The origin and history of coffee dates back to the 10th century, and
possibly earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its
first use. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee is thought to
have been Ethiopia. The earliest substantiated evidence of either
coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th
century, in the
Sufi monasteries of Yemen. By the 16th century, it
had reached the rest of the Middle East,
South India (Coorg), Persia,
Turkey, Horn of Africa, and northern Africa.
Coffee then spread to the
Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to
South East Asia
South East Asia and then
2 First use
6.3 South Korea
8 See also
The word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch
koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed
from the Arabic qahwah (قهوة).
The Arabic word qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, whose
etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb
qahā (قها, "to lack hunger") in reference to the drink's
reputation as an appetite suppressant. The word qahwah is
sometimes alternatively traced to the Arabic quwwa ("power, energy"),
or to Kaffa, a medieval kingdom in
Ethiopia whence the plant was
exported to Arabia. These etymologies for qahwah have all been
disputed, however. The name qahwah is not used for the berry or plant
(the products of the region), which are known in Arabic as bunn and in
Oromo as būn. Semitic had a root qhh "dark color", which became a
natural designation for the beverage. According to this analysis, the
feminine form qahwah (also meaning "dark in color, dull(ing), dry,
sour") was likely chosen to parallel the feminine khamr (خمر,
"wine"), and originally meant "the dark one".
The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo ethnic group were the first
to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee
plant. Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea
arabica varieties, which were found to be of low diversity but with
retention of some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials,
and closely related diploid species
Coffea canephora and C.
liberica; however, no direct evidence has ever been found
indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might
have used it as a stimulant or known about it there earlier than the
seventeenth century. The original domesticated coffee plant is said
to have been from Harar, and the native population is thought to be
Ethiopia with distinct nearby populations in Sudan and
Coffee was primarily consumed in the Islamic world where it originated
and was directly related to religious practices.
There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink
itself. One account involves the Yemenite
Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar
Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili. When traveling in Ethiopia,
the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon
trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the
Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Abou'l Hasan
Schadheli's disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle
(preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for
his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from
Mocha to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from
nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the
beans to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried
boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown
liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained
for days. As stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was
asked to return and was made a saint.
Another account involves a 9th-century Ethiopian goat-herder, Kaldi,
who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the
bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His
exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a monk in a nearby
monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into
the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed, causing other monks
to come and investigate. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the
embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's
first cup of coffee. Since this story is not known to have appeared in
writing before 1671, 800 years after it was supposed to have taken
place, it is highly likely to be apocryphal.
Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the
traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930
Palestinian women grinding coffee, 1905
The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge
of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in
Coffee beans were first exported from
Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni
traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate
the bean. The word qahwa originally meant wine, and Sufis in Yemen
used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of
spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God. Sufis
used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A
translation of Al-Jaziri's manuscript traces the spread of coffee
Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to
Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and
Constantinople. By 1414, the beverage was known in Mecca, and in the
early 1500s was spreading to the Mameluke Sultanate of
Egypt and North
Africa from the Yemeni port of Mocha. Associated with Sufism, a
myriad of coffee houses grew up in
Cairo (Egypt) around the religious
University of the Azhar. These coffee houses also opened in Syria,
especially in the cosmopolitan city of Aleppo, and then in
Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in 1554. In 1511, it
was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox
imams at a theological court in Mecca. However, these bans were to
be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan
Suleiman I, with
Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi
Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a fatwa
allowing the consumption of coffee. In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban
was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing
coffee beans were sacked. During the 16th century, it had already
reached the rest of the Middle East, the
Safavid Empire and the
Ottoman Empire. From the Middle East, coffee drinking spread to Italy,
then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the
Dutch to the
East Indies and to the Americas.
Similarly, coffee was banned by the
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Church some
time before the 18th century. However, in the second half of the
19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking,
and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to
Richard Pankhurst, "this was largely due to
Emperor Menilek, who
himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the
belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink."
The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant
Philippe Sylvestre Dufour is a reference to bunchum in the works
of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya
al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West, but more definite
information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee
berries dates from several centuries later. One of the most important
of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587
compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee
entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa عمدة الصفوة في
حل القهوة. He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din
al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use
of coffee (circa 1454).
