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The history of early Christianity covers the period from its origins to the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325. The first part of the period, during the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles, is traditionally believed[by whom?] to have been initiated by the Great Commission
Great Commission
of Jesus (though some scholars[who?] dispute the historicity of this event), and is called the Apostolic Age. The earliest followers of Jesus comprised an apocalyptic, Second Temple Jewish sect, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity. Though Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament
New Testament
author,[1] the relationship of Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
and Judaism remains a matter of dispute. Early Christianity gradually grew apart from Judaism during the first two centuries of the Christian Era; it established itself as a predominantly gentile religion in the Roman Empire. In the Ante-Nicene Period
Ante-Nicene Period
(literally before the First Council of Nicaea in 325), following the Apostolic Age, both incredible diversity and unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period emerged simultaneously.[citation needed] Part of the unifying trend was an increasingly harsh rejection of Judaism and of Jewish practices. By the beginning of the Nicene period, the Christian faith had spread throughout Western Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, and to North Africa and the East: see Early centers of Christianity. The Mediterranean Christianity journey consisted of 48 cities that St John visited to get the gentiles to join the Christian community. Historians[which?] commonly use the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325 and the toleration/promotion of Christianity by Emperor Constantine I (reigned 306–337) in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to mark the end of early Christianity and the beginning of the era of the first seven Ecumenical Councils (325–787).

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Background 1.2 Ministry of Jesus 1.3 Apostolic Age

1.3.1 Appellation 1.3.2 Judaism and Christianity

2 Post-apostolic period 3 Spread of Christianity 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Origins[edit] Main article: Origins of Christianity Background[edit] See also: Cultural and historical background of Jesus Jewish messianism
Jewish messianism
has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, promising a future "anointed" leader or Messiah
Messiah
to resurrect the Israelite "Kingdom of God", in place of the foreign rulers of the time. This corresponded with the Maccabean Revolt directed against the Seleucids. Following the fall of the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
kingdom, it was directed against the Roman administration of Iudaea Province, which, according to Josephus, began with the formation of the Zealots
Zealots
during the Census of Quirinius
Census of Quirinius
of AD 6, though full scale open revolt did not occur until the First Jewish–Roman War in AD 66. Historian H. H. Ben-Sasson has proposed that the "Crisis under Caligula" (37–41) was the "first open break" between Rome
Rome
and the Jews.[2] Judaism at this time was divided into antagonistic factions. The main camps were the Pharisees, Saducees, and Zealots, but also included other less influential sects. This led to further unrest, and the 1st century BC and 1st century AD saw a number of charismatic religious leaders, contributing to what would become the Mishnah
Mishnah
of Rabbinic Judaism, including Yochanan ben Zakai and Hanina Ben Dosa. Ministry of Jesus[edit] Main article: Ministry of Jesus The Gospel
Gospel
accounts show the ministry of Jesus as falling into this pattern of sectarian preachers with devoted disciples. According to the Gospel
Gospel
writers, Jesus preached for a period of one to three years when he was in his early 30s, in the early 1st century AD. The gospels give Jesus' method of teaching as involving parables, metaphor, allegory, proverbs, and a small number of direct sermons such as the Sermon on the Mount. His ministry of teaching, healing the sick and disabled, and performing various miracles culminated in his execution at the hands of the Roman authorities in Jerusalem (but see also Responsibility for the death of Jesus). Shortly thereafter, a strong belief in Jesus' bodily resurrection spread rapidly through Jerusalem, beginning with his closest disciples, which led up to the traditional Day of Pentecost. This event provoked the Apostles
Apostles
to embark on a number of missionary campaigns to spread the "Good News", following the Great Commission
Great Commission
handed down by Jesus.[citation needed] Most New Testament
New Testament
scholars agree that Peter had some sort of special position among the Twelve.[3] Apostolic Age[edit] Main article: Apostolic Age

The Cenacle
Cenacle
on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner[4] claims the original Church of the Apostles
Apostles
is located under the current structure.

