguenot
Huguenot
regiments fought for William of Orange in the Williamite war in Ireland
Ireland
, for which they were rewarded with land grants and titles, many settling in Dublin
Dublin
. Significant Huguenot
Huguenot
settlements were in Dublin
Dublin
, Cork , Portarlington , Lisburn , Waterford
Waterford
and Youghal . Smaller settlements, which included Killeshandra
Killeshandra
in County Cavan, contributed to the expansion of flax cultivation and the growth of the Irish linen industry.

For over 150 years, Huguenots were allowed to hold their services in Lady Chapel in St. Patrick\'s Cathedral . A Huguenot
Huguenot
cemetery is located in the centre of Dublin, off St. Stephen's Green. Prior to its establishment, Huguenots used the Cabbage Garden near the Cathedral. Another Huguenot
Huguenot
Cemetery is located off French Church street in Cork.

A number of Huguenots served as mayors in Dublin, Cork, Youghal and Waterford
Waterford
in the 17th and 18th centuries. Numerous signs of Huguenot presence can still be seen with names still in use, and with areas of the main towns and cities named after the people who settled there. Examples include the Huguenot
Huguenot
District and French Church Street in Cork City ; and D\'Olier Street in Dublin, named after a High Sheriff and one of the founders of the Bank of Ireland. A French church in Portarlington dates back to 1696, and was built to serve the significant new Huguenot
Huguenot
community in the town. At the time, they constituted the majority of the townspeople.

One of the more notable Huguenot
Huguenot
descendants in Ireland
Ireland
was Seán Lemass (1899–1971), who was appointed as Taoiseach , serving from 1959 until 1966.

GERMANY AND SCANDINAVIA

Obelisk commemorating the Huguenots in Fredericia, Denmark
Denmark

Around 1685, Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran
Lutheran
and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia. Nearly 50,000 Huguenots established themselves in Germany, 20,000 of whom were welcomed in Brandenburg- Prussia
Prussia
, where they were granted special privileges ( Edict of Potsdam
Edict of Potsdam
) and churches in which to worship (such as the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Angermünde
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Angermünde
) by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia
Prussia
. The Huguenots furnished two new regiments of his army: the Altpreußische Infantry Regiments No. 13 (Regiment on foot Varenne) and 15 (Regiment on foot Wylich). Another 4,000 Huguenots settled in the German territories of Baden
Baden
, Franconia
Franconia
( Principality of Bayreuth
Principality of Bayreuth
, Principality of Ansbach ), Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel , Duchy of Württemberg
Duchy of Württemberg
, in the Wetterau Association of Imperial Counts , in the Palatinate and Palatinate-Zweibrücken , in the Rhine-Main-Area ( Frankfurt
Frankfurt
), in modern-day Saarland ; and 1,500 found refuge in Hamburg
Hamburg
, Bremen
Bremen
and Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
. Three hundred refugees were granted asylum at the court of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
in Celle
Celle
. Relief by Johannes Boese , 1885: The great Prince-elector of Brandenburg- Prussia
Prussia
welcomes arriving Huguenots

In Berlin, the Huguenots created two new neighbourhoods: Dorotheenstadt
Dorotheenstadt
and Friedrichstadt . By 1700, one-fifth of the city's population was French speaking. The Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language
French language
in their church services for nearly a century. They ultimately decided to switch to German in protest against the occupation of Prussia
Prussia
by Napoleon in 1806–07. Many of their descendents rose to positions of prominence. Several congregations were founded, such as those of Fredericia
Fredericia
(Denmark), Berlin, Stockholm , Hamburg, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Helsinki, and Emden
Emden
.

Prince Louis de Condé, along with his sons Daniel and Osias, arranged with Count Ludwig von Nassau-Saarbrücken to establish a Huguenot
Huguenot
community in present-day Saarland in 1604. The Count supported mercantilism and welcomed technically skilled immigrants into his lands, regardless of their religion. The Condés established a thriving glass-making works, which provided wealth to the principality for many years. Other founding families created enterprises based on textiles and such traditional Huguenot occupations in France. The community and its congregation remain active to this day, with descendants of many of the founding families still living in the region. Some members of this community emigrated to the United States
United States
in the 1890s.

In Bad Karlshafen
Bad Karlshafen
, Hessen, Germany is the Huguenot
Huguenot
Museum and Huguenot
Huguenot
archive. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive.

