The history of
Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods,
encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism,
and the contemporary era.
4 Kingdoms and Empires
5 The era of trading posts and trafficking
5.1 The Portuguese navigators
5.2 The Dutch West India Company
5.3 Against the backdrop of Anglo-French rivalry
5.4 A trading economy
5.5 The progressive weakening of the colony
6 Modern colonialism
6.1 List of deputies elected to the French Parliament
9 See also
11 Further reading
11.1 English Language
11.2 French language
11.2.1 Primary sources
11.2.2 Secondary sources
12 External links
The earliest evidence of human life is found in the valley of the
Falémé in the south-east.
The presence of man in the
Lower Paleolithic is attested by the
discovery of stone tools characteristic of
Acheulean such as hand axes
Théodore Monod  at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of
Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were
also found stones shaped by the Levallois technique, characteristic of
the Middle Paleolithic.
Mousterian Industry is represented mainly by
scrapers found in the peninsula of Cap-Vert, as well in the low and
middle valleys of the
Senegal and the Falémé. Some pieces are
explicitly linked to hunting, like those found in Tiémassass, near
M'Bour, a controversial site that some claim belongs to the Upper
Paleolithic, while other argue in favor of the Neolithic.
In the Senegambia, the period when humans became hunters, fishermen
and producers (farmer and artisan) are all well represented and
studied. This is when more elaborate objects and ceramics emerged.
But gray areas remain. Although the characteristics and manifestations
of civilization from the
Neolithic have been identified their origins
and relationship have not yet fully defined. What can be distinguished
The dig of Cape Manuel: the
Neolithic deposit Manueline
discovered in 1940.
Basalt rocks including ankaramite were used for
making microlithic tools such as axes or planes. Such tools have been
Gorée and the Magdalen Islands, indicating the activity of
shipbuilding by nearby fishermen.
The dig of Bel-Air:
Neolithic Bélarien tools, usually made out of
flint, are present in the dunes of the west, near the current capital.
In addition to axes, adzes and pottery, there is also a statuette, the
The dig of Khant: the Khanty creek, located in the north near
the lower valley of the
Senegal River, gave its name to a Neolithic
industry which mainly uses bone and wood. This deposit is on the
list of closed sites and monuments of Senegal.
The dig the Falémé located in the south-east of Senegal, has
Neolithic Falemian tools industry that produced polished
materials as diverse as sandstone, hematite, shale, quartz, and flint.
Grinding equipment and pottery from the period are well represented at
Neolithic civilization of the
Senegal River valley and the Ferlo
are the least well known due to not always being separated.
In the case of Senegal, the periodization of prehistory remains
controversial. It is often described as beginning with the age of
metallurgy, thus placing it between the first metalworking and the
appearance of writing. Other approaches exist such as that of Guy
Thilmans and his team in 1980, who felt that any archeology from
pre-colonial could be attached to that designation or that of Hamady
Bocoum, who speaks of "Historical Archaeology" from the 4th century,
at least for the former Tekrur.
A variety of archaeological remains have been found:
On the coast and in river estuaries of the Senegal, Saloum, Gambia,
Casamance rivers, burial mounds with clusters of shells often
referred to as middens. 217 of these clusters have been identified in
Saloum Delta alone, for example in Joal-Fadiouth, Mounds
Saloum Delta have been dated back as far as 400 BCE, and part
Saloum Delta is now a World Heritage Site. Funerary sites or
tumuli were built there during the 8th to 16th centuries. They are
also found in the north near Saint-Louis, and in the estuary of
The West is rich in burial mounds of sand that the Wolof refer to as
mbanaar, which translates to "graves", A solid gold pectoral of
mass 191 g has also been discovered near Saint-Louis.
