The origin and HISTORY OF COFFEE dates back to the 10th century, and
possibly earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its
first use. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee is thought to
Ethiopia . The earliest substantiated evidence of either
coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th
century, in the
Sufi monasteries of
Yemen . By the 16th century, it
had reached the rest of the Middle East,
South India (
Coorg ), Persia
Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa , and northern Africa .
Coffee then spread
to the Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to South East Asia
and then to America.
* 2 First use
* 3 History
* 4 Europe
* 4.1 Austria
* 4.2 England
* 4.3 France
* 4.4 Germany
* 4.5 Netherlands
* 4.6 Poland
* 5 Americas
* 6 Asia
* 6.1.2 Introduction of coffee in Eastern Ghats of
* 6.2 Japan
* 6.3 South Korea
* 6.5 Philippines
* 7 Production
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Footnotes
* 9.2 Sources
The word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch
koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed
from the Arabic qahwah (قهوة).
The Arabic word qahwah originally referred to a type of wine , whose
etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb
qahā (قها, "to lack hunger") in reference to the drink's
reputation as an appetite suppressant . The word qahwah is sometimes
alternatively traced to the Arabic quwwa ("power, energy"), or to
Kaffa , a medieval kingdom in
Ethiopia whence the plant was exported
Arabia . These etymologies for qahwah have all been disputed,
however. The name qahwah is not used for the berry or plant (the
products of the region), which are known in Arabic as bunn and in
Oromo as būn. Semitic had a root qhh "dark color", which became a
natural designation for the beverage. According to this analysis, the
feminine form qahwah (also meaning "dark in color, dull(ing), dry,
sour") was likely chosen to parallel the feminine khamr (خمر,
"wine"), and originally meant "the dark one".
The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo ethnic group were the first
to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.
Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on
varieties, which were found to be of low diversity but with retention
of some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely
related diploid species
Coffea canephora and C. liberica ; however,
no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa
coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant
or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century. The
original domesticated coffee plant is said to have been from
and the native population is thought to be derived from
distinct nearby populations in Sudan and Kenya.
Coffee was primarily consumed in the Islamic world where it
originated and was directly related to religious practices.
There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink
itself. One account involves the Yemenite
Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar
Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili . When traveling in
Ethiopia , the
legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying
the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same
Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Abou\'l
Hasan Schadheli\'s disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle
(preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for
his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from
Mocha to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from
nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the
beans to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried
boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown
liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained
for days. As stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was
asked to return and was made a saint.
Another account involves a 9th-century Ethiopian goat-herder,
who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the
bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His
exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a monk in a nearby
monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into
the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed, causing other monks
to come and investigate. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the
embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's
first cup of coffee. Since this story is not known to have appeared in
writing before 1671, 800 years after it was supposed to have taken
place, it is highly likely to be apocryphal.
Bedouin from a beehive village in
Aleppo , Syria ,
sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930 Palestinian
women grinding coffee, 1905
The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge
of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in Yemen
Coffee beans were first exported from
Yemen . Yemeni
traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate
the bean. The word qahwa originally meant wine, and Sufis in Yemen
used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of
spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God. Sufis used
it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A
translation of Al-Jaziri's manuscript traces the spread of coffee
Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to
Medina , and then to the larger cities of
Constantinople . By 1414, the beverage was known in Mecca, and in
the early 1500s was spreading to the Mameluke Sultanate of
North Africa from the Yemeni port of Mocha . Associated with Sufism
, a myriad of coffee houses grew up in
Cairo (Egypt) around the
religious University of the Azhar. These coffee houses also opened in
Syria, especially in the cosmopolitan city of Aleppo, and then in
Istanbul, the capital of the
Ottoman Empire , in 1554. In 1511, it
was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox
imams at a theological court in
Mecca . However, these bans were to
be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan
Suleiman I , with
Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a
fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee. In
Cairo , Egypt, a similar
ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses
containing coffee beans were sacked. During the 16th century, it had
already reached the rest of the Middle East, the
Safavid Empire and
Ottoman Empire . From the Middle East, coffee drinking spread to
Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported
by the Dutch to the
East Indies and to the Americas.
Similarly, coffee was banned by the
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Church some
time before the 18th century. However, in the second half of the 19th
century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its
consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard
Pankhurst , "this was largely due to
Emperor Menilek , who himself
drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of
the clergy that it was a Muslim drink."