The Christian church
Christian church
sees "the Apostolic Age" as the foundation upon which its whole history is built.[5] This period, roughly dated between the years AD 30 and 100, produced writings traditionally attributed to the direct followers of Jesus Christ (the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers
Apostolic Fathers
collections) and is thus associated with the apostles and their contemporaries.[6] Earliest Christianity took the form of a Jewish eschatological faith. The apostles traveled to Jewish communities around the Mediterranean Sea, and attracted Jewish converts.[7] Within 10 years of the death of Jesus, apostles had spread Christianity from Jerusalem to Antioch, Ephesus, Corinth, Thessalonica, Cyprus, Crete, and Rome.[8] The book of Acts reports that the early followers continued daily Temple attendance and traditional Jewish home prayer. Other passages in the canonical gospels reflect a similar observance of traditional Jewish piety such as fasting, reverence for the Torah
Torah
(generally translated as "the Law" in English translations of the Bible) and observance of Jewish holy days.[9][10] In the mid-1st century, in Antioch, Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
began preaching to Gentiles.[7] The new converts did not follow all "Jewish Law" (generally understood to mean Mosaic Law as the Halakha was still being formalized at the time) and refused to be circumcised,[11] as circumcision was considered repulsive in Hellenistic culture.[12] The resulting circumcision controversy was addressed at the Council of Jerusalem about the year 50. Paul, who was vocally supported by Peter, argued that circumcision was not a necessary practice.[13] The council agreed that converts could forgo circumcision, but other aspects of "Jewish Law" were deemed necessary.[14] Four years after the Council of Jerusalem, Paul wrote to the Galatians about the issue, which had become a serious controversy in their region. According to Alister McGrath, Paul considered it a great threat to his doctrine of salvation through faith in Jesus and addressed the issue with great detail in Galatians 3.[13] The rift between Christianity and Judaism continued to grow and the relationship between Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
and Judaism and the topic of Biblical law in Christianity is still disputed today. The Council of Jamnia
Council of Jamnia
c. 85 is often stated to have condemned all who claimed the Messiah
Messiah
had already come, and Christianity in particular. However, the formulated prayer in question (birkat ha-minim) is considered by other scholars to be unremarkable in the history of Jewish and Christian relations. There is a paucity of evidence for Jewish persecution of "heretics" in general, or Christians in particular, in the period between 70 and 135. It is probable that the condemnation of Jamnia included many groups, of which the Christians were but one, and did not necessarily mean excommunication. That some of the later church fathers only recommended against synagogue attendance makes it improbable that an anti-Christian prayer was a common part of the synagogue liturgy. Jewish Christians continued to worship in synagogues for centuries.[15][16][17] Appellation[edit] The disciples were first called "Christians" in Antioch
Antioch
(as related in Acts 11:26). Accordingly, "Christians" (with the variant "Chrestians") was by 49 already a familiar term, mostly in the Latin-speaking capital of the Roman Empire. As the church spread throughout Greek-speaking Gentile lands, the appellation took prominence, and eventually became the standard reference for followers of the faith. Ignatius of Antioch
Antioch
was the first known Christian to use the label in self-reference and made the earliest recorded use of the term Christianity (Greek Χριστιανισμός), around AD 100.[18] The Christian movement was referred to as 'The Way' (της οδου) based upon the well known statement by Jesus: "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me." John 14:6. Consequently, it appears in the Acts of the Apostles, Acts 9:2, Acts 19:9 and Acts 19:23). Some English translations of the New Testament capitalize 'the Way' (e.g. the New King James Version
New King James Version
and the English Standard Version), indicating that this was how 'the new religion seemed then to be designated' [19] whereas others treat the phrase as indicative—'the way',[20] 'that way' [21] or 'the way of the Lord'.[22] The Syriac version reads, "the way of God" and the Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin version, "the way of the Lord".[23] Judaism and Christianity[edit] See also: Split of early Christianity and Judaism

