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The House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
[ˈhoːənˌʦɔlɐn] is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen
Hechingen
in Swabia
Swabia
during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle.[1] The first ancestor of the Hohenzollerns was mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch,[2] which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, and also ruled Romania
Romania
from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia
Prussia
in 1525. The Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
and the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany
Germany
and the creation of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia. Germany's defeat in World War I
World War I
in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia
Prussia
is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
is the head of the princely Swabian line.[2]

Contents

1 County
County
of Zollern

1.1 Counts of Zollern
Zollern
(1061–1204)

2 Franconian branch

2.1 Burgraves of Nuremberg (1192–1427) 2.2 Margraves of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
(1398–1791) 2.3 Margraves of Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
(1398–1604), later Brandenburg- Bayreuth
Bayreuth
(1604–1791) 2.4 Dukes of Jägerndorf (1523–1622)

3 Brandenburg-Prussian branch

3.1 Margraves of Brandenburg (1415–1619) 3.2 Margraves of Brandenburg-Küstrin (1535–1571) 3.3 Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt
(1688–1788) 3.4 Dukes of Prussia
Prussia
(1525–1701) 3.5 Kings in Prussia
Prussia
(1701–1772) 3.6 Kings of Prussia
Prussia
(1772–1918) 3.7 German Emperors (1871–1918)

4 Brandenburg-Prussian branch since 1918 abdication

4.1 Order of succession

5 Royal House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
table 6 Swabian branch

6.1 Counts of Hohenzollern (1204–1575) 6.2 Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
(1576–1849) 6.3 Counts of Hohenzollern- Haigerloch
Haigerloch
(1576–1634 and 1681–1767) 6.4 Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(1576–1849) 6.5 House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
after 1849

7 Kings of the Romanians

7.1 Reigning (1866–1947) 7.2 Succession since 1947

8 Palaces of the Prussian Hohenzollerns 9 Palaces of the Frankonian branches 10 Coats of arms 11 Members of the family after abdication

11.1 Royal Prussian branch 11.2 Princely Swabian branch

12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

County
County
of Zollern[edit]

Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
near Hechingen

Alpirsbach Abbey, founded by the Hohenzollerns.

Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Later its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
in the Swabian Alps. The Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
lies on a 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today. The dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern
Burkhard I, Count of Zollern
(de Zolorin) was born before 1025 and died in 1061.[3] In 1095 Count Adalbert of Zollern
Zollern
founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest. The Zollerns received the comital title from Emperor Henry V in 1111.[4] As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
dynasty, they were able to significantly enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III (c. 1139 – c. 1200) accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, and through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185 he married Sophia of Raabs, the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave
Burgrave
of Nuremberg.[2] After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave
Burgrave
Frederick I. In 1218 the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415.[2]

Counts of Zollern
Zollern
(1061–1204)[edit]

until 1061: Burkhard I[2] before 1125: Frederick I[2] between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick I[5]:XLI between ca. 1143 and 1150–1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I[5]:XLI between ca. 1150–1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I[5]:XLI before 1171 – c. 1200: Frederick III/I (son of Frederick II, also Burgrave
Burgrave
of Nuremberg)

After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves:

Conrad III received the county of Zollern
Zollern
and exchanged it for the burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Members of the Franconian line eventually became the Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
branch. The Franconian line later converted to Protestantism. Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern
Zollern
in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Swabian line remains Catholic.[2]

Franconian branch[edit] The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg
Burgrave of Nuremberg
(1186–1261). The family supported the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands. In the first phase, the family gradually added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany:

Ansbach
Ansbach
in 1331 Kulmbach
Kulmbach
in 1340

In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and current Poland:

Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
in 1417 Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
in 1618

These acquisitions eventually transformed the Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe. Burgraves of Nuremberg (1192–1427)[edit]

Region of Nuremberg, Ansbach, Kulmbach
Kulmbach
and Bayreuth
Bayreuth
(Franconia)

Main article: Burgraviate of Nuremberg

1192–1200/1204: Frederick I (also count of Zollern
Zollern
as Frederick III) 1204–1218: Frederick II (son of, also count of Zollern
Zollern
as Frederick IV) 1218–1261/1262: Conrad I/III (brother of, also count of Zollern) 1262–1297: Frederick III (c. 1220–1297), son of 1297–1300: John I (c. 1279–1300), son of 1300–1332: Frederick IV (1287–1332), brother of 1332–1357: John II (c. 1309–1357), son of 1357–1397: Frederick V (before 1333–1398), son of

At Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons:

1397–1420: John III/I (son of, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach) 1397–1427: Frederick VI/I/I, (brother of, also Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
and Brandenburg.Kulmbach)

After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
and Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
were briefly reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 Frederick VI became governor of Brandenburg and later Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I. Upon his death on 21 September 1440, his territories were divided among his sons:

Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg Albert III, Elector of Brandenburg and Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach John II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach

In 1427 Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg sold Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Castle
and his rights as burgrave to the Imperial City of Nuremberg. The territories of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
and Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
remained possessions of the family, once parts of the Burgraviate of Nuremberg.

Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Castle
(The Emperor's castle, left, and the Burgrave's castle, right)

Cadolzburg
Cadolzburg
Castle near Nuremberg (from 1260 seat of the Burgraves)

Heilsbronn Abbey, which the Hohenzollerns used as the family burial place.

Margraves of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
(1398–1791)[edit] Main article: Principality of Ansbach

1398–1440: Frederick I (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach) 1440–1486: Albert I/I/III Achilles (son of, also Margrave of Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
and Elector of Brandenburg) 1486–1515: Frederick II/II (son of, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach) 1515–1543: George I/I the Pious (son of, also Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf) 1543–1603: George Frederick I/I/I/I (son of, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf and Regent of Prussia) 1603–1625: Joachim Ernst (1583–1625), son of John George of Brandenburg 1625–1634: Frederick III (1616–1634), son of 1634–1667: Albert II 1667–1686: John Frederick (1654–1686), son of 1686–1692: Christian I Albrecht 1692–1703: George Frederick II/II (later Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach) 1703–1723: William Frederick (before 1686–1723), son of John Frederick 1723–1757: Charles William (1712–1757), son of 1757: Christian II Frederick (1757–1791) (son of, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach)

On 2 December 1791, Christian II Frederick sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia. Margraves of Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
(1398–1604), later Brandenburg- Bayreuth
Bayreuth
(1604–1791)[edit] Main article: Principality of Bayreuth

1398–1420: John I (c. 1369–1420), son of Frederick V of Nuremberg 1420–1440: Frederick I (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) 1440–1457: John II (1406–1464), son of 1457–1486: Albert I/I/III Achilles (also Margrave of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
and Elector of Brandenburg) 1486–1495: Siegmund (1468–1495), son of 1495–1515: Frederick II/II (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) 1515–1527: Casimir (1481–1527), son of 1527–1553: Albert II Alcibiades (1522–1557), son of 1553–1603: George Frederick I/I/I/I (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf and Regent of Prussia) 1603–1655: Christian I (1581–1655), son of John George,of Brandenburg 1655–1712: Christian II Ernst (1644–1712), son of Erdmann August 1712–1726: George I William (1678–1726), son of 1726–1735: George Frederick II/II (previously Margrave of Kulmbach) 1735–1763: Frederick IV (1711–1763), son of 1763–1769: Frederick V Christian (1708–1769), son of Christian Heinrich 1769–1791: Charles Alexander (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach)

On 2 December 1791, Charles Alexander sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia. From 8 January 1701 the title of Elector of Brandenburg was attached to the title of King in Prussia
King in Prussia
and, from 13 September 1772, to that of King of Prussia. Dukes of Jägerndorf (1523–1622)[edit] Main article: Duchy of Krnov

The Duchy of Jägerndorf (Krnov) was purchased in 1523.

1541–1543: George I the Pious (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) 1543–1603: George Frederick I (also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Margrave of Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
and Regent of Prussia) 1603–1606: Joachim I (also Regent of Prussia
Prussia
and Elector of Brandenburg) 1606–1621: Johann Georg von Brandenburg

The duchy of Jägerndorf was confiscated by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1622. Brandenburg-Prussian branch[edit] Margraves of Brandenburg (1415–1619)[edit] Main article: Margraviate of Brandenburg

Frederick VI became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415.

In 1411 Frederick VI, Burgrave of Nuremberg
Burgrave of Nuremberg
was appointed governor of Brandenburg in order to restore order and stability. At the Council of Constance in 1415, King Sigismund elevated Frederick to the rank of Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I.

