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Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
(simplified Chinese: 黄庭坚; traditional Chinese: 黃庭堅; Wade–Giles: Huang T'ing-chien; 1045–1105) was a Chinese artist, scholar, government official, and poet of the Song dynasty. He is predominantly known as a calligrapher, and is also admired for his painting and poetry. He was one of the Four Masters of the Song Dynasty(Chinese: 宋四家), and was a younger friend of Su Shi (simplified Chinese: 苏轼; traditional Chinese: 蘇軾)and influenced by his and his friends' practice of literati painting(simplified Chinese: 文人画; traditional Chinese: 文人畫), calligraphy, and poetry.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years in Jiangnan(江南) 1.2 With Uncle Li in Anhui 1.3 Jinshi and early career 1.4 Tianjin
Tianjin
earthquakes 1.5 Teaching career 1.6 Fame and conviction for conspiracy against the emperor 1.7 Yuanyou era 1.8 Death of his mother and exile 1.9 Pardon and exile, again 1.10 XiaoXiang
XiaoXiang
poetry 1.11 Death

2 Health 3 Family 4 Religion 5 Works

5.1 Calligraphy 5.2 Poetry

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Biography[edit] Early years in Jiangnan(江南)[edit]

Takeuchi Seihō
Takeuchi Seihō
- Calm Spring in Jiangnan

Jiangnan Summer View. Dong Yuan, 10th century.

Jiangxi
Jiangxi
in China, showing approximate area of Huang Tingjian's home (modern map)

Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was born into the prominent Huang clan, which had established residence in Jiangnan, south of the Yangzi River(長江), just across the river gorge from the main turmoils and troubles of the Five Dynasties(五代) period. Tingjian's great-great-grandfather had then and there established a great library, together with an educational system. Achievement of the jinshi (進士)degree was a common attainment for men of the Huang clan. Huang Tingjian's mother, Lady Li(李氏), was an accomplished painter of bamboo and player of the guqin(古琴). His father, Huang Shu (黄庶,1018-1058) received his jinshi in 1042, and introduced his son Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
to the works of Du Fu(杜甫) and Han Yu(韓愈), before dying when Tingjian was 13 years old, at which point Huang [1] Tingjian left his hometown of Fenning (分寧,in modern Jiangxi
Jiangxi
江西).[2] With Uncle Li in Anhui[edit] After his father's death, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was sent to Anhui (安徽)to be further brought up by his uncle, Li Chang (李常,1027-1090), who was also possessed of a large library. Jinshi and early career[edit] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
failed his jinshi(進士) in the Imperial examination, at his first attempt, in 1064, but was passed in 1067, when he was 22 years old. His first employment was in Song Shenzong(宋真宗)'s first year as emperor.[3] Tianjin
Tianjin
earthquakes[edit]

Tianjin's location, in modern China. This is also not too far from where Huang Tingjian's teaching post at the Northern Capital was located.