Megalithic alignments in Senegal
In a huge area of nearly 33,000km² located in the center-south around
Gambia there have been found alignments of boulders known as the
Stone Circles of Senegambia
Stone Circles of Senegambia which were placed on the list of UNESCO
World Heritage sites in 2006. Two of these sites are located
within the territory of Senegal: Sine Ngayène and Sine Wanar,
both located in the Department of Nioro Rip. Sine Ngayène has 52
stone circles including a double circle. At Wanar, they number 24 and
the stones are smaller. There are stone-carved lyre in the laterite,
Y- or A-shaped.
The existence of proto-historic ruins in the middle
valley was confirmed in the late 1970s. Pottery, perforated
ceramic discs  or ornaments have been unearthed. Excavations at
thé site of Sinthiou Bara, near Matam, have proved particularly
fruitful. They have revealed, for example, the flow of trans-Saharan
trade from distant parts of North Africa.
Kingdoms and Empires
Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof. King of Sine. The Royal
House of Boureh Gnilane Joof.
The region of modern
Senegal was a part of the larger region called
Upper Guinea by European traders. In the absence of written sources
and monumental ruins in this region, the history of the early
centuries of the modern era must be based primarily on archaeological
excavations, the writing of early geographers and travelers, written
in Arabic and data derived from oral tradition. Combining these data
Senegal was first populated from the north and east in
several waves of migration, the last being that of the Wolof, the
Fulani and the Serer. Africanist historian Donald R. Wright suggests
that Senegambian place-names indicate "that the earliest inhabitants
might be identified most closely with one of several related
groups—Bainunk, Kasanga, Beafada... To these were added Serer, who
moved southward during the first millennium A.D. from the Senegal
River valley, and Mande-speaking peoples, who arrived later still from
the east." Probable descendants of Bafours[who?] were pushed
southward by the Berber dynasty of Almoravids.
Location of the
Before the arrival of European settlers, the history of the Saharan
region is mainly characterized by the consolidation of settlements in
large state entities – the
Ghana Empire, the
Mali Empire and
the Songhai Empire. The cores of these great empires were located on
the territory of the current Republic of Mali, so current-day Senegal
occupied a peripheral position.
The earliest of these empires is that of Ghana, probably founded in
the first millennium by Soninke and whose animist populations
subsisted by agriculture and trade across the Sahara, including
gold, salt and cloth. Its area of influence slowly spread to regions
between the river valleys of the
Senegal and Niger.
A contemporary empire of Ghana, but less extensive, the kingdom of
Tekrur was its vassal.
Tekrur were the only organized
populations before Islamization. The territory of
that of the current Fouta Toro. Its existence in the 9th century is
attested by Arabic manuscripts. The formation of the state may have
taken place as an influx of
Fulani from the east settled in the
John Donnelly Fage suggests that
formed through the interaction of Berbers from the
Sahara and "Negro
agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer" although its kings
after 1000 CE might have been Soninke (northern Mande). The name,
borrowed from Arabic writings, may be linked to that of the ethnicity
Toucouleur. Trade with the Arabs was prevalent. The Kingdom
imported wool, copper and pearls and exported gold and slaves.
