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Hot chocolate
Becher Kakao mit Sahnehäubchen.JPG
A cup of hot chocolate with whipped cream and cocoa powder
Country of originMesoamerica
ColorBrown or chestnut
FlavorChocolate
IngredientsChocolate or cocoa powder, milk or water, sugar
A close-up view of hot chocolate
Hot chocolate in Montsalvat, Melbourne

Hot chocolate, also known as drinking chocolate, cocoa, and as chocolate tea in Nigeria, is a heated drink consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener. Hot chocolate may be topped with whipped cream or marshmallows. Hot chocolate made with melted chocolate is sometimes called drinking chocolate, characterized by less sweetness and a thicker consistency.[1]

The first chocolate drink is believed to have been created by the Maya around 2,500–3,000 years ago, and a cocoa drink was an essential part of Aztec culture by 1400 AD, by which they referred to as xocōlātl.[2] The drink became popular in Europe after being introduced from Mexico in the New World and has undergone multiple changes since then. Until the 19th century, hot chocolate was even used medicinally to treat ailments such as liver and stomach diseases.

Hot chocolate is consumed throughout the world and comes in multiple variations, including the spiced chocolate para mesa of Latin America, the very thick cioccolata calda served in Italy and chocolate a la taza served in Spain, and the thinner hot cocoa consumed in the United States. Prepared hot chocolate can be purchased from a range of establishments, including cafeterias, fast food restaurants, coffeehouses and teahouses. Powdered hot chocolate mixes, which can be added to boiling water or hot milk to make the drink at home, are sold at grocery stores and online.

History

Nigeria, is a heated drink consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener. Hot chocolate may be topped with whipped cream or marshmallows. Hot chocolate made with melted chocolate is sometimes called drinking chocolate, characterized by less sweetness and a thicker consistency.[1]

The first chocolate drink is believed to have been created by the Maya around 2,500–3,000 years ago, and a cocoa drink was an essential part of Aztec culture by 1400 AD, by which they referred to as xocōlātl.[2] The drink became popular in Europe after being introduced from Mexico in the New World and has undergone multiple changes since then. Until the 19th century, hot chocolate was even used medicinally to treat ailments such as liver and stomach diseases.

Hot chocolate is consumed throughout the world and comes in multiple variations, including the spiced chocolate para mesa of Latin America, the very thick cioccolata calda served in Italy and chocolate a la taza served in Spain, and the thinner hot cocoa consumed in the United States. Prepared hot chocolate can be purchased from a range of establishments, including cafeterias, fast food restaurants, coffeehouses and teahouses. Powdered hot chocolate mixes, which can be added to boiling water or hot milk to make the drink at home, are sold at grocery stores and online.

  • Trembleuse or Gobelet et soucoupe enfoncé by Trembleuse or Gobelet et soucoupe enfoncé by Sèvres c. 1776 designed for drinking hot chocolate

  • chocolate, in a canvas by Raimundo Madrazo

  • Terminology

    [20] and "hot chocolate", made directly from bar chocolate, which already contains cocoa, sugar, and cocoa butter.[20] Thus, the major difference between the two is the cocoa butter, the absence of which makes hot cocoa significantly lower in fat than hot chocolate while still preserving all the antioxidants found in chocolate.[21]

    • Hot chocolate can be made with dark, semisweet, or bittersweet chocolate grated or chopped into small pieces and stirred into milk with the addition of sugar.
    • Cocoa usually refers to a drink made with cocoa powder, hot milk or water, and sweetened to taste with sugar (or not sweetened at all).[22]
    • Instant hot chocolate or hot cocoa mix may be based on cocoa powder, powdered chocolate, or both; often includes powdered milk or comparable ingredients so it can be made without using milk; sugar or other sweeteners; and typically stabilizers and thickeners.[22] However, mixes can vary widely (between countries and often between brands) in ingredients included, their ratio and their quality.

    Usage

    Today, hot chocolate in the form of drinking chocolate or cocoa is considered a comfort food and is widely consumed in many parts of the world. European hot chocolate tends to be relatively thick and rich, while in the United States the thinner instant version is consumed more often. In Nigeria, hot chocolate is referred to as "tea" even though it is not actually a tea due to the Nigerian custom of referring to drinks consumed in the morning as "tea".[23] Many regions have distinctive additives or toppings, ranging from marshmallow and whipped cream to cheese.

    Europe

    Hot chocolate is called warme chocolademelk in the Netherlands.
    Hot chocolate from Warsaw, Poland

    In mainland Europe (particularly Spain and Italy), hot chocolate is sometimes served very thick due to the use of a thickening agent such as cornstarch.[24] One of the thick forms of hot chocolate served in Europe is the Italian cioccolata calda.

