Holomycota or Nucletmyceta is the taxonomic group that includes fungi and its protists relatives: opisthosporidians and nucleariids.[3][4][5] Holomycota, as well as Holozoa (the taxonomic group that includes animals and their unicellular relatives) compose the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta.[5][6][7] The position of nucleariids, unicellular free-living phagotrophic amoebae,[8] as the earliest lineage of Holomycota suggests that animals and fungi independently acquired complex multicellularity from a common unicellular ancestor and that the osmotrophic lifestyle (one of the fungal hallmarks) was originated later in the divergence of this eukaryotic lineage. Opisthosporidians is a recently proposed taxonomic group that includes aphelids,[9] Microsporidia and Cryptomycota, three groups of endoparasites.[10]

Rozella (Cryptomycota) is the earliest fungal genus in which chitin has been observed at least in some stages of their life cycle,[10] although the chitinus cell wall (another fungal hallmark) and osmotrophy originated in a common ancestor of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, which still contain some ancestral characteristics such as the flagellum in zoosporic stage.[11] The groups of fungi with the characteristic hyphal growth, Zoopagomycota, Mucuromycotina and Dikarya, originated from a common ancestor ~700 Mya.[11] Zoopagomycota are mostly pathogens of animals or other fungi, Mucuromycotina is a more diverse group including parasites, saprotrophs or ectomycorrhizal.[10] Dikarya is the group embracing Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, which comprise ~98% of the described fungal species.[11] Because of this rich diversity, Dikarya includes highly morphologically distinct groups, from hyphae or unicellular yeasts (such as the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to the complex multicellular fungi popularly known as mushrooms.[11] Contrary to animals and land plants with complex multicellularity, the inferred phylogenetic relationships indicate that fungi acquired and lost multicellularity multiple times along Ascomycota and Basidiomycota evolution.[12]


The phylogenetic tree depicts the fungi and their close relationship to other organisms, based on the work of Philippe Silar[13] and "The Mycota: A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research".[14][15]



Nucleariida Nuclearia sp Nikko.jpg

'Zoosporian' Holomycota


Rozellida Rozella allomycis2.jpg

Microsporidia Fibrillanosema spore.jpg

Eumycota (True fungi) Asco1013.jpg


Ichthyosporea Abeoforma whisleri-2.jpg


Corallochytrium Corallochytrium limacisporum.png



Filasterea Ministeria vibrans.jpeg


Choanoflagellatea Desmarella moniliformis.jpg

Animalia Comb jelly.jpg


  1. ^ Adl, S.M. et al. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 59(5), 429-514
  2. ^ Brown MW, Spiegel FW, Silberman JD (December 2009). "Phylogeny of the "forgotten" cellular slime mold, Fonticula alba, reveals a key evolutionary branch within Opisthokonta". Mol. Biol. Evol. 26 (12): 2699–709. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp185. PMID 19692665. 
  3. ^ Liu Y, Steenkamp ET, Brinkmann H, Forget L, Philippe H, Lang BF (2009). "Phylogenomic analyses predict sistergroup relationship of nucleariids and fungi and paraphyly of zygomycetes with significant support". BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 272. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-272. PMC 2789072Freely accessible. PMID 19939264. 
  4. ^ Corsaro, D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Steinmann, J., Müller, K. D., & Michel, R. (2014). Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozellomycota. Parasitology research, 113(5), 1909-1918.
  5. ^ a b Corsaro, D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Müller, K. D., Hauröder, B., & Michel, R. (2014). Rediscovery of Nucleophaga amoebae, a novel member of the Rozellomycota. Parasitology research, 113(12), 4491-4498.
  6. ^ Brown, M. W.; Spiegel, F. W.; Silberman, J. D. (2009-12-01). "Phylogeny of the "Forgotten" Cellular Slime Mold, Fonticula alba, Reveals a Key Evolutionary Branch within Opisthokonta". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (12): 2699–2709. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp185. ISSN 0737-4038. 
  7. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.-Y. (2003-05-01). "Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 56 (5): 540–563. doi:10.1007/s00239-002-2424-z. 
  8. ^ López‐Escardó, David; López‐García, Purificación; Moreira, David; Ruiz‐Trillo, Iñaki; Torruella, Guifré (2017-08-12). "Parvularia atlantis gen. et sp. nov., a Nucleariid Filose Amoeba (Holomycota, Opisthokonta)". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. doi:10.1111/jeu.12450. ISSN 1550-7408. 
  9. ^ Karpov, Sergey; Mamkaeva, Maria A.; Aleoshin, Vladimir; Nassonova, Elena; Lilje, Osu; Gleason, Frank H. (2014). "Morphology, phylogeny, and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112. 
  10. ^ a b c Berbee, Mary L.; James, Timothy Y.; Strullu-Derrien, Christine (2017-09-08). "Early Diverging Fungi: Diversity and Impact at the Dawn of Terrestrial Life". Annual Review of Microbiology. 71 (1): 41–60. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020324. 
  11. ^ a b c d Stajich, Jason E.; Berbee, Mary L.; Blackwell, Meredith; Hibbett, David S.; James, Timothy Y.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Taylor, John W. (2009-09-29). "The Fungi". Current Biology. 19 (18): R840–R845. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.004. 
  12. ^ Nguyen, Tu Anh; Cissé, Ousmane H.; Wong, Jie Yun; Zheng, Peng; Hewitt, David; Nowrousian, Minou; Stajich, Jason E.; Jedd, Gregory (2017-02-08). "Innovation and constraint leading to complex multicellularity in the Ascomycota". Nature Communications. 8: ncomms14444. doi:10.1038/ncomms14444. 
  13. ^ Silar P (2016). "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes". HAL: 462. ISBN 978-2-9555841-0-1. 
  14. ^ Esser K (2014). The Mycota VII A: Systematics and Evolution (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 461. ISBN 978-3-642-55317-2. 
  15. ^ Torruella, Guifre; Grau-Bove, Xavier; Moreira, David; Karpov, Sergey A.; Burns, John; Sebe-Pedros, Arnau; Volcker, Eckhard; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion (2017-12-13). "The transcriptome of Paraphelidium tribonemae illuminates the ancestry of Fungi and Opisthosporidia". bioRxiv: 233882. doi:10.1101/233882.