He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and
lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and
Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Coffee was first introduced to Europe on the island of
Malta in the
16th century, according to the TV documentary Madwarna. It was
introduced there through slavery. Turkish Muslim slaves had been
imprisoned by the
Knights of St John
Knights of St John in 1565—the year of the Great
Siege of Malta, and they used to make their traditional beverage.
Domenico Magri mentioned in his work Virtu del Kafé, "Turks, most
skilful makers of this concoction." Also the German traveller Gustav
Sommerfeldt in 1663 wrote "the ability and industriousness with which
the Turkish prisoners earn some money, especially by preparing coffee,
a powder resembling snuff tobacco, with water and sugar."
Coffee was a
popular beverage in Maltese high society—many coffee shops
Coffee was also noted in
Aleppo by the German physician botanist
Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in
1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European
The vibrant trade between the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice and the Muslims in
North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African
goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian
merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice,
charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was
introduced to the mainland of Europe. In 1591 Venetian
Prospero Alpini became the first to publish a
description of the coffee plant in Europe. The first
European coffee house apart from those in the
Ottoman Empire and in
Malta was opened in
Venice in 1645.
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The first coffeehouse in Austria opened in
Vienna in 1683 after the
Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after
defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Jerzy
Franciszek Kulczycki, a Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin,
opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding
sugar and milk to the coffee. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee,
which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.
A 1652 handbill advertising coffee for sale in St. Michael's Alley,
According to Leonhard Rauwolf's 1583 account, coffee became available
in England no later than the 16th century, largely through the efforts
British East India Company
British East India Company and the Dutch East
The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael's Alley in
Cornhill, London. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of
Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee
and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. Oxford's Queen's
Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today.
By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England,
but there were many disruptions in the progressive movement of
coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s. During the
enlightenment, these early English coffee houses became gathering
places used for deep religious and political discussions among the
populace. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive,
that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffee houses in
The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, for example,
women frequented them in Germany, but it appears to have been
commonplace elsewhere in Europe, including in England.
Many in this period believed coffee to have medicinal properties. A
1661 tract entitled "A character of coffee and coffee-houses", written
by one "M.P.", lists some of these perceived benefits:
'Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for
expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse
the English-man's Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his
This new commodity proved controversial among some subjects, however.
For instance, the anonymous 1674 "Women's Petition Against Coffee"
the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor
called COFFEE ...has...Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more
kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age.
Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation
described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: "We
are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee
to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and
chocolate." Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix,
the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought
to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the
East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the
beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix.
In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from
Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in
Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee
beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with
coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court.
Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly
establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.
In Germany, coffeehouses were first established in North Sea ports,
Bremen (1673) and
Hamburg (1677). Initially, this new
beverage was written in the English form coffee, but during the 1700s
the Germans gradually adopted the French word café, then slowly
changed to the word Kaffee, where it stands now. In the 18th century
the popularity of coffee gradually spread around the German lands, and
was taken up by the ruling classes.
Coffee was served at the court of
the Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, as early as 1675,
but the first public coffee house in his capital, Berlin, opened only
Leipzig (engraving by Johann Georg Schreiber, 1732)
Composer Johann Sebastian Bach, who was cantor of St. Thomas Church,
Leipzig, in 1723–50, conducted a musical ensemble at Café
Zimmermann in that Saxon city. Sometime in 1732–35 he composed the
Coffee Cantata" Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (BWV 211), in
which a young woman, Lieschen, pleads with her disapproving father to
accept her devotion to drinking coffee, then a newfangled fashion. The
libretto includes such lines as:
Ei! wie schmeckt der
Coffee süße, Lieblicher als tausend Küsse,
Milder als Muskatenwein. Coffee,
Coffee muss ich haben, Und wenn
jemand mich will laben, Ach, so schenkt mir
(Oh! How sweet coffee does taste,
Better than a thousand kisses,
Milder than muscat wine.
Coffee, coffee, I've got to have it,
And if someone wants to perk me up, *
Oh, just give me a cup of coffee!)
