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HUế (Vietnamese: ( listen ) is a city in central Vietnam
Vietnam
that was the seat of Nguyen Dynasty
Nguyen Dynasty
emperors and the national capital from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel , surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Climate

* 4 Government

* 4.1 Administrative divisions

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Name-giving * 5.2 Clothing * 5.3 Cuisine * 5.4 Religion * 5.5 Tourism * 5.6 In popular culture

* 6 Infrastructure

* 6.1 Health * 6.2 Transportation

* 7 Sister cities * 8 Image gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Huế
Huế
originally rose to prominence as the capital of the Nguyễn lords , a feudal dynasty that dominated much of southern Vietnam
Vietnam
from the 17th to the 19th century. In 1775 when Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm captured it, it was known as PHú XUâN . Enthronement of Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
in the Imperial City in 1926

In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long
Gia Long
) succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam
Vietnam
, thereby making Huế
Huế
the national capital.

Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
(r. 1820-40) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 (his 29th birthday) until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long
Gia Long
, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. Minh was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, and for his rigid Confucian
Confucian
orthodoxy .

During the French colonial period , Huế
Huế
was located in the protectorate of Annam . It remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
abdicated and a communist DRV government was established with its capital at Hà Nội ( Hanoi
Hanoi
), in the north.

While Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam
Vietnam
" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949 (although not with recognition from the communists or the full acceptance of the Vietnamese people), his new capital was Sài Gòn ( Saigon
Saigon
), in the south.

During the Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
, Huế's central location very near the border between the North and South put it in a vulnerable position in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War . In the Tết Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Huế
Huế
, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, and the massacre at Huế
Huế
committed by the communist forces.

After the war's conclusion, many of the historic features of Huế were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime"; the Vietnamese Communist Party doctrine officially described the Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
as "feudal" and "reactionary." There has since been a change of policy, however, and many historical areas of the city are currently being restored. Satellite picture of the city and the Perfume River

GEOGRAPHY

The city is located in central Vietnam
Vietnam
on the banks of the Perfume River , just a few miles inland from the East Sea . It is about 700 km (430 mi) south of Hanoi
Hanoi
and about 1,100 km (680 mi) north of Hồ Chí Minh City .

CLIMATE

Huế
Huế
features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification . Failling short of a tropical rainforest climate . The dry season is from March to August, with high temperatures of 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F). The rainy season is from August to January, with a flood season from October, onwards. The average rainy season temperature is 20 °C (68 °F), sometimes as low as 9 °C (48 °F). Spring lasts from January to late February.

CLIMATE DATA FOR HUế (1971–2000, EXTREMES 1961–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 33.6 (92.5) 36.3 (97.3) 38.6 (101.5) 39.9 (103.8) 41.3 (106.3) 40.7 (105.3) 39.6 (103.3) 39.7 (103.5) 39.7 (103.5) 36.1 (97) 34.3 (93.7) 32.2 (90) 41.3 (106.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 23.8 (74.8) 24.6 (76.3) 27.8 (82) 31.1 (88) 33.3 (91.9) 34.4 (93.9) 34.6 (94.3) 34.3 (93.7) 31.6 (88.9) 28.7 (83.7) 26.2 (79.2) 23.5 (74.3) 29.5 (85.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 20.8 (69.4) 23.2 (73.8) 26.0 (78.8) 28.1 (82.6) 29.2 (84.6) 29.3 (84.7) 28.9 (84) 27.1 (80.8) 25.2 (77.4) 23.0 (73.4) 20.4 (68.7) 25.1 (77.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 18.4 (65.1) 20.4 (68.7) 22.8 (73) 24.5 (76.1) 25.4 (77.7) 25.3 (77.5) 25.2 (77.4) 24.2 (75.6) 22.8 (73) 20.8 (69.4) 18.4 (65.1) 22.1 (71.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 11.9 (53.4) 10.7 (51.3) 15.6 (60.1) 16.8 (62.2) 21.4 (70.5) 21.3 (70.3) 22.2 (72) 20.0 (68) 16.7 (62.1) 14.0 (57.2) 9.5 (49.1) 9.5 (49.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 144.8 (5.701) 45.4 (1.787) 58.6 (2.307) 68.4 (2.693) 121.6 (4.787) 86.9 (3.421) 66.1 (2.602) 194.0 (7.638) 509.1 (20.043) 898.3 (35.366) 682.3 (26.862) 350.5 (13.799) 3,226 (127.006)