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Frederick I also as Frederick VI Burgrave
Burgrave
of Nuremberg 1415–1440 1371 1440 Elisabeth of Bavaria

Frederick II Son of 1440–1471 1413 1471 Catherine of Saxony

Albrecht III Achilles Brother of 1471–1486 1414 1486 Margaret of Baden Anna of Saxony

John Cicero Son of 1486–1499 1455 1499 Margaret of Thuringia

Joachim I Nestor Son of 1499–1535 1484 1535 Elizabeth of Denmark

Joachim II Hector Son of 1535–1571 1505 1571 Magdalena of Saxony Hedwig of Poland

John George Son of 1571–1598 1525 1598 Sophie of Legnica Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst

Joachim Frederick Son of 1598–1608 1546 1608 Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin Eleanor of Prussia

John Sigismund Son of personal union with Prussia
Prussia
after 1618 called Brandenburg-Prussia.

1608–1619 1572 1619 Anna, Duchess of Prussia

Margraves of Brandenburg-Küstrin (1535–1571)[edit]

Main article: Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin The short-lived Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin
Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin
was set up as a secundogeniture of the House of Hohenzollern.

1535–1571: John the Wise, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin (son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg. He died without issue. The Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin
Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin
was absorbed in 1571 into Brandenburg]].

Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt
(1688–1788)[edit] Main article: Brandenburg-Schwedt

Although recognised as a branch of the dynasty since 1688, the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Brandenburg-Schwedt
remained subordinate to the electors, and was never an independent principality.

1688–1711: Philip William, Prince in Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Brandenburg-Schwedt
(son of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg) 1731–1771: Frederick William, Prince in Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Brandenburg-Schwedt
(son of) 1771–1788: Frederick Henry, Prince in Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg Schwedt
Schwedt
(brother of)

Dukes of Prussia
Prussia
(1525–1701)[edit] Main article: Dukes of Prussia

Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795.

In 1525 the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
was established as a fief of the King of Poland. Albert of Prussia
Prussia
was the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the first Duke of Prussia. He belonged to the Ansbach branch of the dynasty. The Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
adopted Protestantism
Protestantism
as the official state religion.

1525–1568: Albert I 1568–1618: Albert II Frederick co-heir (son of) 1568–1571: Joachim I/II Hector co-heir (also Elector of Brandenburg)

1578–1603: George Frederick I/I/I/I (Regent, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Margrave of Brandenburg- Kulmbach
Kulmbach
and Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf) 1603–1608: Joachim I/I/III Frederick (Regent, also Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf and Elector of Brandenburg) 1608–1618: John Sigismund (Regent, also Elector of Brandenburg)

1618–1619: John Sigismund (Regent, also Elector of Brandenburg, after 1618 Brandenburg-Prussia) 1619–1640: George William I/I (son of, also Elector of Brandenburg) 1640–1688: Frederick I/III William the Great Elector (son of, also Elector of Brandenburg) 1688–1701: Frederick II/IV/I (also Elector of Brandenburg and King in Prussia)

From 1701 the title of Duke of Prussia
Prussia
was attached to the title of King in and of Prussia. Kings in Prussia
Prussia
(1701–1772)[edit]

Coronation of Frederick I in Königsberg.

In 1701 the title of King in Prussia
King in Prussia
was granted, without the Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
being elevated to a Kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire. From 1701 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia
Prussia
and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of King in Prussia. The Duke of Prussia
Prussia
adopted the title of king as Frederick I, establishing his status as a monarch whose royal territory lay outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, with the assent of Emperor Leopold I: Frederick could not be "King of Prussia" because part of Prussia's lands were under the suzerainty of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. In the age of absolutism, most monarchs were obsessed with the desire to emulate Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
with his luxurious palace at Versailles. In 1772 the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
was elevated to a kingdom. See also: List of monarchs of Prussia

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Frederick I Son of also Duke of Prussia
Prussia
and Elector of Brandenburg

1701–1713 1657 1713 Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel Sophia Charlotte of Hanover Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Frederick William I Son of 1713–1740 1688 1740 Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Frederick the Great Son of later King of Prussia

1740–1786 1712 1786 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern

Kings of Prussia
Prussia
(1772–1918)[edit]

Expansion of Prussia
Prussia
1807–1871

Frederick William's successor, Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
gained Silesia
Silesia
in the Silesian Wars
Silesian Wars
so that Prussia
Prussia
emerged as a great power. The king was strongly influenced by French culture and civilization and preferred the French language. In 1772 the title King of Prussia
Prussia
was assumed. From 1772 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia
Prussia
and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title King of Prussia. In 1871 the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
became a constituent member of the German Empire. See also: List of monarchs of Prussia