EFFECTS

The exodus of Huguenots from France
France
created a brain drain , as many Huguenots had occupied important places in society. The kingdom did not fully recover for years. The French crown's refusal to allow non-Catholics to settle in New France
New France
may help to explain that colony's slow rate of population growth compared to that of the neighbouring British colonies, which opened settlement to religious dissenters. By the time of the French and Indian War (the North American front of the Seven Years\' War ), a sizeable population of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent lived in the British colonies, and many participated in the British defeat of New France
New France
in 1759–60.

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
, invited Huguenots to settle in his realms, and a number of their descendants rose to positions of prominence in Prussia. Several prominent German military, cultural, and political figures were ethnic Huguenot, including poet Theodor Fontane
Theodor Fontane
, General Hermann von François , the hero of the First World War Battle of Tannenberg , Luftwaffe General and fighter ace Adolf Galland
Adolf Galland
, Luftwaffe flying ace Hans-Joachim Marseille , and famed U-boat captain Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière . The last Prime Minister of the (East) German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
, Lothar de Maizière , is also a descendant of a Huguenot
Huguenot
family, as is the German Federal Minister of the Interior , Thomas de Maizière .

The persecution and flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England. The two kingdoms, which had enjoyed peaceful relations prior to 1685, became bitter enemies and fought against each other in a series of wars (called the "Second Hundred Years\' War " by some historians) from 1689 onward.

SYMBOL

The Huguenot
Huguenot
Cross

The Huguenot
Huguenot
cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote). It is now an official symbol of the Église des Protestants
Protestants
réformés (French Protestant
Protestant
church). Huguenot descendants sometimes display this symbol as a sign of reconnaissance (recognition) between them.

APOLOGY AND HONOURS

In October 1985, to commemorate the tricentenary of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
, President François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
of France announced a formal apology to the descendants of Huguenots around the world. At the same time, the government released a special postage stamp in their honour reading " France
France
is the home of the Huguenots" (Accueil des Huguenots).

LEGACY

France

A number of French churches are descended from the Huguenots, including:

* Reformed Church of France (l'Église Réformée de France) * Evangelical Reformed Church of France (Union nationale des églises protestantes réformées évangéliques de France)

United States

* New Paltz, New York * New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle, New York
, named for the city of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
, a former Huguenot
Huguenot
stronghold in France. The Huguenot
Huguenot
and Historical Association of New Rochelle was organised in 1885 for the purpose of perpetuating the history of its original Huguenot
Huguenot
settlers. The mascot of New Rochelle High School is the Huguenot; and one of the main streets in the city is called Huguenot
Huguenot
Street. * Bayonne, New Jersey
Bayonne, New Jersey
* Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
, is home to the only active Huguenot Church in the United States * The early leaders John Jay
John Jay
and Paul Revere
Paul Revere
were of Huguenot descent. * Francis Marion , an American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
guerrilla fighter in South Carolina, was of predominantly Huguenot
Huguenot
ancestry. * Four-term Republican United States
United States
Representative Howard Homan Buffett was of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent. * Walloon Settlers Memorial (located in Battery Park ) is a monument given to the City of New York by the Belgian Province of Hainaut in honour of the inspiration of Jessé de Forest in founding New York City. Baron de Cartier de Marchienne, representing the government and Albert I, King of Belgium, presented the monument to Mayor John F. Hylan, for the City of New York 18 May 1924. * In 1924, the US issued a commemorative half dollar , known as the " Huguenot-Walloon half dollar ", to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Huguenots' settlement in what is now the United States. * The Huguenot
Huguenot
neighbourhood in New York City's borough of Staten Island , straddling Huguenot
Huguenot
Avenue * In Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
and the neighbouring Chesterfield County , there is a Huguenot
Huguenot
Road. A Huguenot
Huguenot
High School in Richmond and Huguenot
Huguenot
Park in Chesterfield County, along with several other uses of the name throughout the region, commemorate the early refugee settlers. * The Manakintown Church serves as a National Huguenot
Huguenot
Memorial. * Huguenot
Huguenot
Memorial Park, Jacksonville, Florida.