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 92 91 90 86 82 78 78 80 88 90 92 93 86.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 72.7 107.4 116.6 165.5 226.8 236.5 225.5 190.6 143.4 116.3 99.3 66.1 1,766.7

Source #1: south-east Asian Climate Assessment "> Local People's Council building in Huế
Huế

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Huế
Huế
comprises 27 administrative divisions, including 27 phường (urban wards):

* An Cựu * An Đông * An Hoà * An Tây * Hương Sơ * Kim Long * Phú Bình * Phú Cát * Phú Hậu * Phú Hiệp * Phú Hòa * Phú Hội * Phú Nhuận * Phú Thuận * Phước Vĩnh * Phường Đúc * Tây Lộc * Thuận Hòa * Thuận Lộc * Thuận Thành * Trường An * Vĩnh Ninh * Vỹ Dạ * Xuân Phú * Hương Long * Thủy Xuân * Thủy Biều

CULTURE

Located in the center of Vietnam, Huế
Huế
was the capital city of Vietnam
Vietnam
for approximately 150 years during feudal time (1802–1945), and the royal lifestyle and customs have had a significant impact on the characteristics of the people of Huế. That impact can still be felt today.

NAME-GIVING

See also: Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
§ Imperial succession poem

Historically, the qualities valued by the royal family were reflected in its name-giving customs, which came to be adopted by society at large. As a rule, royal family members were named after a poem written by Minh Mạng, the second king of Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
. The poem, Đế hệ thi", has been set as a standard frame to name every generation of the royal family, through which people can know the family order as well as the relationship between royal members. More importantly, the names reflect the essential personality traits that the royal regime would like their offspring to uphold. This name-giving tradition is proudly kept alive and nowadays people from Huế
Huế
royal family branches (normally considered 'pure' Huế) still have their names taken from the words in the poem.

CLOTHING

Festival in Huế
Huế

The design of the modern-day áo dài , a Vietnamese national costume , evolved from an outfit worn at the court of the Nguyễn Lords at Huế
Huế
in the 18th century. A court historian of the time described the rules of dress as follows:

Thường phục thì đàn ông, đàn bà dùng áo cổ đứng ngắn tay, cửa ống tay rộng hoặc hẹp tùy tiện. Áo thì hai bên nách trở xuống phải khâu kín liền, không được xẻ mở. Duy đàn ông không muốn mặc áo cổ tròn ống tay hẹp cho tiện khi làm việc thì được phép.

Outside court, men and women wear gowns with straight collars and short sleeves. The sleeves are large or small depending on the weather. There are seams on both sides running down from the sleeve, so the gown is not open anywhere. Men may wear a round collar and a short sleeve for more convenience. —  Đại Nam thực lục
Đại Nam thực lục

This outfit evolved into the áo ngũ thân, a five-paneled aristocratic gown worn in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Inspired by Paris fashions, Nguyễn Cát Tường and other artists associated with Hanoi
Hanoi
University redesigned the ngũ thân as a modern dress in the 1920s and 1930s. While the áo dài and nón lá are generally seen as a symbol of Vietnam
Vietnam
as a whole, the combination is seen by Vietnamese as being particularly evocative of Huế. Violet-coloured áo dài are especially common in Huế, the color having a special connection to the city's heritage as a former capital.

CUISINE

Bún bò Huế
Bún bò Huế
, a typical noodle dish

The cuisine of Huế
Huế
forms the heart of Central Vietnamese cuisine, but one of the most striking differences is the prominence of vegetarianism in the city. Several all-vegetarian restaurants are scattered in various corners of the city to serve the locals who have a strong tradition of eating vegetarian twice a month, as part of their Buddhist beliefs. Another feature of Huế
Huế
dishes that sets them apart from other regional cuisines in Vietnam
Vietnam
is the relatively small serving size with refined presentation, a vestige of its royal cuisine. Finally, another feature of Huế
Huế
cuisine is that it is often very spicy.