Further information: Dutch East
The race among Europeans to obtain live coffee trees or beans was
eventually won by the Dutch in 1616. Pieter van den Broecke, a Dutch
merchant, obtained some of the closely guarded coffee bushes from
Mocha, Yemen, in 1616. He took them back to Amsterdam and found a home
for them in the Botanical gardens, where they began to thrive. This
apparently minor event received little publicity, but was to have a
major impact on the history of coffee.
The beans that van der Broecke acquired from Mocha forty years earlier
adjusted well to conditions in the greenhouses at the Amsterdam
Botanical Garden and produced numerous healthy
Coffea arabica bushes.
In 1658 the Dutch first used them to begin coffee cultivation in
Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and later in southern India. They abandoned
these cultivations to focus on their Javanese plantations in order to
avoid lowering the price by oversupply.
Within a few years, the Dutch colonies (
Java in Asia,
Suriname in the
Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.
Coffee reached the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th
century, primarily through merchants trading with the Ottomans.
The first coffee shops opened a century later. Usage of coffee has
grown since, though it was a luxury commodity during the communist era
of the Polish People's Republic. Consumption of coffee has grown since
the transformation of Poland into a democratic, capitalistic country
in 1989, though it still remains lower per capita than in most West
Gabriel de Clieu
Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to
Martinique in the
Caribbean in 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there
were 18,680 coffee trees in
Martinique enabling the spread of coffee
Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Mexico and other islands of the
Caribbean. The French territory of
Saint-Domingue saw coffee
cultivated starting in 1734, and by 1788 supplied half the world's
Coffee had a major influence on the geography of Latin
America. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African
slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves
worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon-to-follow
Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered
Coffee also found its way to the Isle of Bourbon, now known as
Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. The plant produced smaller beans and
was deemed a different variety of arabica known as var. Bourbon. The
Santos coffee of
Brazil and the
Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the
progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the
King of Portugal
King of Portugal sent
Francisco de Melo Palheta to
French Guiana to obtain coffee seeds to
become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty
obtaining these seeds, but he captivated the French Governor's wife
and she sent him enough seeds and shoots to commence the coffee
industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from
Brazil was introduced
Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin
in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to
Brazil in 1727, although its
cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822.
After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from
the vicinity of Rio and later
São Paulo for coffee plantations.
After the Boston
Tea Party of 1773, large numbers of Americans
switched to drinking coffee during the
American Revolution because
drinking tea had become unpatriotic.
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the
19th century, and in almost all of them it involved the large-scale
displacement and exploitation of indigenous people. Harsh conditions
led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppressions of peasants.
Guatemala started producing coffee in the 1500s but lacked
the manpower to harvest the coffee beans. As a result the Guatemalan
government forced indigenous people to work on the fields. This led to
a strain in the indigenous and Guatemalan people's relationship that
still exists today. A notable exception is Costa Rica where a
lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller
farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th
and 20th centuries.
In the 20th century Latin American countries faced a possible economic
World War II
World War II Europe was consuming large amounts of
coffee. Once the war started Latin America lost 40% of its market and
was on the verge of economic collapse.
Coffee was and is a Latin
American commodity. The United States saw this and talked with the
Latin American countries and as a result the producers agreed on an
equitable division of the U.S. market. The U.S. government monitored
this agreement. For the period that this plan was followed the value
of coffee doubled, which greatly benefited coffee producers and the
Latin American countries.
Brazil became the largest producer of coffee in the world by 1852 and
it has held that status ever since. It dominated world production,
exporting more coffee than the rest of the world combined, from 1850
to 1950. The period since 1950 saw the widening of the playing field
due to the emergence of several other major producers, notably
Colombia, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, and, most recently, Vietnam, which
Colombia and became the second-largest producer in 1999 and
reached 15% market share by 2011.
Around the turn of the century an organization named Fair Trade
emerged. In the past 20 years
Fair trade coffee has become very
popular. The idea of fair trade is to pay the farmers more money, so
the farmers can have better lives. Most fair Trade's farmers come from
Latin America. There is controversy about the effectiveness of Fair
Trade. The proponents argue that Fair Trade helps the farmer receive a
larger salary which allows them to live better lives.[unreliable
source?] Opponents argue that Fair Trade does not keep records and
therefore cannot be accountable.