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Frederick the Great Son of before King in Prussia

1740–1786 1712 1786 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern

Frederick William II Nephew of 1786–1797 1744 1797 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt

Frederick William III Son of 1797–1840 1770 1840 Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Auguste von Harrach

Frederick William IV Son of 1840–1861 1795 1861 Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria

William I Brother of also German Emperor

1861–1888 1797 1888 Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Frederick III Son of also German Emperor

1888 1831 1888 Victoria, Princess Royal

Wilhelm II Son of also German Emperor

1888–1918 1859 1941 Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein Hermine Reuss of Greiz

German Emperors (1871–1918)[edit] Main article: German Emperor

Prussia
Prussia
in the German Empire
German Empire
1871–1918

In 1871 the German Empire
German Empire
was proclaimed. With the accession of William I to the newly established imperial German throne, the titles of King of Prussia, Duke of Prussia
Prussia
and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of German Emperor. Prussia's Minister President Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
convinced William that German Emperor
German Emperor
instead of Emperor of Germany
Germany
would be appropriate. He became primus inter pares among other German sovereigns. William II intended to develop a German navy capable of challenging Britain's Royal Navy. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 set off the chain of events that led to World War I. As a result of the war, the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires ceased to exist. In 1918 the German empire was abolished and replaced by the Weimar Republic. After the outbreak of the German revolution in 1918, both Emperor Wilhelm II and Crown Prince Wilhelm signed the document of abdication.

William I (1871–1888)

Frederick III (1888)

Wilhelm II (1888–1918)

Brandenburg-Prussian branch since 1918 abdication[edit]

Georg Friedrich, the head of the Prussian Hohenzollerns and his wife

In June 1926, a referendum on expropriating the formerly ruling princes of Germany
Germany
without compensation failed and as a consequence, the financial situation of the Hohenzollern family improved considerably. A settlement between the state and the family made Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
property of the state but granted a right of residence to Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife Cecilie. The family also kept the ownership of Monbijou Palace
Monbijou Palace
in Berlin, Oleśnica Castle
Oleśnica Castle
in Silesia, Rheinsberg Palace, Schwedt
Schwedt
Palace and other property until 1945. Since the abolition of the German monarchy, no Hohenzollern claims to imperial or royal prerogatives are recognised by Germany's Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
of 1949, which guarantees a republic. The communist government of the Soviet occupation zone
Soviet occupation zone
depropriated all landowners and industrialists; the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
lost almost all of its fortune, retaining a few company shares and Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
in West Germany. The Polish government appropriated the Silesian property and the Dutch government seized Huis Doorn, the Emperor's seat in exile. After German reunification
German reunification
however, the family was legally able to re-claim their portable property, namely art collections and parts of the interior of their former palaces. Negotiations on the return of or compensation for these assets are not yet completed. Berlin's old City Palace is being rebuilt and is scheduled to open in 2019. The Berlin Palace
Berlin Palace
and the Humboldt Forum
Humboldt Forum
are located in the middle of Berlin. Order of succession[edit] Main article: Line of succession to the German throne

Name Titular reign Comments

Crown Prince Wilhelm 1941–1951 Succeeded the last German Emperor
German Emperor
Wilhelm II

Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia 1951–1994 Son of

Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia since 1994 Grandson of

Carl Friedrich, Prince of Prussia

Son of (heir apparent)

The head of the house is the titular King of Prussia
Prussia
and German Emperor. He also bears a historical claim to the title of Prince of Orange. Members of this line style themselves princes of Prussia. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, the current head of the royal Prussian House of Hohenzollern, was married to Princess Sophie of Isenburg on 27 August 2011. On 20 January 2013, she gave birth to twin sons, Carl Friedrich Franz Alexander and Louis Ferdinand Christian Albrecht, in Bremen. Carl Friedrich, the elder of the two, is the heir apparent.[6]

William

Louis Ferdinand

Georg Friedrich

Royal House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
table[edit]

Table of the Royal Brandenburg-Prussian House of Hohenzollern

Swabian branch[edit]

Combined coat of arms of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(1849).