England

* There is a Huguenot
Huguenot
society in London,and also the French Protestant
Protestant
Church of London , founded in 1550 in Soho Square , still remains open currently, and also is a registered charity since 1926. * Huguenots of Spitalfields is a registered charity promoting public understanding of the Huguenot
Huguenot
heritage and culture in Spitalfields, the City of London and beyond. They arrange tours, talks, events and schools programmes to raise the Huguenot
Huguenot
profile in Spitalfields and raise funds for a permanent memorial to the Huguenots.

Prussia

* Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees in Prussia
Prussia
are thought to have contributed significantly to the development of the textile industry in that country. One notable example was Marthe de Roucoulle , governess of Frederick William I of Prussia
Prussia
and Frederick the Great .

Ireland

* Sean Francis Lemass , Taoiseach of Ireland
Ireland
from 1959–1966, was of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent.

South Africa

Main article: Huguenots in South Africa
South Africa

* Most South African Huguenots settled in the Cape Colony , where they became assimilated into the Afrikaner and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
population. Many modern Afrikaners have French surnames, which are given Afrikaans pronunciation and orthography. The early immigrants settled in Franschhoek ("French Corner") near Cape Town
Cape Town
. The Huguenots contributed greatly to the wine industry in South Africa
South Africa
.

Australia

Main article: French Australian

* The majority of Australians with French ancestry are descended from Huguenots. Some of the earliest to arrive in Australia
Australia
held prominent positions in English society, notably Jane Franklin and Charles La Trobe . * Others who came later were from poorer families, migrating from England
England
in the 19th and early 20th centuries to escape the poverty of London's East End Huguenot
Huguenot
enclaves of Spitalfields and Bethnal Green . Their impoverishment had been brought on by the Industrial Revolution, which caused the collapse of the Huguenot-dominated silk-weaving industry. Many French Australian descendants of Huguenots still consider themselves very much Huguenots or French, even in the twenty-first century.

SEE ALSO

* Bible translations into French * French Confession of Faith * List of Huguenots
List of Huguenots
* Huguenot
Huguenot
Church , Charleston, SC
Charleston, SC
——The only active French Calvinist
Calvinist
or Huguenot
Huguenot
congregation still existing in the United States. * Huguenot, Staten Island
Staten Island
* Huguenot
Huguenot
Street Historic District * Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
* Les Huguenots
Les Huguenots
(opera) * Guillebeau House * Walloon church