A recent change to the coffee market are lattes, Frappuccinos and
other sugary coffee drinks. With the rise of lattes and Frappuccinos
becoming more popular this has caused coffee houses to be able to use
cheaper coffee beans in their coffee, which has hurt the Latin
American countries' economy. The cheaper coffee beans are called
Robusta and they contain more caffeine than the more expensive beans.
This is another reason the coffee houses can use the cheaper beans,
because they still contain a high caffeine content. These cheaper
beans hurt the Latin American economy because the producers receive
less money for the production of the cheaper beans than they do for
the production of the higher quality beans. Since the producers get
paid less, they are receiving a smaller income, which in turn hurts
the economy of Latin America.
Coffee production in India
Monsooned Malabar arabica, compared with green Yirgachefe beans from
Coffee came to
India well before the East
India company, through an
Sufi saint named "Baba Budan". The first record of coffee
India is following the introduction of coffee beans from
Baba Budan to the hills of
Chikmagalur (Coorg, Southern
India) in 1670. Since then coffee plantations have become
established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.
Coffee production in
India is dominated in the hill tracts of South
Indian states, with the state of
Karnataka accounting 53% followed by
Kerala 28% and
Tamil Nadu 11% of production of 8,200 tonnes. Indian
coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than
direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are approximately
250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers. As
of 2009, the production of coffee in
India was only 4.5% of the total
production in the world. Almost 80% of the country's coffee production
is exported. Of that which is exported, 70% is bound for Germany,
Russian federation, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan,
Greece, Netherlands and France, and Italy accounts for 29% of the
exports. Most of the export is shipped through the Suez Canal.
Coffee is grown in three regions of
India with Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu forming the traditional coffee growing region of South
India, followed by the new areas developed in the non-traditional
Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country
and with a third region comprising the states of Assam, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and
Arunachal Pradesh of
Northeastern India, popularly known as "Seven Sister States of
Indian coffee, grown mostly in southern
India under monsoon rainfall
conditions, is also termed as "Indian monsooned coffee". Its flavour
is defined as: "The best Indian coffee reaches the flavour
characteristics of Pacific coffees, but at its worst it is simply
bland and uninspiring". The two well known species of coffee grown
are the Arabica and Robusta. The first variety that was introduced in
Baba Budan Giri hill ranges of
Karnataka in the 17th century
was marketed over the years under the brand names of Kent and S.795.
Coffee is sold by the name of "filter coffee" by small restaurants and
small chains like MTR's, Narasu's, etc. Recently, larger coffee outlet
Coffee Day and
Starbucks have been opening up in larger
cities and towns.
Coffee is the cornerstone of Chikmagalur's economy.
Chikmagalur is the
birthplace of coffee in India, where the seed was first sown about 350
Coffee Board is the department located in
that oversees the production and marketing of coffee cultivated in the
Coffee is cultivated in
Chikmagalur district in an area of
around 85,465 hectares with Arabica being the dominant variety grown
in upper hills and Robusta being the major variety in the low level
hills. There are around 15000 coffee growers in this district with 96%
of them being small growers with holdings of less than or equal to 4
hectares. The average production is 55,000 MT: 35,000 MT of Arabica
and 20,000 MT of Robusta. The average productivity per hectare is
810 kg for Arabica and 1110 kg of Robusta, which are higher
than the national average. Arabica is a species of coffee that is also
known as the "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica
Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee
to be cultivated, being grown in southwest
Arabia for well over 1,000
years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major
commercially grown coffee species,
Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica
contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species
of coffee. Robusta is a species of coffee which has its origins in
western Africa. It is grown mostly in Africa and Brazil, where it is
often called Conillon. It is also grown in Southeast Asia where French
colonists introduced it in the late 19th century. In recent years
Vietnam, which only produces robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and
Indonesia to become the world's single largest exporter. Approximately
one third of the coffee produced in the world is robusta.
Coffee was introduced to Japan by the Dutch in the 17th century, but
remained a curiosity until the lifting of trade restrictions in 1858.