The cadet Swabian[7] branch of the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
was founded by Frederick IV, Count of Zollern. The family ruled three territories with seats at, respectively, Hechingen, Sigmaringen and Haigerloch. The counts were elevated to princes in 1623. The Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns was Roman Catholic. Affected by economic problems and internal feuds, the Hohenzollern counts from the 14th century onwards came under pressure by their neighbors, the Counts of Württemberg
Württemberg
and the cities of the Swabian League, whose troops besieged and finally destroyed Hohenzollern Castle in 1423. Nevertheless, the Hohenzollerns retained their estates, backed by their Brandenburg cousins and the Imperial House of Habsburg. In 1535, Count Charles I of Hohenzollern (1512–1576) received the counties of Sigmaringen and Veringen as Imperial fiefs.[2] In 1576, when Charles I, Count of Hohenzollern died, his county was divided to form the three Swabian branches. Eitel Frederick IV took Hohenzollern with the title of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Karl II took Sigmaringen and Veringen, and Christopher got Haigerloch. Christopher's family died out in 1634.

Eitel Frederick IV of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
(1545–1605) Charles II of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(1547–1606) Christopher of Hohenzollern- Haigerloch
Haigerloch
(1552–1592)

In 1695, the remaining two Swabian branches entered into an agreement with the Margrave of Brandenburg which provided that if both branches became extinct, the principalities should fall to Brandenburg. Because of the Revolutions of 1848, Constantine, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
and Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
abdicated their thrones in December 1849. The principalities were ruled by the Kings of Prussia
Prussia
from December 1849 onward, with the Hechingen
Hechingen
and Sigmaringen branches obtaining official treatment as cadets of the Prussian royal family. The Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
branch became extinct in 1869. A descendent of this branch was Countess Sophie Chotek, morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este.

Sigmaringen Castle

The New Castle, Hechingen

Haigerloch
Haigerloch
Castle

Counts of Hohenzollern (1204–1575)[edit]

Hohenzollern region, in present-day Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Germany
(red color)

In 1204, the County
County
of Hohenzollern was established out of the fusion of the County
County
of Zollern
Zollern
and the Burgraviate of Nuremberg. The Swabian branch inherited the county of Zollern
Zollern
and, being descended from Frederick I of Nuremberg, were all named "Friedrich" down through the 11th generation.[8] Each one's numeral is counted from the first Friedrich to rule his branch's appanage.[8] The most senior of these in the 12th century, Count Frederick VIII (d. 1333), had two sons, the elder of whom became Frederick IX (d. 1379), first Count of Hohenzollern, and fathered Friedrich X who left no sons when he died in 1412.[8] But the younger son of Friedrich VIII, called Friedrich of Strassburg, uniquely, took no numeral of his own, retaining the old title "Count of Zollern" and pre-deceased his brother in 1364/65.[8] Prince Wilhelm Karl zu Isenburg's 1957 genealogical series, Europäische Stammtafeln, says Friedrich of Strassburg shared, rather, in the rule of Zollern with his elder brother until his premature death.[8] It appears, but is not stated, that Strassburg's son became the recognized co-ruler of his cousin Friedrich X (as compensation for having received no appanage and/or because of incapacity on the part of Friedrich X) and, as such, assumed (or is, historically, attributed) the designation Frederick XI although he actually pre-deceased Friedrich X, dying in 1401. Friedrich XI, however, left two sons who jointly succeeded their cousin-once-removed, being Count Frederick XII (d. childless 1443) and Count Eitel Friedrich I (d. 1439), the latter becoming the ancestor of all subsequent branches of the Princes of Hohenzollern.[8]

1204–1251/1255: Frederick IV, also Burgrave of Nuremberg
Burgrave of Nuremberg
as Frederick II until 1218 1251/1255–1289: Frederick V 1289–1298: Frederick VI (d. 1298), son of 1298–1309: Frederick VII (d. after 1309), son of 1309–1333: Frederick VIII (d. 1333), brother of 1333–1377: Frederick IX 1377–1401: Frederick XI 1401–1426: Frederick XII 1426–1439: Eitel Frederick I, brother of 1433–1488: Jobst Nicholas I (1433–1488), son of 1488–1512: Eitel Frederick II (c. 1452–1512), son of 1512–1525: Eitel Frederick III (1494–1525), son of 1525–1575: Charles I (1516–1576), son of

In the 12th century, a son of Frederick I secured the county of Hohenberg. The county remained in the possession of the family until 1486. The influence of the Swabian line was weakened by several partitions of its lands. In the 16th century, the situation changed completely when Eitel Frederick II, a friend and adviser of the emperor Maximilian I, received the district of Haigerloch. His grandson Charles I was granted the counties of Sigmaringen and Vehringen by Charles V. Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
(1576–1849)[edit] Main article: Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Stetten Abbey church in Hechingen, the burial place of the Swabian line

The County
County
of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
was established in 1576 with allodial rights. It included the original County
County
of Zollern, with the Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
and the monastery at Stetten. In December 1849, the ruling princes of both Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
abdicated their thrones, and their principalities were incorporated as the Prussian province of Hohenzollern.[2] The Hechingen
Hechingen
branch became extinct in dynastic line with Konstantin's death in 1869.