NOTES

* ^ A B Aston, Religion and Revolution in France, 1780–1804 (2000) pp 245–50 * ^ A B C Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed, Frank Puaux, Huguenot * ^ A B Gray, Janet G. (1983). The Origin of the Word Huguenot. Sixteenth Century Journal . 14. pp. 349–359. JSTOR
JSTOR
2540193 . * ^ A B Antoine Dégert, "Huguenots", The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, 1911 * ^ "Who Were the Huguenots?", The National Huguenot
Huguenot
Society * ^ De l'Estat de France
France
1560, by Reguier de la Plancha, quoted by The Cape Monthly (February 1877) No. 82 Vol. XIV on page 126The Cape Monthly on the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
* ^ Bibliothèque d'humanisme et Renaissance, by Association d'humanisme et renaissance, 1958, p 217 * ^ William Gilmore Simms, The Huguenots in Florida; Or, The Lily and the Totem, 1854, p. 470 * ^ George Lunt, " Huguenot
Huguenot
– The origin and meaning of the name", New England
England
Historical American Philosophical Society, 1991 - 164 * ^ "The National Huguenot
Huguenot
Society - Who Were the Huguenots?". * ^ The Huguenots: Or, Reformed French Church. Their Principles Delineated; Their Character Illustrated; Their Sufferings and Successes Recorded by William Henry Foote; Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1870 - 627 * ^ The Huguenots: History and Memory in Transnational Context: Essays in Honour and Memory of by Walter C. Utt * ^ From a Far Country: Camisards and Huguenots in the Atlantic World by Catharine Randall * ^ Darling, Charles William (1894). Historical account of some of the more important versions and editions of the Bible. University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. 18. * ^ Bullen, G. (1877). Catalogue of the loan collection of antiquities, curiosities, and appliances connected with the art of printing. N. Trübner and Co. p. 107 (item 687). * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140512214216/http://www.foucachon.com/Huguenots_Waldensians.pdf * ^ Malcolm D. Lambert, Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from the Gregorian Reform to the Reformation, p. 389 * ^ Hanna, William (1872). The wars of the Huguenots. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. p. 27. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ Margaret Ruth Miles, The Word Made Flesh: A History of Christian Thought, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, pg 381 * ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Turnhout: Brepols, 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1 , pp. 130–135 * ^ John Calvin, tr. Emily O. Butler. "The French Confession of Faith of 1559". Creeds.net. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Renaissance Spell: The Huguenots http://www.renaissance-spell.com/Huguenots.html * ^ margaret kilner. "Huguenots". Orange-street-church.org. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Lucien Bély (2001). The History of France. Editions Jean-paul Gisserot. p. 48. ISBN 9782877475631 . * ^ L\'affaire des placards, la fin de la belle Renaissance Archived 18 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "18 octobre 1534 : l\'affaire des placards". Herodote.net. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ " Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia: Huguenots". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Fischer, David Hackett, "Champlain's Dream", 2008, Alfred A. Knopf Canada * ^ Thomas Martin Lindsay, A History of the Reformation, 1907, p 190: "six or seven hundred Protestants
Protestants
were slain" * ^ Parker, G. (ed.) (1994), Atlas of World History, Fourth Edition, BCA (HarperCollins), London, pp. 178; * ^ Chadwick, O. (1977), The Reformation, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, pp. 162; * ^ Alastair Armstrong: France
France
1500–1715 (Heinemann, 2003) pp.70–71; * ^ "This Day in History 1572: Saint Bartholomew\'s Day Massacre". History.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Parker, G. (ed.) (1998), Oxford Encyclopedia World History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-860223-5 hardback, pp.585; * ^ Chadwick, H. * ^ Alastair Armstrong: France
France
1500–1715 (Heinemann, 2003) pp.70–71 * ^ Moynahan, B. (2003) The Faith: A History of Christianity, Pimlico, London, ISBN 0-7126-0720-X paperback, pp.456; * ^ A B Partner, P. (1999), Two Thousand Years: The Second Millennium, Granda Media (Andre Deutsch), Britain, ISBN 0-233-99666-4 hardback, pp. ; * ^ Upshall, M. (ed.) (1990), The Hutchinson Paperback Encyclopedia, Arrow Books, London, ISBN 0-09-978200-6 paperback; * ^ Benedict, Philip (1991). The Huguenot
Huguenot
Population of France, 1600–1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. p. 8. ISBN 0-87169-815-3 . * ^ see article: – Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
* ^ John Wolf, Louis XIV, ch 24; Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, "Escape from Babylon", Christian History 2001 20(3): 38–42. ISSN 0891-9666 Fulltext: Ebsco * ^ Pierre-Jean Ruff, 2008. Le temple du Rouve, lieu de mémoire des Camisards. Editions Lacour-Ollé, Nîmes. The first Camisards and freedom of conscience. Retrieved from http://templedurouve-english.asso-web.com. * ^ Nigel Aston, Religion and Revolution in France, 1780–1804 (2000) pp 61–72 * ^ Sir Thomas Barclay (1888). Nationality, domicile and residence in France: Decree of October 2, 1888 concerning foreigners, with notes and instructions and the laws of France
France
relating to nationality, admission to domicile, naturalization and the sojourn in France
France
of foreigners generally. pp. 23–. * ^ Great Britain. Foreign Office (1893). Nationality and Naturalization: Reports by Her Majesty\'s Representatives Abroad Upon the Laws of Foreign Countries. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 47. * ^ "France". State.gov. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ The Huguenot
Huguenot
Society of Australia. "Welcome to The Huguenot Society of Australia
Australia