The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant
Philippe Sylvestre Dufour is a reference to bunchum in the works of
the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi,
known as Rhazes in the West, but more definite information on the
preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from
several centuries later. One of the most important of the early
writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-
Jaziri , who in 1587 compiled a
work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled
Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa عمدة الصفوة في حل
القهوة. He reported that one
Sheikh , Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani
(d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee
He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and
lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.
Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Coffee was first introduced to Europe on the island of
Malta in the
16th century, according to the TV documentary Madwarna . It was
introduced there through slavery. Turkish Muslim slaves had been
imprisoned by the Knights of St John in 1565—the year of the Great
Malta , and they used to make their traditional beverage.
Domenico Magri mentioned in his work Virtu del Kafé, "Turks, most
skilful makers of this concoction." Also the German traveller Gustav
Sommerfeldt in 1663 wrote "the ability and industriousness with which
the Turkish prisoners earn some money, especially by preparing coffee,
a powder resembling snuff tobacco, with water and sugar."
Coffee was a
popular beverage in Maltese high society—many coffee shops opened.
Coffee was also noted in
Aleppo by the German physician botanist
Leonhard Rauwolf , the first European to mention it, as chaube, in
1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European
The vibrant trade between the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice and the Muslims in
North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African
goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian
merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in
charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was
introduced to the mainland of Europe. In 1591 Venetian
Prospero Alpini became the first to publish a
description of the coffee plant in Europe. The first European coffee
house apart from those in the
Ottoman Empire and in
Malta was opened
Venice in 1645.
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The first coffeehouse in Austria opened in
Vienna in 1683 after the
Vienna , by using supplies from the spoils obtained after
defeating the Turks . The officer who received the coffee beans, Jerzy
Franciszek Kulczycki , a Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin,
opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding
sugar and milk to the coffee. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee,
which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.
1652 advertisement for the UK's first coffeehouse, St. Michael's
Leonhard Rauwolf 's 1583 account, coffee became
available in England no later than the 16th century, largely through
the efforts of the
British East India Company
British East India Company and the Dutch East India
Company . The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael's
Cornhill, London . The proprietor was
Pasqua Rosée , the
servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported
the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment.
Oxford's Queen\'s Lane
Coffee House , established in 1654, is still in
existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses
throughout England, but there were many disruptions in the progressive
movement of coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s. During the
enlightenment, these early English coffee houses became gathering
places used for deep religious and political discussions among the
populace. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive,
that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffee houses in 1675.
The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, for
example, women frequented them in Germany, but it appears to have been
commonplace elsewhere in Europe, including in England.
Many in this period believed coffee to have medicinal properties. A
1661 tract entitled "A character of coffee and coffee-houses", written
by one "M.P.", lists some of these perceived benefits:
'Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for
expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse
the English-man's Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his
This new commodity proved controversial among some subjects, however.
For instance, the anonymous 1674 "Women's Petition Against Coffee"
the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor
called COFFEE ...has...Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more
kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age.
Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation
described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate : "We
are indebted to these great physicians for introducing coffee to the
modern world through their writings, as well as sugar , tea, and
chocolate." Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix,
the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought
to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot , who had travelled through the
East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the
beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix.
Soleiman Agha , Ambassador from
Mehmed IV , arrived
in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of
coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European
guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the
royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to
firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.
In Germany, coffeehouses were first established in North Sea ports,
Bremen (1673) and
Hamburg (1677). Initially, this new
beverage was written in the English form coffee, but during the 1700s
the Germans gradually adopted the French word café, then slowly
changed to the word Kaffee, where it stands now. In the 18th century
the popularity of coffee gradually spread around the German lands, and
was taken up by the ruling classes.
Coffee was served at the court of
Great Elector , Frederick William of Brandenburg, as early as
1675, but the first public coffee house in his capital,
opened only in 1721. Café Zimmermann,
Leipzig (engraving by
Johann Georg Schreiber, 1732)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach , who was cantor of St. Thomas Church,
Leipzig , in 1723–50, conducted a musical ensemble at Café
Zimmermann in that Saxon city. Sometime in 1732–35 he composed the
Coffee Cantata" Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (
BWV 211 ),
in which a young woman, Lieschen, pleads with her disapproving father
to accept her devotion to drinking coffee, then a newfangled fashion.
The libretto includes such lines as:
Ei! wie schmeckt der
Lieblicher als tausend Küsse,
Milder als Muskatenwein.