In 1068-1069 a series of major earthquakes occurred southwest of modern Tianjin(天津). The devastating human consequences were noted by Huang Tingjian. This was the occasion of his writing the poem "Lament for the Refugees"(流民嘆/流民歎), using the imagery of a giant tortoise moving mountains which it carried upon its back .[4] Teaching career[edit] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
passed his teaching credential exam in 1072, and spent the next 7 years teaching at the Damingfu Imperial Academy in Hebei.[5] Its location was in what is currently Daming County. Damingfu was then Northern Capital of the Song Chinese Empire, and not far from the militarily turbulent northern border with the rival Khitan Empire. Fame and conviction for conspiracy against the emperor[edit] Further information: Crow Terrace Poetry Trial In 1072, Li Chang, his maternal uncle, and Sun Jue his father-in-law had shown examples of Huang Tingjiang's works to the famous poet and New Policy opponent Su Shi
Su Shi
(Dongpo). In 1078, Huang presented Su with a letter and two elaborate gushi-style poems, to which Su returned with two poems of his own, matching Huang's rhyme-scheme. Huang's fame was secured when Su Shi
Su Shi
(Dongpo) heaped his praises upon him, and the two became close friends for life.[6] So far, it seems that Huang had managed to avoid entanglement in politics, and in fact his early career as an imperial teaching official seems to have been in part secured by the favor of Wang Anshi, upon reading a poem of Huang's, hinting at retiring from the boredom which he was experiencing at that point of his career.[7] At the time, there were two major parties, a "reform" party (also known as the New Policies Group), led by Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
and a "conservative" party, which included such prominent officials as Sima Guang, Ouyang Xiu, and Su Shi. Under the imperial system the winning side was chosen by the emperor (or the emperor's regent in the case of his minority). Imperial disfavor could range from death to a stalled career. As Emperor Shenzong increasingly favored Wang Anshi's New Policies, as they were known, their opponents suffered politically: this included exile for Su Shi, beginning in 1080, to Hangzhou (which was the time period when Su adopted the nickname of Dongpo). As Su's conviction was for writing in a defamatory way about the emperor and his government, anyone who had circulated his writings without reporting them (as Shen Kuo did), was likely to be found guilty of conspiracy. Both Huang Tingjian and his Uncle Li were convicted as co-conspirators and accordingly given considerable fines (20 catties of copper).[8] Huang was also exiled, first to Jizhou Subprefecture (now Jizhou District, Jiangxi), then to Depingzhen, in Shandong. Like, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian was known for good governance: light with taxes and empathetic with the common folk over whom they were placed in charge. Among other deeds, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
failed to enforce the New Policy of government monopoly of salt production.[9] Yuanyou era[edit] The Yuanyou (元祐, Yuányòu) era (1086–1093) was the first regnal period of the new emperor, Song Zhezong, and an important period in the life of Huang Tingjian. During the Yuanyou years, Zhezong was in his minority, and Empress Dowager
Empress Dowager
Gao acted as regent. Empress Dowager Gao was not a New Policy enthusiast, Wang Anshi's party was out of favor, and Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
himself was forced into retirement. Huang Tingjian and the other exiles were recalled from their places of banishment. Happy days were here again: now, Su, Huang, and the others could enjoy each other's company in person, and Huang was promoted, to sub-editor of the Academy of Scholarly Worthies and examining editor for the official records of former Emperor Shenzong's reign.[10] Editing the official records of the previous emperor, in light of the factional politics which had ignited at that time and were still burning, would turn out to be a perilous undertaking for Huang Tingjian's future. Death of his mother and exile[edit]

Sichuan
Sichuan
in China (on modern map)

Huang Tingjian's mother died in 1091: obligatory retirement for a period of morning in the case of the death of either parent was then the custom, and Huang returned to the family cemetery in Fenning, Jiangnan, with the remains of his mother, his two wives that had died, and those of an aunt. While he was engaged in the three-year ritual mourning period, Empress Dowager
Empress Dowager
Gao died, and Zhezong began to reign in fact as well as name. Zhezong favored the reformist party, and their remnant members returned with a vengeance: their opponents alive or dead were persecuted: Su Shi
Su Shi
was demoted and exiled, Sima Guang
Sima Guang
and Lü Gongzhu's tombs were defaced, and Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was denounced by Cai Bian (Wang Anshi's son-in-law). Huang was convicted of sarcastically editing the official records of former Emperor Shenzong. Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
spent the ensuing decade in exile, in various locations in Sichuan.[11] Pardon and exile, again[edit]

Location of Ezhou
Ezhou
Prefecture within modern Hubei, China.

Guangxi, in modern China

In the year 1100, Emperor Zhezong died young and unexpectedly, at 23 years old, and with his death came a new political alignment: the new emperor was Huizong, then in his late teenage years. Much of the power was in the hands of his older brother's wife, the former Empress Xiang. A general amnesty was declared between the two parties, the reformists and, the conservatives. By this time the anti-reformist conservatives were known as the "Yanyou Party". Cai Bian and his adherents were dismissed from office. Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
found out he had been pardoned, later in the year of 1100. He was also granted a sinecure position in Ezhou
Ezhou
city, in southeastern Hubei
Hubei
(responsible for collecting tax revenues on salt), which meant that he received a salary or other remuneration; but, as he was not required to live or work there, this was not exile. However, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
remained in Sichuan
Sichuan
long enough to attend his son's marriage ceremony, to the daughter of a local official. In 1102, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
visited Fenning, after extensive travels and several illnesses. As the year 1102 progressed, the political pendulum again reversed itself: the Yuanyou officials were out of favor once more. A list of somewhat over 100 officials whom the emperor considered to be heterodox was erected on a stele at the capital: Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was one of those named. Huang had been the recipient of a major promotion, but was now dismissed summarily, just 9 days after his appointment. As the year 1102 waned, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
returned to Ezhou, and visited various other places including Wuchang. It was during this period that he wrote "Wind in the Pines Hall".[12] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
awaited further developments at Ezhou, hearing no news about how the emperor intended to deal with his case, until the end of 1103. It was exile, again. This time to the far south, Yizhou (now in Guangxi).[13] At the time, as now Yizhou, was a fairly small settlement composed of both ethnic Han people
Han people
and Zhuang people. However, then it was only tenuously part of the Chinese Empire. Guangxi, then administered as Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse"), had only been annexed by the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
in 971. And, as recently as 1052, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao
Nong Zhigao
had led a revolt, briefly making the area part of an independent kingdom. Sending the then 58-year-old, sick and frail Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
to an official exile in this remote and precarious position was not far from a death sentence. XiaoXiang
XiaoXiang
poetry[edit] Further information: Xiaoxiang poetry