    Hot chocolate with churros is the traditional working-man's breakfast in Spain. This style of hot chocolate can be extremely thick, often having the consistency of warm chocolate pudding.[25] In the Netherlands, hot chocolate is a very popular drink, known as warme chocolademelk, it is often served at home or in cafes. In France, hot chocolate is often served at breakfast time; sometimes sliced bread spread with butter, jam, honey, or Nutella is dunked into the hot chocolate.[26]

    In Germany, hot chocolate made by melted chocolate (Heiße Schokolade Wiener Art) is distinguished from those made from powders (Trinkschokolade).[24] It is often served with whipped cream on top.[24]

    Even further variations of hot chocolate exist. In some cafes in Belgium and other areas in Europe, one who orders a "<

    Today, hot chocolate in the form of drinking chocolate or cocoa is considered a comfort food and is widely consumed in many parts of the world. European hot chocolate tends to be relatively thick and rich, while in the United States the thinner instant version is consumed more often. In Nigeria, hot chocolate is referred to as "tea" even though it is not actually a tea due to the Nigerian custom of referring to drinks consumed in the morning as "tea".[23] Many regions have distinctive additives or toppings, ranging from marshmallow and whipped cream to cheese.

    Europe

    Hot chocolate is called warme chocolademelk in the Netherlands.
    [24] One of the thick forms of hot chocolate served in Europe is the Italian cioccolata calda.

    Hot chocolate with churros is the traditional working-man's breakfast in Spain. This style of hot chocolate can be extremely thick, often having the consistency of warm chocolate pudding.[25] In the Netherlands, hot chocolate is a very popular drink, known as warme chocolademelk, it is often served at home or in cafes. In France, hot chocolate is often served at breakfast time; sometimes sliced bread spread with butter, jam, honey, or Nutella is dunked into the hot chocolate.[26]

    In Germany, hot chocolate made by melted chocolate (Heiße Schokolade Wiener Art) is distinguished from those made from powders (Trinkschokolade).[24] It is often served with whipped cream on top.[24]

    Even further variations of hot chocolate exist. In some cafes in Belgium and other areas in Europe, one who orders a "warme chocolade" or "chocolat chaud" receives a cup of steaming white milk and a small bowl of bittersweet chocolate chips to dissolve in the milk.[22] One Viennese variant Heiße Schokolade Wiener Art contains an egg yolk for thickness.[24]

    churros is the traditional working-man's breakfast in Spain. This style of hot chocolate can be extremely thick, often having the consistency of warm chocolate pudding.[25] In the Netherlands, hot chocolate is a very popular drink, known as warme chocolademelk, it is often served at home or in cafes. In France, hot chocolate is often served at breakfast time; sometimes sliced bread spread with butter, jam, honey, or Nutella is dunked into the hot chocolate.[26]

    In Germany, hot chocolate made by melted chocolate (Heiße Schokolade Wiener Art) is distinguished from those made from powders (Trinkschokolade).[24] It is often served with whipped cream on top.[24]

    Even further variations of hot chocolate exist. In some cafes in Belgium and other areas in Europe, one who orders a "warme chocolade" or "chocolat chaud" receives a cup of steaming white milk and a small bowl of bittersweet chocolate chips to dissolve in the milk.[22] One Viennese variant Heiße Schokolade Wiener Art contains an egg yolk for thickness.[24]

    In the United States and Canada, the drink is popular in instant form, made with hot water or milk from a packet containing mostly cocoa powder, sugar, and dry milk.[27] This is the thinner of the two main variations.[28] It is very sweet and may be topped with marshmallows, whipped cream, or a piece of solid chocolate. Hot chocolate was first brought to North America as early as the 17th century by the Dutch, but the first time colonists began selling hot chocolate was around 1755.[29] Traditionally, hot chocolate has been associated with cold weather, winter, and dessert in the United States and Canada.[30]

    Hot chocolate mixed with espresso or coffee is trending in coffee shops around the United States (and all over the world) under the name of Caffè mocha. This particular name comes from the town Mocha, Yemen, where a specific blend of coffee with the same name is grown.[31]

    In Mexico, hot chocolate remains a popular national drink, often including semi-sweet chocolate, cinnamon, sugar, and vanilla.[32] Hot chocolate of this type is commonly sold in circular or hexagonal tablets[32] which can be dissolved into hot milk, water, or cream, and then blended until the mixture develops a creamy froth. A 1942 article in the Chicago Tribune describes Mexican cinnamon hot chocolate as being t

    Hot chocolate mixed with espresso or coffee is trending in coffee shops around the United States (and all over the world) under the name of Caffè mocha. This particular name comes from the town Mocha, Yemen, where a specific blend of coffee with the same name is grown.[31]

    In Mexico, hot chocolate remains a popular national drink, often including semi-sweet chocolate, cinnamon, sugar, and vanilla.[32] Hot chocolate of this type is commonly sold in circular or hexagonal tablets[32] which can be dissolved into hot milk, water, or cream, and then blended until the mixture develops a creamy froth. A 1942 article in the Chicago Tribune describes Mexican cinnamon hot chocolate as being traditionally served alongside a variety of sweet Mexican pastries,[33] such as pan dulce or churros.