Website". Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ "The End of the Colony", National Park Service * ^ Botha, Colin Graham. The French refugees at the Cape. p. 7. Retrieved 21 July 2009. * ^ Botha, Colin Graham. The French refugees at the Cape. p. 7. Retrieved 21 July 2009. * ^ Walker, Eric (1968). "Chapter IV – The Diaspora". A History of Southern Africa. Longmans. * ^ Ces Francais Qui Ont Fait L'Afrique Du Sud. Translation: The French People Who Made South Africa. Bernard Lugan. January 1996. ISBN 2-84100-086-9 * ^ Watkinson, William Lonsdale; Davison, William Theophilus, eds. (1875). "William Shaw and South Africa". The London Quarterly Review. 44. J.A. Sharp. p. 274. Retrieved 7 July 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ " Huguenots in Manakintown" (PDF). Library of Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Gevinson, Alan. " Protestant
Protestant
Immigration to Louisiana." Teachinghistory.org, accessed 2 September 2011. * ^ article on EIDupont says he did not even emigrate to the US and establish the mills until after the French Revolution, so the mills were not operating for theAmerican revolution * ^ Ghislain Baury,La dynastie Rouvière de Fraissinet-de-Lozère. Les élites villageoises dans les Cévennes
Cévennes
protestantes d\'après un fonds d\'archives inédit (1403–1908), t. 1: La chronique, t. 2: L\'inventaire, Sète, Les Nouvelles Presses du Languedoc, 2011. * ^ "The Huguenots in England". The Economist. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ "French Protestant
Protestant
Church of London". Egliseprotestantelondres.org. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Bethnal Green: Settlement and Building to 1836, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 91–95 Date accessed: 21 May 2008 * ^ A B Palliser, Mrs. Bury (1865). History of Lace. London: Sampson Low, Son and Marston. p. 299. A nest of refugee lace-makers, "who came out of France
France
by reason of the late 'troubles' yet continuing," were congregated at Dover (1621–22). A list of about twenty-five "widows being makers of Bone lace is given..." * ^ A B Wright, Thomas (1919). The Romance of the Lace Pillow. Olney, Bucks: H.H. Armstrong. pp. 37–38. * ^ Seguin, Joseph (1875). J. Rothschild, ed. La dentelle: Histoire, description fabrication, bibliographie (in French). Paris. p. 140. There is a tradition that the art of bobbin lace was brought to England
England
by the Flemish emigrants who, fleeing from the tyranny of the Duke of Alba, went to settle in England. This tradition is entirely false for the lace industry did not exist in Flanders when the Duke of Alba went there. * ^ Yallop, H.J. (1992). The History of the Honiton Lace Industry. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. p. 18. ISBN 0859893790 . * ^ Levey, Santina (1983). Lace, A History. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. p. 90. ISBN 090128615X . Until the late 18th century, the lace made at Lille was indistinguishable from the other copies of Michelin and Valencienne, but, at that time, it appears to have adopted—along with a number of other centres—the simple twist-net ground of the plainer blonde and thread laces. * ^ Ellis, Jason (2002). Glassmakers of Stourbridge
Stourbridge
and Dudley 1612–2002. Harrogate: Jason Ellis. ISBN 1-4010-6799-9 . * ^ Grace Lawless Lee (2009), The Huguenot
Huguenot
Settlements in Ireland, Page 169 * ^ Raymond Hylton (2005), Ireland's Huguenots and Their Refuge, 1662–1745: An Unlikely Haven, p. 194, Quote: "The Bishop of Kildare did come to Portarlington to consecrate the churches, backed by two prominent Huguenot
Huguenot
Deans of ... Moreton held every advantage and for most of the Portarlington Huguenots there could be no option but acceptance ... * ^ Raymond P. Hylton, "Dublin's Huguenot
Huguenot
Community: Trials, Development, and Triumph, 1662- 1701," Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London 24 (1983–1988): 221–231 * ^ Raymond P. Hylton, "The Huguenot
Huguenot
Settlement at Portarlington, ... * ^ C. E. J. Caldicott, Hugh Gough, Jean-Paul Pittion (1987), The Huguenots and Ireland: Anatomy of an Emigration, Quote: "The Huguenot settlement at Portarlington, 1692–1771. Unique among the French Protestant
Protestant
colonies established or augmented in Ireland
Ireland
following the Treaty of Limerick (1691), the Portarlington settlement was planted on the ashes of an ..." * ^ The Irish Pensioners of William III 's Huguenot
Huguenot
Regiments * ^ 300 years of the French Church, St. Paul's Church, Portarlington. * ^ Portarlington, Grant Family Onliine * ^ "Cooperative religion in Quebec". Journal of Ecumenical Studies. Goliath. 22 March 2004. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Steinhauer, Harry. Twelve German Novellas, p. 315. University of California Press, 1977. ISBN 0-520-03002-8 * ^ Pawly, Ronald. The Kaiser's Warlords, p.44. Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-558-9 * ^ Galland 1954, p. vii. * ^ Miller, David. U-boats, p.12. Brassey's, 2002. ISBN 1-57488-463-8 * ^ Leiby, Richard A. The Unification of Germany, 1989–1990, p. 109. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. ISBN 0-313-29969-2 * ^ croix huguenote * ^ "Allocution de M. François Mitterrand, Président de la République, aux cérémonies du tricentenaire de la Révocation de l\'Edit de Nantes, sur la tolérance en matière politique et religieuse et l\'histoire du protestantisme en France, Paris, Palais de l\'UNESCO, vendredi 11 octobre 1985. – vie-publique.fr". Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ "Historic Huguenot
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Street". Historic Huguenot
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Street. Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ http://www.bayonneonline.com/bayonne/history.htm/ Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ " Huguenot
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Half Dollar". Commem.com. Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ Super User. " Huguenots of Spitalfields heritage tours & events in Spitalfields Huguenot
Huguenot
Public Art Trust". Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ "Eglise Protestante Française de Londres". Eglise Protestante Française de Londres. Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ Super User. " Huguenots of Spitalfields heritage tours & events in Spitalfields Huguenot
Huguenot
Public Art Trust". Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ "Paths to Pluralism: South Africa\'s Early History". Michigan State University . Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ The Huguenot
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Society of Australia. "Who were the Huguenots?". Retrieved 30 April 2016. * ^ A short history of the French Protestant
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FURTHER READING