Coffee muss ich haben,
Und wenn jemand mich will laben,
Ach, so schenkt mir
(Oh! How sweet coffee does taste,
Better than a thousand kisses,
Milder than muscat wine.
Coffee, coffee, I've got to have it,
And if someone wants to perk me up, *
Oh, just give me a cup of coffee!)
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The race among Europeans to obtain live coffee trees or beans was
eventually won by the Dutch in 1616.
Pieter van den Broecke , a Dutch
merchant, obtained some of the closely guarded coffee bushes from
Mocha, Yemen, in 1616. He took them back to Amsterdam and found a home
for them in the Botanical gardens, where they began to thrive. This
apparently minor event received little publicity, but was to have a
major impact on the history of coffee.
The beans that van der Broecke acquired from Mocha forty years
earlier adjusted well to conditions in the greenhouses at the
Amsterdam Botanical Garden and produced numerous healthy Coffea
arabica bushes. In 1658 the Dutch first used them to begin coffee
Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and later in southern India.
They abandoned these cultivations to focus on their Javanese
plantations in order to avoid lowering the price by oversupply.
Within a few years, the Dutch colonies (
Java in Asia,
Suriname in the
Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.
Coffee reached the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th
century, primarily through merchants trading with the Ottomans. The
first coffee shops opened a century later. Usage of coffee has grown
since, though it was a luxury commodity during the communist era of
the Polish People\'s Republic . Consumption of coffee has grown since
the transformation of Poland into a democratic, capitalistic country
in 1989, through it still remains lower per capita than in most West
Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to
Martinique in the
Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later
there were 18,680 coffee trees in
Martinique enabling the spread of
coffee cultivation to
Haiti ), Mexico and other
islands of the Caribbean. The French territory of Saint-Domingue, saw
coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world's
Coffee had a major influence on the geography of Latin
America. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African
slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves
worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon-to-follow
Haitian Revolution . The coffee industry never fully recovered there.
Coffee also found its way to the
Isle of Bourbon , now known as
Réunion, in the
Indian Ocean . The plant produced smaller beans and
was deemed a different variety of arabica known as var. Bourbon. The
Santos coffee of
Brazil and the
Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the
progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the
King of Portugal
King of Portugal sent
Francisco de Melo Palheta to
French Guiana to obtain coffee seeds to
become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty
obtaining these seeds, but he captivated the French Governor's wife
and she sent him enough seeds and shoots to commence the coffee
industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from
Brazil was introduced
Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin
in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to
Brazil in 1727, although its
cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822. After
this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the
vicinity of Rio and later
São Paulo for coffee plantations.
After the Boston
Tea Party of 1773, large numbers of Americans
switched to drinking coffee during the
American Revolution because
drinking tea had become unpatriotic.
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the
19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and
exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to
many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable
Costa Rica , where lack of ready labor prevented the
formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian
conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.
Brazil became the largest producer of coffee in the world by 1852 and
it has held that status ever since. It dominated world production,
exporting more coffee than the rest of the world combined, from 1850
to 1950. The period since 1950 saw the widening of the playing field
due to the emergence of several other major producers, most notably
Ivory Coast ,
Ethiopia , and, most recently,
Colombia and became the second-largest producer in 1999
and reached 15% market share by 2011.
Coffee production in
Monsooned Malabar arabica,
compared with green Yirgachefe beans from
Coffee came to
India well before the East
India company, through an
India sufi saint named "Baba Budan". The first record of coffee
India is following the introduction of coffee beans from
Baba Budan to the hills of
Coorg , Southern
India ) in 1670. Since then coffee plantations have become
established in the region, extending south to
Coffee production in
India is dominated in the hill tracts of South
Indian states, with the state of
Karnataka accounting 53% followed by
Kerala 28% and
Tamil Nadu 11% of production of 8,200 tonnes . Indian
coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than
direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are approximately
250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers. As of
2009, the production of coffee in
India was only 4.5% of the total
production in the world. Almost 80% of the country's coffee production
is exported. Of that which is exported, 70% is bound for Germany,
Russian federation, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan,
Greece, Netherlands and France, and Italy accounts for 29% of the
exports. Most of the export is shipped through the
Suez Canal .