    In Colombia, a hot chocolate drink made with milk and water using a chocolatera and molinillo is enjoyed as part of breakfast with bread and soft, fresh farmer's cheese. Colombian hot chocolate is often topped with a soft farmer's cheese or other mild cheese.[34] Similarly, hot chocolate in Ecuador is often topped with cheese.[35]

    In Peru, hot chocolate can be served with panettone at breakfast on Christmas Day, even though summer has already started in the southern hemisphere.In Peru, hot chocolate can be served with panettone at breakfast on Christmas Day, even though summer has already started in the southern hemisphere.[36] In addition, many Peruvians will add a sweet chocolate syrup to their drink.[35] The Argentinian submarino is a hot chocolate drink made from adding a chocolate bar and sugar to hot steamed milk.[35]

    In the Philippines, the native hot chocolate drink is known as tsokolate. It is made from tabliya (or tablea), tablets of pure ground roasted cacao beans, dissolved in water and milk. Like in Spanish and Latin American versions, the drink is traditionally made in a tsokolatera and briskly mixed with a wooden baton called the molinillo (also called batidor or batirol), causing the drink to be characteristically frothy. Tsokolate is typically sweetened with bit of muscovado sugar and has a distinctive grainy texture.[37][38]

    Tsokolate is also known as suklati in Kapampangan; sikulate in Maguindanao; and sikwate or sikuwate in Visayan languages. All are derived from Spanish chocolate ("chocolate").[37]

    Tsokolate is commonly consumed at breakfast with traditional kakanin delicacies or pandesal and other types of bread. It is also popular during Christmas season in the Philippines.[38]

    Health

    Hot chocolate
    Nu

    Tsokolate is also known as suklati in Kapampangan; sikulate in Maguindanao; and sikwate or sikuwate in Visayan languages. All are derived from Spanish chocolate ("chocolate").[37]

    Tsokolate is commonly consumed at breakfast with traditional kakanin delicacies or pandesal and other types of bread. It is also popular during Christmas season in the Philippines.[38]

    From the 16th to 19th centuries, hot chocolate was valued as a medicine as well as a drink.[7]

    The explorer Francisco Hernández wrote that chocolate drinks helped treat fever and liver disease.[7] Another explorer, Santiago de Valverde Turices, believed that large amounts of hot chocolate were helpful in treating chest ailments and that smaller amounts could help stomach disorders.[7] When chocolate was introduced to the French in the 17th century, it was reportedly used "to fight against fits of anger and bad moods", which may be attributed to chocolate's phenylethylamine content.[29] Today, hot chocolate is consumed for pleasure rather than medicinally, but new research suggests that there may be other health benefits attributed to the drink.

    Several negative effects can be attributed to drinking hot chocolate, as some hot chocolate recipes contain high amounts of sugar,[39] hydrogenated oils, or fats.[citation needed]

    Back when chocolate was first taking root in popularity it was opposed by the Catholic church.[40] It was seen to lack the ability to break fast, seeing as it was consumed in its liquid form.[40] Coffee was the other popular trend which was seen as good for the body but bad for the mind. Chocolate began being consumed as a way to replenish one's body from the effects that coffee caused. It was said to nourish one's body and potency.[40]

    Benefits

    A graph showing the amounts of antioxidants contained in cocoa, red wine, and green tea

    Research has shown that the consumption of hot chocolate can be positive to one's health. A study conducted by Cornell University has shown that hot chocolate contains more antioxidants than wine and tea, therefore reducing the risk of heart disease.[21] In a single serving of cocoa, the researchers found 611 milligrams of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 564 milligrams of epicatechin equivalents (ECE), compared with 340 milligrams of GAE and 163 milligrams of ECE in red wine, and 165 milligrams of GAE and 47 milligrams of ECE in green tea.[41] Chang Yong Lee, the professor and researcher at Cornell who conducted the study, revealed that larger amounts of antioxidants are released when the drink is heated.[21]

    The flavonoids found in the cocoa that makes up hot chocolate also have a positive effect on arterial health. A particular study performed by the National Institutes of Health partially supported by Mars Chocolate company showed high amounts of improvement in blood flow after drinking a flavanol-rich cocoa drink.[42] In the study, the subjects (27 people ages 18 to 72) drank a cocoa drink containing 900 milligrams of flavonols every day, which resulted in an improvement in blood flow and the function of endothelial cells that line blood vessels.[42]

    In further studies conducted by Dr. Norman K. Hollenberg, professor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School found that flavonols may also help vessels dilate and help keep platelets from clustering on the blood vessel walls.[42] Flavonoids found in hot chocolate are beneficial to health mainly because they shield the walls of blood vessels from free radical damage.[43] Flavanols are also thought to help reduce blood platelet buildup and can balance levels of compounds called eicosanoids, which may be beneficial to cardiovascular health.[43]

    Risks

    Several negative effects may be attributed to the drinking of hot chocolate. The types and severity of health risks vary between different styles of hot chocolate.[44] Hot chocolate made from milk also contains the sugars naturally found in milk. Processed cocoa powder usually contains additional sugars.[4] Some brands also contain hydrogenated oils and fats, the most common of which are coconut derivatives.[citation needed]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Grivetti, Louis E.; Shapiro, Howard-Yana (2009). Chocolate: history, culture, and heritage. John Wiley and Sons. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-470-12165-8.