* Augeron Mickaël, Didier Poton et Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, dir., Les Huguenots et l'Atlantique, vol. 1 : Pour Dieu, la Cause ou les Affaires, préface de Jean-Pierre Poussou, Paris, Presses de l'Université Paris-Sorbonne (PUPS), Les Indes savantes, 2009 * Augeron Mickaël, Didier Poton et Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, dir., Les Huguenots et l'Atlantique, vol. 2 : Fidélités, racines et mémoires, Paris, Les Indes savantes, 2012. * Augeron Mickaël, John de Bry, Annick Notter, dir., Floride, un rêve français (1562–1565), Paris, Illustria, 2012. * Baird, Charles W. "History of the Huguenot
Huguenot
Emigration to America." Genealogical Publishing Company, Published: 1885, Reprinted: 1998, ISBN 978-0-8063-0554-7 * Butler, Jon. The Huguenots in America: A Refugee People in New World Society (1992) * Cottret, Bernard, The Huguenots in England. Immigration and Settlement, Cambridge & Paris, Cambridge University Press, 1991. * Diefendorf, Barbara B. Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris (1991) excerpt and text search * Gilman, C. Malcolm. The Huguenot
Huguenot
Migration in Europe and America, its Cause and Effect (1962) * Glozier, Matthew and David Onnekink, eds. War, Religion and Service. Huguenot
Huguenot
Soldiering, 1685–1713 (2007) * Glozier, Matthew The Huguenot
Huguenot
soldiers of William of Orange and the Glorious Revolution of 1688: the lions of Judah (Brighton, 2002) * Kamil, Neil. Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots' New World, 1517–1751 Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2005. 1058 pp. * Lachenicht, Susanne. " Huguenot
Huguenot
Immigrants and the Formation of National Identities, 1548–1787," Historical Journal 2007 50(2): 309–331, * Lotz-Heumann, Ute: Confessional Migration of the Reformed: The Huguenots, European History Online , Mainz: Institute of European History , 2012, retrieved: 11 July 2012. * McClain, Molly. "A Letter from Carolina, 1688: French Huguenots in the New World." William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd. ser., 64 (April 2007): 377–394. * Mentzer, Raymond A. and Andrew Spicer. Society and Culture in the Huguenot
Huguenot
World, 1559–1685 (2007) excerpt and text search * Murdoch, Tessa, and Randolph Vigne. The French Hospital in England: Its Huguenot
Huguenot
History and Collections Cambridge: John Adamson , 2009 ISBN 978-0-9524322-7-2 * Ruymbeke, Bertrand Van. New Babylon to Eden: The Huguenots and Their Migration to Colonial South Carolina. U. of South Carolina Press, 2006. 396 pp * Soman, Alfred. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew: Reappraisals and Documents (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974) * VanRuymbeke, Bertrand and Sparks, Randy J., eds. Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France