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Eitel Frederick IV Son of Charles I 1576–1605 1545 1605 Veronica of Ortenburg Sibylle of Zimmern Johanna of Eberstein

John George Son of raised to Prince in 1623

1605–1623 1577 1623 Franziska of Salm-Neufville

Eitel Frederick V Son of also count of Hohenzollern-Hechingen

1623–1661 1601 1661 Maria Elisabeth van Bergh ’s-Heerenberg

Philip Christopher Frederick Brother of 1661–1671 1616 1671 Marie Sidonie of Baden-Rodemachern

Frederick William Son of 1671–1735 1663 1735 Maria Leopoldina of Sinzendorf Maximiliane Magdalena of Lützau

Frederick Louis Son of 1735–1750 1688 1750 unmarried

Josef Friedrich Wilhelm Son of Herman Frederick of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 1750–1798 1717 1798 Maria Theresia Folch de Cardona y Silva Maria Theresia of Waldburg-Zeil

Hermann Son of Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 1798–1810 1751 1810 Louise of Merode-Westerloo Maximiliane of Gavre Maria Antonia of Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach

Friedrich Son of 1810–1838 1776 1838 Pauline, Duchess of Sagan

Konstantin Son of 1838–1849 1801 1869 Eugénie de Beauharnais Amalie Schenk von Geyern

Counts of Hohenzollern- Haigerloch
Haigerloch
(1576–1634 and 1681–1767)[edit] Main article: Hohenzollern-Haigerloch

The County
County
of Hohenzollern- Haigerloch
Haigerloch
was established in 1576 without allodial rights.

1576–1601 : Christopher (1552–1592), son of Charles I of Hohenzollern 1601–1623 : John Christopher (1586–1620), son of 1601–1634 : Charles (1588–1634)

Between 1634 and 1681, the county was temporarily integrated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

1681–1702: Francis Anthony, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch 1702–1750: Ferdinand Leopold, Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 1750–1767: Francis Christopher Anton, Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Upon the death of Francis Christopher Anton in 1767, the Haigerloch territory was incorporated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(1576–1849)[edit] Main article: Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Sigmaringen Castle

The County
County
of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
was established in 1576 with allodial rights and a seat at Sigmaringen Castle. In December 1849, sovereignty over the principality was yielded to the Franconian branch of the family and incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia, which accorded status as cadets of the Prussian Royal Family to the Swabian Hohenzollerns. The last ruling Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Karl Anton, would later serve as Minister President of Prussia
Prussia
between 1858 and 1862.

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Karl II Son of Charles I 1576–1606 1547 1606 Euphrosyne of Oettingen-Wallerstein Elisabeth of Palant

John Son of elevated to Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
in 1623

1606–1638 1578 1638 Johanna of Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Meinrad I Son of 1638–1681 1605 1681 Anna Marie of Törring at Seefeld

Maximilian I Son of 1681–1689 1636 1689 Maria Clara of Berg-'s-Heerenberg

Meinrad II Son of 1689–1715 1673 1715 Johanna Catharina of Montfort

Joseph Frederick Ernest Son of 1715–1769 1702 1769 Marie Franziska of Oettingen-Spielberg Judith of Closen-Arnstorf Maria Theresa of Waldburg-Trauchburg

Charles Frederick Son of 1769–1785 1724 1785 Johanna of Hohenzollern-Bergh

Anton Aloys Son of 1785–1831 1762 1831 Amalie Zephyrine of Salm-Kyrburg

Karl III Son of 1831–1848 1785 1853 Marie Antoinette Murat Katharina of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst

Karl Anton Son of 1848–1849 1811 1885 Josephine of Baden

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
after 1849[edit] Main article: House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Map of the Province of Hohenzollern, a de facto province of Prussia after 1850.

Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern, head of the Swabian branch

The family continued to use the title of Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. After the Hechingen
Hechingen
branch became extinct in 1869, the Sigmaringen branch adopted title of Prince of Hohenzollern.

1849–1885: Karl Anton 1885–1905: Leopold (1835–1905), son of 1905–1927: William (1864–1927), son of 1927–1965: Frederick (1891–1965), son of 1965–2010: Friedrich Wilhelm (1924–2010), son of 2010–present: Karl Friedrich (1952–), son of heir apparent: Alexander

In 1866, Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
was chosen prince of Romania, becoming King Carol I of Romania
Romania
in 1881. Charles's elder brother, Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, was offered the Spanish throne after a revolt exiled Isabella II in 1870. Although encouraged by Bismarck to accept, Leopold declined in the face of French opposition. Nonetheless, Bismarck altered and then published the Ems telegram to create a casus belli: France declared war, but Bismarck's Germany
Germany
won the Franco-Prussian War. The head of the Sigmaringen branch (the only extant line of the Swabian branch of the dynasty) is Karl Friedrich, styled His Serene Highness The Prince of Hohenzollern. His official seat is Sigmaringen Castle.[2] Kings of the Romanians[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Romania

Reigning (1866–1947)[edit]

Coronation of Carol I in Bucharest

Romanian territory.

The Principality of Romania
Romania
was established in 1862, after the Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
had been united in 1859 under Alexandru Ioan Cuza
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
as Prince of Romania
Romania
in a personal union. He was deposed in 1866 by the Romanian parliament. Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
was invited to become reigning Prince of Romania
Romania
in 1866. In 1881 he became Carol I, King of the Romanians. Carol I had an only daughter who died young, so the younger son of his brother Leopold, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, would succeed his uncle as King of the Romanians in 1914, and his descendants, having converted to the Orthodox Church, continued to reign there until the end of the monarchy in 1947. See also: King of the Romanians
King of the Romanians
and Romanian royal family

Portrait Name Dynastic Status Reign Birth Death Marriages

Carol I Son of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern titled as Prince until 1881

1866–1914 1839 1914 Elisabeth of Wied

Ferdinand I Nephew of Carol I 1914–1927 1865 1927 Marie of Edinburgh

Michael I Son of Carol II 1st reign

1927–1930 1921 2017 Anne of Bourbon-Parma

Carol II Son of Ferdinand I 1930–1940 1893 1953 Zizi Lambrino Helen of Greece and Denmark Magda Lupescu

Michael I

Son of Carol II 2nd reign

1940–1947 1921 2017 Anne of Bourbon-Parma

Succession since 1947[edit] Main article: Line of succession to the former Romanian throne In 1947 the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
was abolished and replaced with the People's Republic of Romania. Michael did not press his claim to the defunct Romanian throne and although he was welcomed back to the country after half a century in exile as a private citizen, with substantial former royal properties being placed at his disposal. However, his dynastic claim was not recognised by post-Communist Romanians. On 10 May 2011, Michael severed the dynastic ties between the House of Romania
Romania
and the House of Hohenzollern.[9] After that the branch of the Hohenzollerns was dynastically represented only by the last king Michael, and his daughters. Having no sons, he declared that his dynastic heir, instead of being a male member of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
princely family to which he belongs patrilineally and in accordance with the last Romanian monarchical constitution, should be his eldest daughter Margareta.[10] The royal house is still very popular[11] and in 2014 Prime Minister Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
promised a referendum on whether or not to reinstate the monarchy if he were re-elected.[12] Palaces of the Prussian Hohenzollerns[edit] Some important castles and palaces of the Prussian Hohenzollerns were:

Hohenzollern Castle

City Palace, Berlin

City Palace, Berlin

Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin

Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle, Prussia

City Palace, Potsdam

New Palace, Potsdam

Sanssouci
Sanssouci
in Potsdam

Marmorpalais, Potsdam

Babelsberg Palace, Potsdam

Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
Palace, Potsdam

Oranienburg Palace

Rheinsberg Palace

Wrocław Palace, Silesia

Oels Castle, Silesia

Stolzenfels Castle, Koblenz

Palaces of the Frankonian branches[edit]

Plassenburg
Plassenburg
Castle at Kulmbach

The New Castle at Bayreuth

Residenz Ansbach

Erlangen
Erlangen
Castle

Coats of arms[edit] Main articles: Coat of arms of Prussia
Coat of arms of Prussia
and Coat of arms of Germany