Hue cuisine has both luxurious and popular rustic dishes. All are cooked with talent and the skills of the Hue people, creating the special flavor of Hue food. With such a rich history, Hue's royal cuisine (foods served for the King) combines both taste and aesthetic. It consists of several distinctive dishes from small and delicate creations, originally made to please the appetites of Nguyen feudal lords, emperors and their hundreds of concubines and wives. Furthermore, another thing that set's Hue cuisine apart is its traditional foods. These are so distinctive from those of other regions in the country that it is considered the best in Vietnam.

RELIGION

Pagoda of the Celestial Lady

The imperial court practiced various religions such as Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. The most important altar was the Esplanade of Sacrifice to the Heaven and Earth , where the monarch would offer each year prayers to the Heaven and Earth.

In Huế, Buddhism
Buddhism
enjoyed stronger support than elsewhere in Vietnam, with more monasteries than anywhere else and the nation's most famous monks.

Famously in 1963, Thích Quảng Đức
Thích Quảng Đức
drove to Saigon
Saigon
to protest anti-Buddhist policies of the South Vietnamese government and set himself on fire on a Saigon
Saigon
street.

Thich Nhat Hanh
Thich Nhat Hanh
, world-famous Zen
Zen
master now living in France, originates from Huế.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Vietnam
Vietnam

Huế Thành Phố Huế
Huế

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

OFFICIAL NAME Complex of Huế
Huế
Monuments

LOCATION Thừa Thiên- Huế
Huế
, Vietnam
Vietnam

COORDINATES 16°28′N 107°35′E / 16.47°N 107.58°E / 16.47; 107.58

AREA 70.67 km2 (760,700,000 sq ft)

CRITERIA Cultural: iv

REFERENCE 678

INSCRIPTION 1993 (17th Session )

WEBSITE www.thuathienhue.gov.vn

Location of Huế
Huế

Huế
Huế
is well known for its historic monuments, which have earned it a place in UNESCO
UNESCO
's World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
. The seat of the Nguyễn emperors was the Imperial City , which occupies a large, walled area on the north side of the Perfume River . Inside the citadel was a forbidden city where only the emperors, concubines, and those close enough to them were granted access; the punishment for trespassing was death. Today, little of the forbidden city remains, though reconstruction efforts are in progress to maintain it as a historic tourist attraction.

Roughly along the Perfume River from Huế
Huế
lie myriad other monuments, including the tombs of several emperors, including Minh Mạng , Khải Định
Khải Định
, and Tự Đức
Tự Đức
. Also notable is the Thiên Mụ Pagoda , the largest pagoda in Huế
Huế
and the official symbol of the city.

A number of French-style buildings lie along the south bank of the Perfume River . Among them are Quốc Học High School , the oldest high school in Vietnam, and Hai Ba Trung High School.

The Huế Museum of Royal Fine Arts on 3 Le Truc Street also maintains a collection of various artifacts from the city.

In addition to the various touristic attractions in Hué itself, the city also offers day-trips to the Demilitarized Zone lying approximately 70 km (43 mi) north, showing various war settings like The Rockpile , Khe Sanh Combat Base or the Vinh Moc tunnels
Vinh Moc tunnels
.

The first 11 months of 2012, Huế
Huế
received 2.4 million visitors, an increase of 24.6% from the same period of 2011. 803,000 of those 2.4 million visitors were foreign guests, an increase of 25.7%.

Although tourism plays a key role in the city's socioeconomic development, it also has negative impacts on the environment and natural resource base. For example, services associated with tourism, such as travel, the development of infrastructure and its operation, and the production and consumption of goods, are all energy-intensive.

Research by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network has identified traditional ‘garden houses’ as having the potential to increase tourist traffic and revenue. Apart from the environmental, economic and cultural benefits provided by garden houses, their promotion could pave the way for other low carbon development initiatives.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

The second half of Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
's Full Metal Jacket takes place primarily in and around the bombed-out ruins of the city of Huế. The scenes were filmed in the disused Beckton Gas Works a few miles from central London
London
.

The 6th Campaign mission in Call of Duty: Black Ops , takes place in Hue City.

Vietcong 2 from 2005 is set in Huế. The player assumes the role of an American MACV soldier and young Vietcong
Vietcong
recruit fighting before and during the Tet Offensive
Tet Offensive
.