The first European-style coffeehouse opened in Tokyo in 1888, and
closed four years later. By the early 1930s there were over 30,000
coffeehouses across the country; availability in the wartime and
immediate postwar period dropped to nearly zero, then rapidly
increased as import barriers were removed. The introduction of
freeze-dried instant coffee, canned coffee, and franchises such as
Starbucks and Doutor
Coffee in the late 20th century continued this
trend, to the point that Japan is now one of the leading per capita
coffee consumers in the world.
Coffee's first notable Korean enthusiasts were 19th century emperors
Sunjong and Gojong, who preferred to consume it after western-style
banquets. By the 1980s instant coffee and canned coffee had become
fairly popular, with a more minor tradition of independently owned
coffeehouses in larger cities; toward the end of the century the
growth of franchises such as
Caffe Bene and
Starbucks brought about a
greater demand for European-style coffee.
Coffee was first introduced by the Dutch during colonization in late
17th century. After several years coffee was planted on Indonesia
Archipelago. Many coffee specialties are from the Indonesian
Archipelago. The colloquial name for coffee, Java, comes from the time
when most of Europe and America's coffee was grown in Java. Today
Indonesia is one of the largest coffee producers in the world, mainly
for export. However coffee is enjoyed in various ways around the
archipelago like traditional "Kopi Ende" which is with ginger to fancy
new ways in Jakartas many coffee shops like Anomali.
The Philippines is one of the few countries that produces the four
varieties of commercially viable coffee: Arabica, Liberica (Barako),
Excelsa and Robusta. Climatic and soil conditions in the Philippines
– from the lowland to mountain regions – make the country suitable
for all four varieties.
In the Philippines, coffee has a history as rich as its flavor. The
first coffee tree was introduced in
Lipa, Batangas in 1740 by a
Spanish Franciscan monk. From there, coffee growing spread to other
parts of Batangas like Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan.
Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these
areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the
By the 1860s, Batangas was exporting coffee to America through San
Francisco. When the
Suez Canal was opened, a new market started in
Europe as well. Seeing the success of the Batangeños, Cavite followed
suit by growing the first coffee seedlings in 1876 in Amadeo. In spite
of this, Lipa still reigned as the center for coffee production in the
Philippines and Batangas barako was commanding five times the price of
other Asian coffee beans. In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth
largest exporter of coffee beans, and when the coffee rust hit Brazil,
Africa, and Java, it became the only source of coffee beans worldwide.
The glory days of the Philippine coffee industry lasted until 1889
when coffee rust hit the Philippine shores. That, coupled with an
insect infestation, destroyed virtually all the coffee trees in
Batangas. Since Batangas was a major producer of coffee, this greatly
affected national coffee production. In two years, coffee production
was reduced to 1/6th its original amount. By then,
Brazil had regained
its position as the world's leading producer of coffee. A few of the
surviving coffee seedlings were transferred from Batangas to Cavite,
where they flourished. This was not the end of the Philippines' coffee
growing days, but there was less area allotted to coffee because many
farmers had shifted to other crops.
During the 1950s, the Philippine government, with the help of the
Americans, brought in a more resistant variety of coffee. It was also
then that instant coffee was being produced commercially, thus
increasing the demand for beans. Because of favorable market
conditions, many farmers went back to growing coffee in the 1960s. But
the sudden proliferation of coffee farms resulted in a surplus of
beans around the world, and for a while importation of coffee was
banned in order to protect local coffee producers. When
Brazil was hit
by a frost in the 1970s, world market coffee prices soared. The
Philippines became a member of the International
(ICO) in 1980.
The first step in Europeans' wresting the means of production was
effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam
and member of the governing board of the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company who
urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee
plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of
Europe's supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies; the
project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment
met with such success that the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company was able to
supply Europe's demand with "
Java coffee" by 1719. Encouraged by
their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon,
other Sunda islands.
Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at
the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended
to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations
that led to the
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts
with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi,
predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.
The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain
Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist
Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king's coffee
tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult
voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them
from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the
Batavian trade. Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the
West Indies, and established them in
addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao
plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of
three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many
parts of the continent starting with the
Martinique and the colonies
of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were
The first coffee plantation in
Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col.
Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the
germ plasm originally taken from
Yemen to Batavia, from French
Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil's harvests would turn coffee from an
elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most
other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied
heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the
plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of
coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the
habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).