Quartered coat of arms of the Hohenzollerns

Counts of Zollern
Zollern
(1340)

Burgraves of Nuremberg (1340)

Burgraves of Nuremberg

The greater coat of arms of the German Emperor

The princely Swabian branch (1605)

Members of the family after abdication[edit] Royal Prussian branch[edit]

Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia
Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia
(1943–) Prince Frederick of Prussia
Prussia
(1911–1966) Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia
Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia
(1976–) Prince Hubertus of Prussia
Prince Hubertus of Prussia
(1909–1950) Princess Kira of Prussia
Princess Kira of Prussia
(1943–2004) Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia
Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia
(1907–1994) Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia
Prussia
(1944–1977) Prince Michael of Prussia
Prince Michael of Prussia
(1940–2014) Prince Oskar of Prussia
Prussia
(1959–) Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia
Prussia
(1882–1951) Prince Wilhelm of Prussia
Prussia
(1906–1940) Prince Wilhelm-Karl of Prussia (1922–2007)

Princely Swabian branch[edit]

Alexander, Prince of Hohenzollern (1987–) Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern
Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern
(1890–1966) Prince Ferfried of Hohenzollern
Prince Ferfried of Hohenzollern
(1943–) Frederick, Prince of Hohenzollern
Frederick, Prince of Hohenzollern
(1891–1965) Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern
Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern
(1924–2010) Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern
Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern
(1932–2016) Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
(1952–)

See also[edit]

Family tree of the German monarchs Coat of arms of Prussia House Order of Hohenzollern Iron Cross Order of the Black Eagle
Order of the Black Eagle
and Suum cuique Order of the Crown (Prussia)
Order of the Crown (Prussia)
and Gott mit uns Order of the Red Eagle Prussian Army Peleș Castle Wilhelm-Orden

References[edit]

^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Hohenzollern Dynasty ^ a b c d e f g h i j Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XIX. "Haus Hohenzollern". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2011, pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-3-7980-0849-6. ^ Jeep, John. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia ^ Cawley, Charles. Swabia, Nobility ^ a b c Schmid, Ludwig (1862). "Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg". Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg. Anhang. Historisch-topographische Zusammenstellung der Grafschaft und Besitzungen des Hauses Zollern-Hohenberg. Google Book: Gebrüder Scheitlin. Retrieved February 1, 2013.  ^ "Official Website of the House of Hohenzollern: Prinz Georg Friedrich von Preußen".  ^ Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan, 1981, pp. 178–179. ^ a b c d e f Huberty, Michel; Giraud, Alain; Magdelaine, F.; B. (1989). L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome V – Hohenzollern-Waldeck. France: Laballery. pp. 30, 33. ISBN 2-901138-05-5.  ^ "Romania's former King Michael ends ties with German Hohenzollern dynasty". The Canadian Press. Retrieved 2011-05-11.  ^ "King Michael I broke ties with historical and dynastic House of Hohenzollern" in Adevarul – News Bucharest, 10 May 2011 ^ https://www.economist.com/blogs/eastern-approaches/2011/10/romanias-ex-monarchy Long live the ex-king ^ http://royalcentral.co.uk/foreignroyals/romania-may-hold-a-referendum-on-the-return-of-monarchy-38884 Romania
Romania
may hold a referendum on the return of Monarchy

Further reading[edit]

Bogdan, Henry. Les Hohenzollern : La dynastie qui a fait l'Allemagne (1061–1918) Carlyle, Thomas. A Short Introduction to the House of Hohenzollern (2014) Clark, Christopher. Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (2009), standard scholarly history ISBN 978-0-7139-9466-7 Koch, H. W. History of Prussia
Prussia
(1987), short scholarly history

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Hohenzollern.

Official website of the imperial House of Germany
Germany
and royal House of Prussia Official website of the princely House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Official website of the royal house of Romania Hohenzollern Castle Sigmaringen Castle Info about the House of Hohenzollern European Heraldry page Hohenzollern heraldry page

— Royal house — House of Hohenzollern Founding year: 12th century

German unification Ruling House of Germany 18 January 1871 – 9 November 1918 Vacant German monarchies abolished

Prussia
Prussia
established Ruling House of Prussia 1525 – 9 November 1918

Romanian unification Ruling House of Romania 26 March 1881 – 30 December 1947 Vacant Romanian monarchy abolished

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Constituent coats of arms of Baden-Württemberg

Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 287228

.