Coffee is grown in three regions of
India with Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu forming the traditional coffee growing region of South
India , followed by the new areas developed in the non-traditional
Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country
and with a third region comprising the states of
Assam , Manipur,
Meghalaya , Mizoram,
Tripura , Nagaland and
Arunachal Pradesh of
India , popularly known as "Seven Sister States of
Indian coffee, grown mostly in southern
India under monsoon rainfall
conditions, is also termed as "Indian monsooned coffee". Its flavour
is defined as: "The best Indian coffee reaches the flavour
characteristics of Pacific coffees, but at its worst it is simply
bland and uninspiring". The two well known species of coffee grown
are the Arabica and Robusta . The first variety that was introduced in
Baba Budan Giri hill ranges of
Karnataka in the 17th century was
marketed over the years under the brand names of Kent and S.795.
Coffee is the cornerstone of Chikmagalur's economy.
the birthplace of coffee in India, where the seed was first sown about
350 years ago.
Coffee Board is the department located in Chikmagalur
town that oversees the production and marketing of coffee cultivated
in the district.
Coffee is cultivated in
Chikmagalur district in an
area of around 85,465 hectares with Arabica being the dominant variety
grown in upper hills and Robusta being the major variety in the low
level hills. There are around 15000 coffee growers in this district
with 96% of them being small growers with holdings of less than or
equal to 4 hectares. The average production is 55,000 MT: 35,000 MT of
Arabica and 20,000 MT of Robusta. The average productivity per hectare
is 810 kg for Arabica and 1110 kg of Robusta, which are higher than
the national average. Arabica is a species of coffee that is also
known as the "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica
Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee
to be cultivated, being grown in southwest
Arabia for well over 1,000
years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major
commercially grown coffee species,
Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica
contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species
of coffee. Robusta is a species of coffee which has its origins in
western Africa. It is grown mostly in Africa and Brazil, where it is
often called Conillon. It is also grown in Southeast Asia where French
colonists introduced it in the late 19th century. In recent years
Vietnam, which only produces robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and
Indonesia to become the world's single largest exporter. Approximately
one third of the coffee produced in the world is robusta.
Coffee In Eastern Ghats Of Andhra Pradesh
Coffee was first introduced in
Andhra Pradesh in 1898 by a person by
the name of Mr. Brodi, a Britisher in Pamuleru Valley in the East
Godavari district . Subsequently, it spread over to Pullangi and Gudem
(in the neighbouring
Visakhapatnam district ) agency tracks. Coffee
cultivation remained dormant for a long time in the 1920s despite its
spread over to Ananthagiri in Araku valley and Chintapalli areas. In
the 1960s, the
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department developed 10100 acres
of coffee plantations in reserve forest areas. These plantations were
handed over to the A.P. Forest Development Corporation in the year
In the year 1956 after the formation of Girijan Cooperative
Corporation (GCC), the
Coffee Board identified GCC for promoting
coffee plantations. Since then GCC started making efforts to develop
coffee plantation through local tribal famers. A separate coffee wing
was carved out in GCC and promoting coffee in around 4000 hectares
taken up. Thus, the coffee grown in Araku valley by the tribal farmers
under organic practices attained recognition as "Araku coffee". After
1985, the GCC evolved into the larger entity "Girijan Cooperative
Plantation Development Corporation" (GCPDC), exclusively to develop
coffee plantations in tribal areas. All the plantations developed by
GCC and GCPDC were handed over to the tribal farmers at 2 acres for
each family. In July 1997, the GCPDC working employees were deployed
to the Integrated Tribal Development Agency and coffee expansion was
taken up under the Five Year Plan and the MGNREGS.
currently reaches 100,000 acres, maintained by the tribal farmers.
In India, while coffee plantations were well developed over the last
century in Western ghats, expansion of coffee in Eastern ghats is
still under continuous development.
Coffee is grown under organic
practices under shades of
Banana and silver oak
trees. Around 100,000 tribal families living in this region are
getting financially stabilized through the activity of coffee
cultivation. The more welcoming development is that tribal famers have
given up their traditional "Podu" cultivation and now switched over to
coffee cultivation on a large scale. The coffee cultivated in this
region at an altitude of 900 to 1100 m MSL tend to have unique
qualities, which are influenced by the medium acidity in soil. During
the year 2015, 16 GCC collected 1400 metric tonnes of coffee, marketed
the same through the e-Auction Process.
Coffee was introduced to Japan by the Dutch in the 17th century, but
remained a curiosity until the lifting of trade restrictions in 1858.