For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries,
Brazil was the
biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade.
However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities
to other nations, such as Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua,
Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to
Brazil as the major coffee
producer in the world. Large-scale production in
following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995.
Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.
Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country
produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century,
and much of that not from the south of the country but from the
Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the
plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of
coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in
1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela. 100,000
kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in
1927–8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.
Coffee plantations were also developed in
Arsi Province at the same
time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa –
Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the
Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed
exports of "Harari" coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in
Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export,
but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres
(2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New
South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica
coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented
Economics of coffee
Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia
Coffee Association of America
A History of the World in 6 Glasses, by Tom Standage: a review by
^ a b c d e f Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The
world of caffeine. Routledge. pp. 3–4.
^ a b c Meyers, Hannah (7 March 2005). "'Suave Molecules of Mocha' –
Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization". Archived from the original on 21
February 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
^ OED, s.v. "Coffee".
^ a b c Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "coffee, n." Oxford
University Press (Oxford), 1891.
^ قها. الباحث العربي (in Arabic). Retrieved 25
^ Kaye, Alan S. (1986). "The etymology of 'coffee': The dark brew".
Journal of the American Oriental Society. 106 (3): 557–558.
doi:10.2307/602112. JSTOR 602112.
^ Steiger, L.; Nagal, C.; et al. (2002). "AFLP analysis of genetic
diversity within and among
Coffea arabica cultivars". Theoretical and
Applied Genetics. 105 (2–3): 209–215.
doi:10.1007/s00122-002-0939-8. PMID 12582521.
^ a b John K. Francis. "
Coffea arabica L. RUBIACEAE" (PDF). Factsheet
of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
^ Wild, Anthony (2003). "Coffee: A dark history". Basic Reference.
USA: Fourth Estate. 28: 217–229. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
^ Grigg, David (2002). "The worlds of tea and coffee: Patterns of
consumption". GeoJournal. 57 (4): 283–294.
doi:10.1023/b:gejo.0000007249.91153.c3. JSTOR 41147739.
^ "Discovery of Coffee". shazuli.com. Archived from the original on 16
January 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
^ Ukers, William (1935). All About Coffee. New York: The
Coffee Trade Journal Company. pp. 9–10.
^ Ukers 1922:5, and all other sources
^ a b c d "
Coffee and qahwa: How a drink for Arab mystics went
global". BBC News.
^ Al-Jaziri's manuscript work is of considerable interest with regards
to the history of coffee in Europe as well. A copy reached the French
royal library, where it was translated in part by
Antoine Galland as
De l'origine et du progrès du café.
^ a b "عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة – resource for
arabic books". alwaraq.net.
^ Schneider, Irene (2001). "Ebussuud". In Stolleis, Michael. Juristen:
ein biographisches Lexikon; von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert (in
German) (2nd ed.). München: Beck. p. 193.
^ J. E. Hanauer (1907). "About Coffee". Folk-lore of the Holy Land.
pp. 291 f. [All] the coffee-houses [were] closed, and their
keepers pelted with the sherds of their pots and cups. This was in
1524, but by an order of Selìm I., the decrees of the learned were
reversed, the disturbances in
Egypt quieted, the drinking of coffee
declared perfectly orthodox
^ Aregay, Merid W. (1988). "The Early History of Ethiopia's Coffee
Trade and the Rise of Shawa". The Journal of African History. 29 (1,
Special Issue in Honour of Roland Oliver): 20.
doi:10.1017/s0021853700035969. JSTOR 182236.
^ Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of
Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Haile
Selassie I University, 1968), p. 198
^ Dufour, Traitez nouveaux et curieux du café, du thé et du chocolat
(Lyon, 1684, etc).
^ In later editions Dufour casts doubt on the identity of Rhazes'
bunchum, which is shared by Edward Forbes Robinson, The Early History
Coffee Houses in England (London, 1893), noted by Ukers 1922:
^ The 19th-century orientalist Antoine Isaac
Silvestre de Sacy
Silvestre de Sacy edited
the first two chapters of al-Jaziri's manuscript and included it in
the second edition of his Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826, 3 vols.).