Map of the XiaoXiang
XiaoXiang
area, with Guangxi
Guangxi
(the location of Yizhou) at bottom.

Travel to his remote posting meant travel through the XiaoXiang: the classic poetic place of exile. Not that he was not already there, in Ezhou; but, now, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was faced with traveling through the depths of it, only to emerge into an even more remote and difficult territory. He faced a fate similar to Su Shi
Su Shi
Dongpo, who never quite made it back from his final exile in the then remote and undeveloped island of Hainan. The far southern lands were known as the "gates of hell", but when the emperor ordered one of his subjects there, there was little choice. Open resistance could be and often was met with the mass annihilation of ones entire family, and even whole clan. The main hope was a quick recall from exile. However, in Huang Tingjian's case, this never happened. In early 1104, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
packed up his family and headed south, towards his place of banishment, Yizhou. That springtime, during the course of his journey, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
met the Chan monk Zhongren (also known as Huaguang, after the name of his monastery). Zhongren shared a scroll of poems by Su Shi, Su Shi's brother Su Che, the monk Shenliao, and Qin Guan (another one of the Yuanyou crew): and, both Su Shi
Su Shi
and Qin Guan had died as a result of their exiles in the south, the journey which Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
was now upon. The two became friends: Zhongren painted branches of flowering plum blossoms and landscapes for Huang, Huang wrote poems in his inimatable calligraphy for Zhongren, even appending a poem with praise of Zhongren to the end of his precious scroll of poems. Together the two helped to change the art world forever: establishing monochrome painting of plums among the scholar-official class.[14] Death[edit]

Yizhou: view from the Long River, 2007.

Parting ways with his friend Zhongren, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
headed onward towards his destined place of banishment, Yizhou. Emperor Huizong had ordered him there, and so, leaving his family in the mountains of Yongzhou
Yongzhou
(Hunan), in order to "spare them from the intense heat", Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
traveled on to his destination without them. Once there, he continued his calligraphy, of which an ink rubbing survives, a rather pointed quote about the life of Fan Pang (137-169), who was arrested and executed due to getting caught up in factional politics, during the second of the Disasters of Partisan Prohibitions which occurred during the Han dynastic era.[15] In the early Winter of 1105, Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
died, alone from his family, in exile, in Yizhou. His funeral was arranged by a stranger, who had traveled to Yizhou, hoping to make his acquaintance.[16] Health[edit] Huang Tingjian's health was poor throughout his life. His health problems included "beriberi, severe coughs and colds, malarial fever, headaches, dizziness, and in his later years, heart trouble and chest and arm pains."[17] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
also had a deep interest in medicinal substances, and at one point seriously mulled over the idea of giving up his aspirations for an official career, in favor of opening up a shop and dealing in herbs and herbal medications.[18] Family[edit] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
had 3 wives during his life, and one son, to the third. His first wife was the daughter of the scholar, Sun Jue (1028-1090). She died in 1070. His second wife, from the Xie clan, had a daughter to him, before her death, in Damingfu, in 1079. His third wife gave birth to his only son, whom he gave the unusual name of "Forty", because he was 40 years old when the boy was born.[19] Religion[edit] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
had a strong lifelong interest in Buddhism and Daoism. In his hometown of Fenning were 10 monasteries of the Chan practice ("Chan" is Chinese for Zen); indeed, Jiangnan had hundreds of them. The year after his second wife died, Huang retreated to the Shan'gu (Mountain Valley) Daoist monastery in Anhui, and took the religious name Shan'gu Daoren.[20] Works[edit]

Scroll for Zhang Datong, A.D. 1100, a canonical work of Chinese calligraphy in the Princeton University Art Museum[21]

Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
is noted for his prodigious talent in terms of his vast knowledge of Classical Chinese poetry
Classical Chinese poetry
and literature.[22] He is famous both for the calligraphy and the poetry of his work "Wind in the Pines Hall", which survives in the Palace Museum, Taipei.[23] Calligraphy[edit]

Biographies of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru. Calligraphy
Calligraphy
by Huang Tingjian.