The first European-style coffeehouse opened in Tokyo in 1888, and
closed four years later. By the early 1930s there were over 30,000
coffeehouses across the country; availability in the wartime and
immediate postwar period dropped to nearly zero, then rapidly
increased as import barriers were removed. The introduction of
freeze-dried instant coffee, canned coffee, and franchises such as
Starbucks and Doutor
Coffee in the late 20th century continued this
trend, to the point that Japan is now one of the leading per capita
coffee consumers in the world.
Coffee's first notable Korean enthusiasts were 19th century emperors
Sunjong and Gojong , who preferred to consume it after western-style
banquets. By the 1980s instant coffee and canned coffee had become
fairly popular, with a more minor tradition of independently owned
coffeehouses in larger cities; toward the end of the century the
growth of franchises such as
Caffe Bene and
Starbucks brought about a
greater demand for European-style coffee.
Coffee was first introduced by the Dutch during colonization in late
17th century. After several years coffee was planted on Indonesia
Archipelago. Many coffee specialties are from the Indonesian
Archipelago. The colloquial name for coffee, Java, comes from the time
when most of Europe and America's coffee was grown in Java. Today
Indonesia is one of the largest coffee producers in the world, mainly
for export. However coffee is enjoyed in various ways around the
archipelago like traditional "Kopi Ende" which is with ginger to fancy
new ways in Jakartas many coffee shops like Anomali.
The Philippines is one of the few countries that produces the four
varieties of commercially viable coffee: Arabica, Liberica (Barako),
Excelsa and Robusta. Climatic and soil conditions in the Philippines
– from the lowland to mountain regions – make the country suitable
for all four varieties.
In the Philippines, coffee has a history as rich as its flavor. The
first coffee tree was introduced in
Lipa, Batangas in 1740 by a
Spanish Franciscan monk. From there, coffee growing spread to other
parts of Batangas like Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan.
Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these
areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the
By the 1860s, Batangas was exporting coffee to America through San
Francisco. When the
Suez Canal was opened, a new market started in
Europe as well. Seeing the success of the Batangeños, Cavite followed
suit by growing the first coffee seedlings in 1876 in Amadeo. In spite
of this, Lipa still reigned as the center for coffee production in the
Philippines and Batangas barako was commanding five times the price of
other Asian coffee beans. In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth
largest exporter of coffee beans, and when the coffee rust hit Brazil,
Africa, and Java, it became the only source of coffee beans worldwide.
The glory days of the Philippine coffee industry lasted until 1889
when coffee rust hit the Philippine shores. That, coupled with an
insect infestation, destroyed virtually all the coffee trees in
Batangas. Since Batangas was a major producer of coffee, this greatly
affected national coffee production. In two years, coffee production
was reduced to 1/6th its original amount. By then,
Brazil had regained
its position as the world's leading producer of coffee. A few of the
surviving coffee seedlings were transferred from Batangas to Cavite,
where they flourished. This was not the end of the Philippines' coffee
growing days, but there was less area allotted to coffee because many
farmers had shifted to other crops.
During the 1950s, the Philippine government, with the help of the
Americans, brought in a more resistant variety of coffee. It was also
then that instant coffee was being produced commercially, thus
increasing the demand for beans. Because of favorable market
conditions, many farmers went back to growing coffee in the 1960s. But
the sudden proliferation of coffee farms resulted in a surplus of
beans around the world, and for a while importation of coffee was
banned in order to protect local coffee producers. When
Brazil was hit
by a frost in the 1970s, world market coffee prices soared. The
Philippines became a member of the International
(ICO) in 1980.
The first step in Europeans' wresting the means of production was
Nicolaes Witsen , the enterprising burgomaster of
Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India
Company who urged
Joan van Hoorn , the Dutch governor at Batavia that
some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in
the source of Europe's supply, and established in the Dutch East
Indies; the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the
first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East
was able to supply Europe's demand with "
Java coffee" by 1719.
Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in
Sumatra and other Sunda islands.
Coffee trees were soon
grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden , whence slips
were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch
representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht
presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was
grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the
Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes ,
The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain
Gabriel des Clieux , who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist
Antoine de Jussieu , who was loath to disfigure the king's coffee
tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage,
shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a
Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian
trade. Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies,
and established them in
Saint-Domingue in addition to
Martinique , where a blight had struck the cacao plantations , which
were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is
attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the
continent starting with the
Martinique and the colonies of the West
Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded.
The first coffee plantation in
Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col.
Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the
germ plasm originally taken from
Yemen to Batavia, from French Guiana
. By the 1800s, Brazil's harvests would turn coffee from an elite
indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other
countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily
on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until
the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in
17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of
tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty
Years\' War (1618–1648).
For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries,
Brazil was the
biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade.
However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities
to other nations, such as
Vietnam , now second only to
Brazil as the major coffee
producer in the world. Large-scale production in
following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995.
Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.
Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country
produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century,
and much of that not from the south of the country but from the
Harar in the northeast. The
Kingdom of Kaffa
Kingdom of Kaffa , home of the
plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of
coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in
1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela . 100,000
kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in
1927–8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port. Coffee
plantations were also developed in
Arsi Province at the same time, and
were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti
Railway . While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway,
this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports
of "Harari" coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936.
Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export,
but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres
(2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South
Wales and Cooktown . Today there are several producers of Arabica
coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented
* History portal
Economics of coffee
* Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de
Coffee Association of America
* A History of the World in 6 Glasses, by Tom Standage: a review by
* ^ A B C D E F Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001).
The world of caffeine. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-415-92723-9 .
* ^ A B C Meyers, Hannah (7 March 2005). ""Suave Molecules of
Mocha" – Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization". Archived from the
original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
OED , s.v. "Coffee".
* ^ A B C Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "coffee, n." Oxford
University Press (Oxford), 1891.
* ^ قها. الباحث العربي (IN ARABIC). RETRIEVED 25
* ^ Kaye, Alan S. (1986). "The etymology of "coffee": The dark
brew". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 106 (3): 557–558.
JSTOR 602112 . doi :10.2307/602112 .
* ^ Steiger, L.; Nagal, C.; et al. (2002). "AFLP analysis of
genetic diversity within and among
Coffea arabica cultivars".
Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 105 (2–3): 209–215. PMID
12582521 . doi :10.1007/s00122-002-0939-8 .
* ^ A B John K. Francis. "
Coffea arabica L. RUBIACEAE" (PDF).
Factsheet of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
* ^ Wild, Anthony (2003). "Coffee: A dark history". Basic
Reference. USA: Fourth Estate. 28: 217–229. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
* ^ Grigg, David (2002). "The worlds of tea and coffee: Patterns of
consumption". GeoJournal. 57 (4): 283–294.
JSTOR 41147739 . doi
* ^ http://www.shazuli.com/discovery-of-coffee/
* ^ Ukers, William (1935). All About Coffee. New York: The
Coffee Trade Journal Company. pp. 9–10.
* ^ Ukers 1922:5, and all other sources
* ^ A B C D "
Coffee and qahwa: How a drink for Arab mystics went
global". BBC News.
* ^ Al-Jaziri's manuscript work is of considerable interest with
regards to the history of coffee in Europe as well. A copy reached the
French royal library, where it was translated in part by Antoine
Galland as De l'origine et du progrès du café.
* ^ A B "عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة – resource
for arabic books". alwaraq.net.
* ^ Schneider, Irene (2001). "Ebussuud". In Stolleis, Michael.
Juristen: ein biographisches Lexikon; von der Antike bis zum 20.
Jahrhundert (in German) (2nd ed.). München: Beck. p. 193. ISBN
* ^ J. E. Hanauer (1907). "About Coffee". Folk-lore of the Holy
Land. pp. 291 f. the coffee-houses closed, and their keepers pelted
with the sherds of their pots and cups. This was in 1524, but by an
order of Selìm I., the decrees of the learned were reversed, the
Egypt quieted, the drinking of coffee declared
* ^ Aregay, Merid W. (1988). "The Early History of Ethiopia's
Coffee Trade and the Rise of Shawa". The Journal of African History.
Special Issue in Honour of Roland Oliver): 20.
JSTOR 182236 .
* ^ Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of
Ethiopia (Addis Ababa:
Haile Selassie I University, 1968), p. 198
* ^ Dufour, Traitez nouveaux et curieux du café, du thé et du
chocolat (Lyon, 1684, etc).
* ^ In later editions Dufour casts doubt on the identity of Rhazes'
bunchum, which is shared by Edward Forbes Robinson, The Early History
Coffee Houses in England (London, 1893), noted by Ukers 1922:
* ^ The 19th-century orientalist Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy
edited the first two chapters of al-
Jaziri 's manuscript and included
it in the second edition of his Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826, 3
vols.). Antoine Galland's De l'origine et du progrès du Café (1699)
was recently reissued (Paris: Editions La Bibliothèque, 1992).