Coin of Nerva
Nerva
"The blackmail of the Jewish tax lifted"

During the late 1st century, Judaism was a legal religion with the protection of Roman law, worked out in compromise with the Roman state over two centuries, see Anti-Judaism in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
for details. In contrast, Christianity was not legalized until the 313 Edict of Milan. Observant Jews had special rights, including the privilege of abstaining from civic pagan rites. Christians were initially identified with the Jewish religion by the Romans, but as they became more distinct, Christianity became a problem for Roman rulers. Around the year 98, the emperor Nerva
Nerva
decreed that Christians did not have to pay the annual tax upon the Jews, effectively recognizing them as distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. This opened the way to Christians being persecuted for disobedience to the emperor, as they refused to worship the state pantheon.[24][25][26]

James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the decree of Acts 15:19–29, c. AD 50

Jewish Christians were among the earliest followers of Jesus and an important part of Judean society during the mid- to late 1st century. This movement was centered in Jerusalem (possibly in the Cenacle) and led by James the Just. They held faithfully to the Torah
Torah
and Jewish law (which was still somewhat fluid in this time period), including acceptance of Gentile converts possibly based on a version of the Noachide laws (Acts 15 and Acts 21). According to a tradition recorded by Eusebius and Epiphanius, the Jerusalem church fled to Pella at the outbreak of the Great Jewish Revolt (AD 66–70) (see: Flight to Pella).[27] Disputes over the Mosaic law generated intense controversy in early Christianity. This is particularly notable in the mid-1st century, when the circumcision controversy came to the fore. The issue was addressed at the Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
where Paul made an argument that circumcision was not a necessary practice, vocally supported by Peter, as documented in Acts 15. This position received widespread support and was summarized in a letter circulated in Antioch. Four years after the Council of Jerusalem, Paul wrote to the Galatians about the issue, which had become a serious controversy in their region. According to Alister McGrath, Paul considered it a great threat to his doctrine of salvation through faith in Jesus and addressed the issue with great detail in Galatians 3.[13] There was a slowly growing chasm between Christians and Jews, rather than a sudden split. However, certain events are perceived as pivotal in the growing rift between Christianity and Judaism. The Council of Jamnia c. 85 is often stated to have condemned all who claimed the Messiah
Messiah
had already come, and Christianity in particular. However, the formulated prayer in question (birkat ha-minim) is considered by other scholars to be unremarkable in the history of Jewish and Christian relations. There is a paucity of evidence for Jewish persecution of "heretics" in general, or Christians in particular, in the period between 70 and 135. It is probable that the condemnation of Jamnia included many groups, of which the Christians were but one, and did not necessarily mean excommunication. That some of the later church fathers only recommended against synagogue attendance makes it improbable that an anti-Christian prayer was a common part of the synagogue liturgy. Jewish Christians continued to worship in synagogues for centuries.[15][16][17] The true end of ancient Jewish Christianity occurred only in the 5th century.[citation needed] Gentile Christianity remained the sole strand of orthodoxy and imposed itself on the previously Jewish Christian sanctuaries, taking full control of those houses of worship by the end of the 5th century.[28] Post-apostolic period[edit] Main article: Ante-Nicene Period Christianity throughout the 2nd and 3rd centuries has generally been less studied than the periods that came before and after them. This is reflected in the fact that it is usually referred to in terms of the adjacent periods with names as such "post-apostolic" (after the period of 1st century formative Christianity) and "ante-Nicene" (before the First Council of Nicaea, 325). However, the 2nd and 3rd centuries are quite important in the development of Christianity.[29] There is a relative lack of material for this period, compared with the later Church Father period. For example, a widely used collection (Ante-Nicene Fathers) includes most 2nd- and 3rd-century writings in nine volumes. This includes the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, Apologists, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons, Origen
Origen
of Alexandria and the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha, among others. In contrast, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (consisting mainly of Augustine, Jerome and Chrysostom) fills twenty-eight volumes.[30]