Antoine Galland's De l'origine et du progrès du Café (1699) was
recently reissued (Paris: Editions La Bibliothèque, 1992).
^ "Maltese history through a sweet tooth". tenzo.fr. Retrieved 23
^ William Harrison Ukers, All About Coffee :2.
^ "History of Coffee". Nestlé Professional. Retrieved 31 December
^ Cowan, Brian William (2005). The Social Life of Coffee: The
emergence of the British
Coffee house. New Haven Conn: Yale University
^ Wild, Anthony.
Coffee A Dark History. W. W. Norton & Company,
Inc. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110.
^ "The surprising history of London's lost coffee houses". The Daily
Telegraph. 20 March 2012.
^ Zappiah, Nat (2007). "
Coffee Houses and Culture". Huntington Library
Quarterly. 70 (4): 671–677.
Coffee History". Archived from the original on 15 September 2007.
Retrieved 27 October 2007.
^ "The women's petition against coffee representing to publick
consideration the grand inconveniences accruing to their sex from the
excessive use of that drying, enfeebling liquor". Archived from the
original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2006.
^ "Kawa w Polsce – historia i styl picia – Koneserzy.pl".
www.koneserzy.pl. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
^ "Otwarcie kawiarni Duvala w Warszawie – Muzeum Historii Polski".
muzhp.pl. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
^ "SPRZEDAŻ KAWY W POLSCE" (PDF).
^ Rice, Robert A. (1999). "A Place Unbecoming: The
Coffee Farm of
Northern Latin America". Geographical Review. 89 (4): 554–579.
doi:10.2307/216102. JSTOR 216102.
^ Pendergrast, p. 16
^ Kenneth Davids, Coffee: a guide to buying, brewing, and enjoying,
2001, ISBN 0-312-24665-X, p. 13.
^ Pendergrast, p. 19
^ Pendergrast, pp. 20–24
^ (1) Adams, John (6 July 1774). "
John Adams to Abigail Adams". The
Adams Papers: Digital Editions: Adams Family Correspondence, Volume 1.
Massachusetts Historical Society. Archived from the original on 26
February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. I believe I forgot to tell
you one Anecdote: When I first came to this House it was late in the
Afternoon, and I had ridden 35 miles at least. 'Madam' said I to Mrs.
Huston, 'is it lawfull for a weary Traveller to refresh himself with a
Tea provided it has been honestly smuggled, or paid no
'No sir, said she, we have renounced all
Tea in this Place. I cant
make Tea, but I'le make you Coffee.' Accordingly I have drank Coffee
every Afternoon since, and have borne it very well.
Tea must be
universally renounced. I must be weaned, and the sooner, the
(2) Stone, William L. (1867). "Continuation of Mrs. General Riedesel's
Adventures". Mrs. General Riedesel: Letters and Journals relating to
the War of Independence and the Capture of the Troops at Saratoga
(Translated from the Original German). Albany: Joel Munsell.
p. 147. She then became more gentle, and offered me bread and
milk. I made tea for ourselves. The woman eyed us longingly, for the
Americans love it very much; but they had resolved to drink it no
longer, as the famous duty on the tea had occasioned the war. At
Google Books. Note: Fredricka Charlotte Riedesel was the wife of
General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, commander of all German and Indian
troops in General John Burgoyne's
Saratoga campaign and American
prisoner of war during the American Revolution.
(3) Heiss, Mary Lou; Heiss, Robert .J (2007). "A History of Tea: The
Tea Party". The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking
Guide. pp. 21–24. At Google Books.
(4) Zuraw, Lydia (24 April 2013). "How
Coffee Influenced The Course of
History". NPR. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
Retrieved 25 February 2014.
(5) DeRupo, Joseph (3 July 2013). "American Revolution: Stars,
Stripes—and Beans?". NCA News. National
Coffee Association. Archived
from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February
(6) Luttinger, Nina; Dicum, Gregory (2006). The coffee book: anatomy
of an industry from crop to the last drop. The New Press.
p. 33. At Google Books.