* ^ "MALTESE HISTORY THROUGH A SWEET TOOTH". tenzo.fr. Retrieved 23
* ^ William Harrison Ukers, All About
* ^ "History of Coffee". Nestlé Professional. Retrieved 31
* ^ Cowan, Brian William (2005). The Social Life of Coffee: The
emergence of the British
Coffee house. New Haven Conn: Yale University
* ^ Wild, Anthony.
Coffee A Dark History. W. W. Norton & Company,
Inc. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110.
* ^ "The surprising history of London\'s lost coffee houses". The
Daily Telegraph. 20 March 2012.
* ^ Zappiah, Nat (2007). "
Coffee Houses and Culture". Huntington
Library Quarterly. 70 (4): 671–677.
. doi :10.1525/hlq.2007.70.4.671 .
* ^ "
Coffee History". Archived from the original on 15 September
2007. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
* ^ "Kawa w Polsce – historia i styl picia – Koneserzy.pl".
www.koneserzy.pl. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
* ^ "Otwarcie kawiarni Duvala w Warszawie – Muzeum Historii
Polski". muzhp.pl. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
* ^ "SPRZEDAŻ KAWY W POLSCE" (PDF).
* ^ Rice, Robert A. (1999). "A Place Unbecoming: The
Coffee Farm of
Northern Latin America". Geographical Review. 89 (4): 554–579. JSTOR
216102 . doi :10.2307/216102 .
* ^ Pendergrast, p. 16
* ^ Kenneth Davids, Coffee: a guide to buying, brewing, and
enjoying, 2001, ISBN 0-312-24665-X , p. 13.
* ^ Pendergrast, p. 19
* ^ Pendergrast, pp. 20–24
* ^ (1) Adams, John (6 July 1774). "
John Adams to Abigail Adams".
The Adams Papers: Digital Editions: Adams Family Correspondence,
Massachusetts Historical Society
Massachusetts Historical Society . Archived from the
original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. I believe I
forgot to tell you one Anecdote: When I first came to this House it
was late in the Afternoon, and I had ridden 35 miles at least.
“Madam” said I to Mrs. Huston, “is it lawfull for a weary
Traveller to refresh himself with a Dish of
Tea provided it has been
honestly smuggled, or paid no Duties?”
“No sir, said she, we have renounced all
Tea in this Place. I cant
make Tea, but I'le make you Coffee.” Accordingly I have drank Coffee
every Afternoon since, and have borne it very well.
Tea must be
universally renounced. I must be weaned, and the sooner, the better.
(2) Stone, William L. (1867). "Continuation of Mrs. General
Riedesel\'s Adventures". Mrs. General Riedesel : Letters and Journals
relating to the War of Independence and the Capture of the Troops at
Saratoga (Translated from the Original German). Albany: Joel Munsell.
p. 147. She then became more gentle, and offered me bread and milk. I
made tea for ourselves. The woman eyed us longingly, for the Americans
love it very much; but they had resolved to drink it no longer, as the
famous duty on the tea had occasioned the war. At
Google Books .
Note: Fredricka Charlotte Riedesel was the wife of General Friedrich
Adolf Riedesel , commander of all German and Indian troops in General
John Burgoyne 's
Saratoga campaign and American prisoner of war during
American Revolution .
(3) Heiss, Mary Lou; Heiss, Robert .J (2007). "A History of Tea: The
Tea Party". The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking
Guide. pp. 21–24. At
Google Books .
(4) Zuraw, Lydia (24 April 2013). "How
Coffee Influenced The Course
NPR . Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
Retrieved 25 February 2014.
(5) DeRupo, Joseph (3 July 2013). "American Revolution: Stars,
Stripes—and Beans?". NCA News. National
Coffee Association .
Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February
(6) Luttinger, Nina; Dicum, Gregory (2006). The coffee book: anatomy
of an industry from crop to the last drop. The New Press. p. 33. At
Google Books . * ^ Pendergrast, pp. 33–34
* ^ Pendergrast, pp. 35–36
* ^ "UNCTAD –
Coffee Production History".
* ^ A B Wild, Anthony (10 April 1995). The East
India Company Book
of Coffee. Harper Collins. ISBN 0004127390 .
* ^ "BABA BUDAN GIRI". chickmagalur.nic.in.