Origen, one of the Ante-Nicene Fathers

The developments of this time are "multidirectional and not easily mapped". While the preceding and following periods were diverse, they possessed unifying characteristics lacking in this period. 1st-century Christianity possessed a basic cohesion based on the Pauline church movement, Jewish character, and self-identification as a messianic movement. The 2nd and 3rd centuries saw a sharp divorce from its early roots. There was an explicit rejection of then-modern Judaism and Jewish culture by the end of the 2nd century, with a growing body of adversus Judaeos literature. 4th- and 5th-century Christianity experienced imperial pressure and developed strong episcopal and unifying structure. The ante-Nicene period was without such authority and was more diverse. Many variations in this time defy neat categorizations, as various forms of Christianity interacted in a complex fashion to form the dynamic character of Christianity in this era.[31] By the early 2nd century, Christians had agreed on a basic list of writings that would serve as their canon,[32] see Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon, but interpretations of these works differed, often wildly.[33] In part to ensure a greater consistency in their teachings, by the end of the 1st century many Christian communities evolved a more structured hierarchy, with a central bishop, whose opinion held more weight in that city.[34] By 160, most communities had a bishop, who based his authority on the chain of succession from the apostles to himself.[35] Bishops still had a freedom of interpretation. The competing versions of Christianity led many bishops who subscribed to what is now the mainstream version of Christianity to rally more closely together.[36] Bishops would call synods to discuss problems or doctrinal differences in certain regions; the first of these to be documented occurred in Roman Asia in about 160. Some bishops began to take on a more authoritative role for a region; in many cases, the bishop of the church located in the capital city of a province became the central authority for all churches in that province. These more centralized authorities were known as metropolitan churches headed by a Metropolitan bishop. The churches in Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome exerted authority over groups of these metropolitan churches.[37] Spread of Christianity[edit] Main article: Early centers of Christianity

  Spread of Christianity to AD 325   Spread of Christianity to AD 600

Early Christianity
Early Christianity
spread from city to city in the Hellenized Roman Empire and beyond into East Africa
East Africa
and South Asia. Apostles
Apostles
traveled extensively, establishing communities in major cities and regions throughout the Empire. The original church communities were founded by apostles (see Apostolic see) and numerous other Christians soldiers, merchants, and preachers[38] in northern Africa, Asia Minor, Armenia, Arabia, Greece, and other places.[39][40][41] Over 40 were established by the year 100,[39][41] many in Asia Minor, such as the seven churches of Asia. By the end of the 1st century, Christianity had already spread to Greece and Italy, some say as far as India, serving as foundations for the expansive spread of Christianity throughout the world. In AD 301, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first to declare Christianity as its state religion, following the conversion of the Royal House of the Arsacids in Armenia. Despite sporadic incidents of local persecution and a few periods of persecution on an empire-wide scale, the Christian religion continued its spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin.[42] There is no agreement as for how Christianity managed to spread so successfully prior to the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
and Constantine favoring the creed and it is probably not possible to identify a single cause for this. Traditionally this has not been the subject of much research, as from a theological point of view the success was simply the natural consequence of people meeting what theologians considered the truth. In the influential book, The Rise of Christianity, Rodney Stark argues that the various sociological factors of Christianity which improved the quality of life of its adherents were crucial for its triumph over paganism.[43] Another factor that may have contributed to the success of Christianity was how the Christian promise of a general resurrection of the dead combined the traditional Greek belief that true immortality depended on the survival of the body with practical explanations of how this was going to actually happen at the end of times.[44] See also[edit]

Christianity portal History portal

Ancient church councils (pre-ecumenical) – church councils before the First Council of Nicaea Christianity and Judaism Hellenistic Judaism Persecution of Christians in the New Testament Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (33–717)

Footnotes[edit]