The multiplayer maps named "Compound" and "Hue City" in Rising Storm 2: Vietnam
Vietnam
take place in Huế
Huế
city.

Huế
Huế
is mentioned in the BBC scifi/comedy series Red Dwarf
Red Dwarf
in the series 7 episode "Beyond a Joke "

INFRASTRUCTURE

Huế
Huế
railway station .

HEALTH

The Huế Central Hospital , established in 1894, was the first Western hospital in Vietnam
Vietnam
. The hospital, providing 2078 beds and occupying 120,000 square meters, is one of three largest in the country along with Bạch Mai Hospital in Hanoi
Hanoi
and Chợ Rẫy Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
, and is managed by the Ministry of Health.

TRANSPORTATION

Huế Railway Station provides a rail connection to major Vietnamese cities, via the North-South Railway . Phu Bai International Airport
Phu Bai International Airport
is located just south of the city centre.

SISTER CITIES

* Bandar-e Anzali
Bandar-e Anzali
, Iran
Iran
* Honolulu, Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii
, United States
United States
* New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, Connecticut
, United States
United States
* Blois
Blois
, France
France
, Centre-Val de Loire
Centre-Val de Loire
, since May 2007

IMAGE GALLERY

*

Perfume River *

Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Imperial City *

Tomb of Emperor Khải Định
Khải Định
*

Trường Tiền Bridge

SEE ALSO

* USS Hue City * List of historical capitals of Vietnam
Vietnam

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Đại Nam thực lục
Đại Nam thực lục

* ^ Station ID for Hue is 309. Download the data, open the text files for each month and use this station ID to obtain monthly values for this location

REFERENCES

* ^ Woodside, Alexander (1988). Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Chinese model: a comparative study of Vietnamese and Chinese government in the first half of the nineteenth century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5 . * ^ Boobbyer, Claire; Spooner, Andrew; O'Tailan, Jock (2008). Vietnam, Cambodia Langer, William Leonard (2001). The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 1036. * ^ Ishizawa, Yoshiaki; Kōno, Yasushi; Rojpojchanarat, Vira; Daigaku, Jōchi; Kenkyūjo, Ajia Bunka (1988). Study on Sukhothai: research report. Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University. p. 68. * ^ "Climatology Maps: Mean of daily maximum temperature". Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Retrieved August 13, 2015. * ^ "Climatology Maps: Mean of daily mean temperature". Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Retrieved August 13, 2015. * ^ "Climatology Maps: Mean of daily minimum temperature". Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Retrieved August 13, 2015. * ^ "Indices data: Minimum of daily minimum temperature and Maximum of daily maximum temperature". Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Retrieved August 12, 2015. * ^ "Administrative Unit and Climate: Monthly Sunshine duration
Sunshine duration
by Cities, provinces, Month and Year, mean monthly precipitation and mean monthly humidity". General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. * ^ Nguyễn, Đắc Xuân (2009). 700 năm Thuận Hóa-Phú Xuân-Huế. Việt Nam: Nhà xuất bản Trẻ. * ^ vi:Minh Mạng * ^ Ellis, Claire (1996), "Ao Dai: The National Costume", Things Asian, archived from the original on 5 July 2008, retrieved 2 July 2008 * ^ Bửu, Ý (19 June 2004). "Xứ Huế
Huế
Người Huế". Tuổi Trẻ. Retrieved 29 April 2011. * ^ " Ao dai
Ao dai
– Hue\'s piquancy". VietnamNet. 18 June 2004. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011. * ^ Ngoc, Huu; Borton, Lady (2006). Am Thuc Xu Hue: Hue Cuisine. Vietnam. * ^ rpcpost. "Hue, Vietnam: Try The Food - GoNOMAD Travel". gonomad.com. * ^ Vietnam\'s eight World Heritage Sites. Tuoi Tre News. 22 July 2014. * ^ Pham, Sherrise; Emmons, Ron; Eveland, Jennifer; Lin-Liu, Jen (2009). Frommer's south-east Asia. Frommer's. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-470-44721-5 . * ^ "Hue; Information & Statistics,". Travel-Tourist-Information-Guide.com. Retrieved 2016-10-