* ^ A B Yeboah, Salomey (8 March 2005). "Value Addition to Coffee
in India". Cornell Education:Intag 602. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
* ^ Lee, Hau Leung; Lee, Chung-Yee (2007). Building supply chain
excellence in emerging economies. pp. 293–94. ISBN 0-387-38428-6 .
* ^ Illy, Andrea; Viani, Rinantonio (2005).
Espresso coffee: the
science of quality. Academic Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-12-370371-9 .
* ^ "
Coffee Regions – India". Indian
Retrieved 6 October 2010.
* ^ "Indian Coffee".
Coffee Research Organization. Archived from
the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
* ^ Robertson, Carol (2010). The Little Book of
American Bar Association. pp. 77–79. ISBN 1-60442-985-2 . Retrieved
29 November 2010.
* ^ "Brief history of
Coffee in Japan". d-cage.
* ^ "Countries Compared by Lifestyle > Food and drink >
Consumption. International Statistics at NationMaster.com".
* ^ "The Korean
Coffee Myth". The Marmot's Hole.
* ^ Lee, Hyo-sik (11 April 2012). "Why do coffee shops keep popping
up?". Korea Times. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
* ^ William Law, The History of Coffee, including a chapter on
chicory (London) 1850:14, on the authority of
Hermann Boerhaave ,
director of the botanical garden at Leiden.
* ^ E. M. Jacobs, Merchant in Asia: the trade of the Dutch East
India Company during the "
Coffee from Mocha and the highlands of
Batavia" :260ff describes the introduction of coffee plantations in
* ^ Henry Mills Alden, "A Cup of coffee", Harper's new monthly
magazine 44 (1872:241).
* ^ Toussaint-Samat 2008:530.
* ^ The story appeared in J.J.C. Goube, Histoire du duché de
Normandie (1815, vol. III:191), of which a translated excerpt was
contributed to The Gentleman\'s Magazine (February 1840:136)
"Generosity of M. Desclieux – The Coffee-tree at Martinique". The
date of this event is variously reported: in Goube it is 1726.
* ^ "Des Clieux's cutting was the ancestor of all the coffee trees
of Martinique, the West Indies,
Brazil and Colombia, and some of them
went back across the Atlantic to become a source of income to the
African colonies that have now gained their independence"
* ^ Palacios, Marco (2002).
Coffee in Colombia, 1850–1970: An
Economic, Social and Political History. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-52859-3 .
* ^ Vietnam: Silent Global
Coffee Power by Alex Scofield
* ^ International
Coffee Organization. Total Production of
Exporting Countries: Crop Years 2000/01 to 2005/06. "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
. Retrieved 8 December 2006.
* ^ Pankhurst, Economic History, p. 202
* ^ Pankhurst, Economic History, p. 203
* ^ "Australian
Coffee History". Retrieved 21 March 2011.
* "The Blessed Bean – history of coffee". Archived from the
original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006.
* 1949 Encyclopædia Britannica. Otis, McAllister 8).
* Burn, Jacob Henry, d. (1869). A descriptive catalogue of the
London traders, tavern, and coffee-house toke. 2nd ed. London.
* Chew, Samual C (1974). The Crescent and the Rose. Oxford
University Press, New York.
* Darby, M. (1983) The Islamic Perspective, An aspect of British
Architecture and Design in the 19th century. Leighton House Gallery,
* Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee.
* Ellis, Aytoun (1956). The Penny Universities : A History of the
Coffee-Houses. London : Secker & Warburg.
* Galland, Antoine (1699) De l'origine et du progrez du café, Éd.
originale J. Cavelier Paris, 1992- La Bibliothèque, coll. L'Écrivain
* Illy, Francesco & Riccardo (1989). From
Coffee to Espresso
* Ibn al-Imād al-Hanbali (d.1089 AH/1679 AD). Shadharāt al-dhahab
fi akhbār man dhahab, al-Juz' 8. Cairo, 1931.
* Malecka, Anna (2015). "How Turks and Persians Drank Coffee: A
Little-known Document of Social History by Father J. T. Krusiński".
Turkish Historical Review. 6 (2): 175–193. doi
* Pendergrast, Mark (2001) . Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee
and How It Transformed Our World. London: Texere. ISBN 1-58799-088-1 .
* Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The world of
caffeine. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-415-92723-4 .
* Liss, David. The
Coffee Trader (2003). A well-researched
historical novel about (among other things) the beginnings of the
coffee business in 17th century Amsterdam . Includes extensive
* Fair trade
List of countries by coffee production
List of countries by coffee production
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