^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ed. F. L. Lucas (Oxford) entry on Paul ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula
Caligula
(37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian
Julio-Claudian
empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula
Caligula
ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East." ^ Theodore Stylianopoulos "Concerning the Biblical Foundation of Primacy", in Walter Kasper (editor), The Petrine Ministry (Paulist Press 2008 ISBN 978-0-80914334-4), pp. 43–44, citing John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew. 3. Companions and Competitors (Knopf Doubleday 2001 ISBN 978-0-38546993-7), pp. 221–225, and others. ^ Bargil Pixner, The Church of the Apostles
Apostles
found on Mount Zion, Biblical Archaeology Review
Biblical Archaeology Review
16.3 May/June 1990 [1] ^ Brown (1993). p. 10. ^ Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
(Doubleday, 1997), pp. 5–15. ^ a b Bokenkotter, p. 18. ^ Duffy, p. 3. ^ White (2004). p. 127. ^ Ehrman (2005). p. 187. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 19. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Circumcision: In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature: "Contact with Grecian life, especially at the games of the arena [which involved nudity], made this distinction obnoxious to the Hellenists, or antinationalists; and the consequence was their attempt to appear like the Greeks by epispasm ("making themselves foreskins"; I Macc. i. 15; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 5, § 1; Assumptio Mosis, viii.; I Cor. vii. 18; , Tosef., Shab. xv. 9; Yeb. 72a, b; Yer. Peah i. 16b; Yeb. viii. 9a). All the more did the law-observing Jews defy the edict of Antiochus Epiphanes
Antiochus Epiphanes
prohibiting circumcision (I Macc. i. 48, 60; ii. 46); and the Jewish women showed their loyalty to the Law, even at the risk of their lives, by themselves circumcising their sons."; Hodges, Frederick, M. (2001). "The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration, and the Kynodesme" (PDF). The Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 75 (Fall 2001): 375–405. doi:10.1353/bhm.2001.0119. PMID 11568485. Retrieved 2007-07-24.  ^ a b c McGrath (2006). pp. 174–175. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 20. ^ a b Wylen (1995). p. 190. ^ a b Berard (2006). pp. 112–113. ^ a b Wright (1992). pp. 164–165. ^ Elwell & Comfort (2001). pp. 266, 828. ^ Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
on Acts 19, http://biblehub.com/commentaries/jfb//acts/19.htm accessed 8 October 2015 ^ Jubilee Bible 2000 ^ American King James Version ^ Douai-Rheims Bible ^ Gill, J., Gill's Exposition of the Bible, commentary on Acts 19:23 http://biblehub.com/commentaries/gill/acts/19.htm accessed 8 October 2015 ^ Wylen (1995). pp. 190–192. ^ Dunn (1999). pp. 33–34. ^ Boatwright (2004). p. 426. ^ Eusebius, Church History 3, 5, 3; Epiphanius, Panarion 29,7,7–8; 30, 2, 7; On Weights and Measures 15. On the flight to Pella see: Bourgel, Jonathan, "The Jewish Christians’ Move from Jerusalem as a pragmatic choice", in: Dan Jaffe (ed), Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity, (Leyden: Brill, 2010), pp. 107–138 (https://www.academia.edu/4909339/THE_JEWISH_CHRISTIANS_MOVE_FROM_JERUSALEM_AS_A_PRAGMATIC_CHOICE); P. H. R. van Houwelingen, "Fleeing forward: The departure of Christians from Jerusalem to Pella," Westminster Theological Journal 65 (2003), 181–200. ^ Dauphin (1993). pp. 235, 240–242. ^ Siker (2000). p. 231. ^ Siker (2000). pp. 231–232. ^ Siker (2000). pp. 232–234. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 34–35. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 32. ^ Duffy, pp. 9–10. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 33. ^ Duffy, p. 13. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 35. ^ Franzen 29 ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
History of the Catholic Church
(2004), p. 18, quote: "The story of how this tiny community of believers spread to many cities of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
within less than a century is indeed a remarkable chapter in the history of humanity." ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 19–20 ^ a b Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 281, quote: "By the year 100, more than 40 Christian communities existed in cities around the Mediterranean, including two in North Africa, at Alexandria and Cyrene, and several in Italy." ^ Michael Whitby, et al. eds. Christian Persecution, Martyrdom and Orthodoxy (2006) online edition ^ Stark (1996) ^ Endsjø (2009), pp. 159–217