^ Pendergrast, pp. 33–34
^ McCreery, David. "
Coffee and Indigenous Labor in Guatemala". The
Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500–1989:
^ Corntassel, Jeff; Holder, Cindy (2008). "Who's Sorry Now? Government
Apologies, Truth Commissions, and Indigenous Self-Determination in
Australia, Canada, Guatemala, and Peru". Human Rights Review. 9 (4):
^ Williamson, W.F. (Fall 2017). "The Place of
Coffee in Trade with
Latin America". Journal of Marketing: 149–151.
^ "UNCTAD –
Coffee Production History". Archived from the original
on 18 September 2015.
^ "Fair Trade". International Trade Forum Magazine. No. 2.
^ transfairusa. "Santiago's Story". Retrieved 28 November 2017.
^ Griffiths, Peter. "Fairtrade is not fair". Youtube. Retrieved 28
^ Scholer, Mortan (Fall 2017). "Bitter or Better Future for Coffee
Farmers". International Trade Forum: 9–12.
^ a b Wild, Anthony (10 April 1995). The East
India Company Book of
Coffee. Harper Collins. ISBN 0004127390.
^ "BABA BUDAN GIRI". chickmagalur.nic.in.
^ a b Yeboah, Salomey (8 March 2005). "Value Addition to
India". Cornell Education:Intag 602. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
^ Lee, Hau Leung; Lee, Chung-Yee (2007). Building supply chain
excellence in emerging economies. pp. 293–94.
^ Illy, Andrea; Viani, Rinantonio (2005).
Espresso coffee: the science
of quality. Academic Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-12-370371-9.
Coffee Regions – India". Indian
Coffee Organization. Retrieved 6
October 2010. [permanent dead link]
^ "Indian Coffee".
Coffee Research Organization. Archived from the
original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
^ Robertson, Carol (2010). The Little Book of
Coffee Law. American Bar
Association. pp. 77–79. ISBN 1-60442-985-2. Retrieved 29
^ "Brief history of
Coffee in Japan". d-cage.
^ "Countries Compared by Lifestyle > Food and drink > Coffee
> Consumption. International Statistics at NationMaster.com".
^ "The Korean
Coffee Myth". The Marmot's Hole. Archived from the
original on 16 January 2013.
^ Lee, Hyo-sik (11 April 2012). "Why do coffee shops keep popping
up?". Korea Times. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ William Law, The History of Coffee, including a chapter on chicory
(London) 1850:14, on the authority of Hermann Boerhaave, director of
the botanical garden at Leiden.
^ E. M. Jacobs, Merchant in Asia: the trade of the Dutch East India
Company during the "
Coffee from Mocha and the highlands of
Batavia" :260ff describes the introduction of coffee plantations
^ Henry Mills Alden, "A Cup of coffee", Harper's new monthly magazine
^ Toussaint-Samat 2008:530.
^ The story appeared in J.J.C. Goube, Histoire du duché de Normandie
(1815, vol. III:191), of which a translated excerpt was contributed to
The Gentleman's Magazine
The Gentleman's Magazine (February 1840:136) "Generosity of M.
Desclieux – The Coffee-tree at Martinique". The date of this event
is variously reported: in Goube it is 1726.
^ "Des Clieux's cutting was the ancestor of all the coffee trees of
Martinique, the West Indies,
Brazil and Colombia, and some of them
went back across the Atlantic to become a source of income to the
African colonies that have now gained their independence"
^ Palacios, Marco (2002).
Coffee in Colombia, 1850–1970: An
Economic, Social and Political History. Cambridge University Press.
^ Vietnam: Silent Global
Coffee Power by Alex Scofield
Coffee Organization. Total Production of Exporting
Countries: Crop Years 2000/01 to 2005/06. "Archived copy". Archived
from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2010. .
Retrieved 8 December 2006.
^ Pankhurst, Economic History, p. 202
^ Pankhurst, Economic History, p. 203
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List of countries by coffee production
Species and varieties
Coffee Pot Control Protocol
List of coffee dishes
Cà phê sữa đá
Café au lait
Café de olla
Café con leche
Café com Cheirinho
Greek frappé coffee
Indian filter coffee
Ipoh white coffee
Viennese coffee house
Roasted grain drink
Coffee and doughnuts
Coffee cup sleeve
Tasse à café
Coffee leaf rust
King Gustav's twin experiment
Coffee vending machine
Single-serve coffee container
Third wave of coffee