Huang is also regarded as a particularly fine and creative calligrapher of the Song Dynasty. His xingshu (semi-cursive style of script) displays a sharpness and aggression that is instantly recognizable to students of Chinese calligraphy. His calligraphic piece Biographies of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru epitomises a technique today known as "flying-white" "when writing calligraphy, the areas within a brushstroke where the brush fails to leave a full measure of ink and streaks of white paper or silk appear".[24] Poetry[edit] Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian
is considered to be the founder of the Jiangxi
Jiangxi
school of poetry.[25] Gallery[edit]

Poem on the Hall of Pines and Wind

A version of the poem "Cold Food Observance", by Su Shi, which includes some of Huang Tingjian's calligraphy. Su Shi's calligraphy is on the right side. Huang Tingjian's calligraphy is to its left

Picture of Huang Tingjian, from much later times.

Illustration from the Long Corridor. Left to right:Su Shi, Fo Yin (佛印), and Huang Tingjian, drinking wine.

Wei Qing Dao Ren Observance

Besotted by Flower Vapors

24 paragons of filial piety - Huang Tingjian, who "so loved his mother, that he emptied her chamber pot himself".

See also[edit]

Su Shi White Peony Yang Wanli

Notes[edit]

^ Murck, 158-159 ^ Murck, 158 and 161 ^ Murck, 158 ^ Murck, 160 and note 3, page 331 ^ Murck, 158-159 ^ Murck, 159 and note 8, page 331 ^ Murck, 158-159 ^ Murck, 160-161 ^ Murck, 158-160 ^ Murck, 160 ^ Murck, 161-162 ^ Murck, 162-163 ^ Murck, 179 ^ Murck, 179 ^ Murck, 187. Also see 後漢書/卷67 ^ Murck, 187-188 ^ Murck, note 5, page 331, following Shen Fu ^ Murck, 159 ^ Murck, 159 ^ Murck, 159 ^ Patton, Andy J. (2013). ""A Painter's Brush That Also Makes Poems": Contemporary Painting After Northern Song Calligraphy". Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository, Paper 1302.  ^ Murck, 157 ^ Murck, 177 ^ Wang Yao-t'ing, Looking at Chinese Painting, Nigensha Publishing Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan (first English edition 1996), p, 78. ISBN 4-544-02066-2 ^ Murck, 157

References[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica, copyrighted 1994-2005. Murck, Alfreda (2000). Poetry and Painting in Song China: The Subtle Art of Dissent. Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London: Harvard University Asia Center for the Harvard-Yenching Institute. ISBN 0-674-00782-4. Willets, William, Chinese Calligraphy: Its History and Aesthetic Motivation, Oxford University Press, 1981. Wang Yao-t'ing, Looking at Chinese Painting, Nigensha Publishing Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan (first English edition 1996), p, 78. ISBN 4-544-02066-2

External links[edit]

Huang Tingjian's Calligraphy
Calligraphy
Gallery at China Online Museum

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Huang Tingjian.

v t e

Chinese poetry

Major eras

Classical Chinese poetry Modern Chinese poetry

Poetry by dynasty

Han poetry Jian'an poetry Six Dynasties poetry Tang poetry Song poetry Yuan poetry Ming poetry Qing poetry

Poetry works and collections

Classic of Poetry Chu Ci New Songs from the Jade Terrace Nineteen Old Poems Quan Tangshi Three Hundred Tang Poems Wangchuan ji Wen Xuan Zhuying ji

Major forms

ci fu shi qu yuefu

Individual poems list

Chinese poems (category list) List of poems (article)

Modern compilations

Sunflower Splendor: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry The Columbia Anthology of Modern Chinese Literature

Regional styles

Cantonese poetry

v t e

The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars

Emperor Shun Emperor Wen of Han Zengzi Min Sun Zhong You Tan Zi Laolaizi Dong Yong Guo Ju Jiang Shi Cai Shun Ding Lan Lu Ji Jiang Ge Huang Xiang Wang Pou Wu Meng Wang Xiang Yang Xiang Meng Zong Yu Qianlou Lady Tang Zhu Shouchang Huang Tingjian

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37708306 LCCN: n81014386 ISNI: 0000 0000 8117 1629 GND: 118553984 SELIBR: 301060 SUDOC: 075145138 BNF: cb16697881m (data) ULAN: 500319755 NLA: 3660

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