References[edit]

Barclay, William. The Apostles' Creed. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press (1999). ISBN 0-664-25826-3. Berard, Wayne Daniel. When Christians Were Jews (That Is, Now). Cowley Publications (2006). ISBN 1-56101-280-7. Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander. The Romans: From Village to Empire. Oxford University Press (2004). ISBN 0-19-511875-8. Bockmuehl, Markus N.A. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Cambridge University Press (2001). ISBN 0-521-79678-4. Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50584-1.  Brown, Schuyler. The Origins of Christianity: A Historical Introduction to the New Testament. Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-826207-8. Dauphin, C. "De l'Église de la circoncision à l'Église de la gentilité – sur une nouvelle voie hors de l'impasse". Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. Liber Annuus XLIII (1993). Duffy, Eamon (1997). Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07332-1.  Dunn, James D.G. Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999). ISBN 0-8028-4498-7. Dunn, James D.G. The Cambridge Companion to St. Paul. Cambridge University Press (2003). ISBN 0-521-78694-0. Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins (2005). ISBN 0-06-073817-0. Elwell, Walter A. & Comfort, Philip Wesley. Tyndale Bible Dictionary. Tyndale House Publishers (2001). ISBN 0-8423-7089-7. Esler, Philip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge (2004). ISBN 0-415-33312-1. Hunt, Emily Jane. Christianity in the Second Century: The Case of Tatian. Routledge (2003). ISBN 0-415-30405-9. McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. Siker, Jeffrey S. "Christianity in the Second and Third Centuries", Chapter Nine in The Early Christian World. Philip F. Esler, editor. Routledge (2000). ISBN 0-415-24141-3. Stark, Rodney. The Rise of Christianity. Princeton University Press (1996). ISBN 0-06-067701-5. Tabor, James D. "Ancient Judaism: Nazarenes and Ebionites", The Jewish Roman World of Jesus. Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (1998). Taylor, Joan E. Christians and the Holy Places: The Myth of Jewish-Christian Origins. Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-814785-6. Theissen, Gerd & Merz, Annette. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press (1998). ISBN 0-8006-3122-6. White, L. Michael. From Jesus to Christianity. HarperCollins (2004). ISBN 0-06-052655-6. Wright, N.T. The New Testament
New Testament
and the People of God. Fortress Press (1992). ISBN 0-8006-2681-8. Wylen, Stephen M. The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction. Paulist Press (1995). ISBN 0-8091-3610-4.

Further reading[edit]

Berard, Wayne Daniel. When Christians Were Jews (That Is, Now). Cowley Publications (2006). ISBN 1-56101-280-7. Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander. The Romans: From Village to Empire. Oxford University Press (2004). ISBN 0-19-511875-8. Bourgel, Jonathan, From One Identity to Another: The Mother Church of Jerusalem Between the Two Jewish Revolts Against Rome
Rome
(66-135/6 EC). Paris: Éditions du Cerf, collection Judaïsme ancien et Christianisme primitive, (French). ISBN 978-2-204-10068-7 Dunn, James D.G. Unity and Diversity in the New Testament: An Inquiry into the Character of Earliest Christianity. SCM Press (2006). ISBN 0-334-02998-8. Freedman, David Noel (Ed). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (2000). ISBN 0-8028-2400-5. Keck, Leander E. Paul and His Letters. Fortress Press (1988). ISBN 0-8006-2340-1. Mills, Watson E. Acts and Pauline Writings. Mercer University Press (1997). ISBN 0-86554-512-X. Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). University of Chicago Press (1975). ISBN 0-226-65371-4. Thiede, Carsten Peter. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity. Palgrabe Macmillan (2003). ISBN 1-4039-6143-3.

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