Indeed, the growth of a vast empire by Arab-Muslim Jihads is not
devoid of economic and political issues and brought in its wake the
first real growth of the slave trade. This trade called the Arab slave
trade provided North Africa and Saharan Africa with slave labor. The
Tekrur were among the first converts to Islam, certainly before
Wolof of Waalo, in "war costume" (1846)
Extension of the
Mali Empire at its height
Two other major political entities were formed and grew during the
13th and 14th century: the
Mali Empire and the
Jolof Empire which
become the vassal of the first in its heyday. Originating in the
Mali continued to expand, encompassing first
eastern Senegal, and later almost all the present territory. Founded
in the 14th century by the possibly mythical chief of the Wolof
Ndiadiane Ndiaye, who was a Serer of
Waalo (Ndiaye is originally a
Serer surname  which is also found among the
Wolof). Djolof expanded its dominance of small chiefdoms south of the
Senegal River (Waalo, Cayor, Baol, Sine – Saloum), bringing
together all the
Senegambia to which he gave religious and social
unity:[dubious – discuss] the "Grand Djolof"  which collapsed in
Jolof Empire was founded by a voluntary confederacy of States; it
was not an empire built on military conquest in spite of what the word
"empire" implies. The Serer tradition of Sine attests that the
Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine never paid tribute to Ndiadiane Ndiaye nor to any
member of his descendants that ruled Djolof. Historian Sylviane Diouf
states that "Each vassal kingdom—Walo, Takrur, Kayor, Baol, Sine,
Salum, Wuli, and Niani—recognized the hegemony of Jolof and paid
tribute." It went on to state that, Ndiadiane Ndiaye himself
received his name from the mouth of Maissa Wali (the King of
Sine). In the epics of Ndiadiane and Maissa Wali, it is well
acknowledged that Maissa Wali was pivotal in the founding of this
Empire. It was he who nominated Ndiadiane Ndiaye and
called for the other states to join this confederacy, which they did,
and the "empire" headed by Ndiadiane, who took residence at
Djolof. It is for this reason scholars propose that the empire
was more like a voluntary confederacy than an empire built on military
The arrival of Europeans engendered autonomy of small kingdoms which
were under the influence of Djolof. Less dependent on trans-Saharan
trade with the new shipping lanes, they turn more readily to trade
with the New World. The decline of these kingdoms can be explained by
internal rivalries, then by the arrival of Europeans, who organized
the mass exodus of young Africans to the New World. Ghazis, wars,
epidemics and famine afflicted the people, along with the Atlantic
slave trade, in exchange for weapons and manufactured goods. Under the
influence of Islam, these kingdoms were transformed and marabouts
played an increasing role.
In Casamance, the Baïnounks, the
Manjaques and Diola inhabited the
coastal area while the mainland – unified 13th century under
the name of Kaabu – was occupied by the Mandingo. In the 15th
century, the king of one of the tribes, Kassas gave his name to the
region: Kassa Mansa (King of Kassas). Until the French intervention
Casamance was a heterogeneous entity, weakened by internal
The era of trading posts and trafficking
Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery and Triangular Trade
According to several ancient sources, including occasions by the
Dictionnaire de pédagogie et d'instruction primaire by Ferdinand
Buisson in 1887, the first French settlement in
Senegal dates back
to the Dieppe Mariners in the 14th century. Flattering for Norman
sailors, this argument gives credence also to the idea of a precedence
of the French presence in the region, but it is not confirmed by
In the mid-15th century, several European nations reached the coast of
West Africa, vested successively or simultaneously by the Portuguese,
the Dutch, the English and French. Europeans first settled along the
coasts, on islands in the mouths of rivers and then a little further
upstream. They opened trading posts and engaged in the
"trade:" – a term which, under the Ancien Régime, means any
type of trade (wheat, pepper ivory...), and not necessarily, or only,
the slave trade, although this "infamous traffic", as it was
called at the end of the 18th century, was indeed at the heart of a
new economic order, controlled by powerful companies in privilege.
The Portuguese navigators
Main article: Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonies and posts under the reign of João III, 16th
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator and always in search of the Passage
to India, and not forgetting gold and slaves, Portuguese explorers
explored the African coast and ventured still farther south.
Dinis Dias went off the mouth of the
Senegal River to reach
the westernmost point of Africa he calls Cabo Verde, Cape Vert,
because of the lush vegetation seen there. He also reached the island
of Gorée, referred to by its inhabitants as Berzeguiche, but which he
called Ilha de Palma, the island of Palms. The Portuguese did not
settle there permanently, but used the site for landing and engaged in
commerce in the region. They built a chapel there in 1481.
Portuguese trading posts were installed in Tanguegueth  in Cay, a
town they renamed Fresco Rio (the future Rufisque) because of the
freshness of its sources in the
Baol Sali (later the seaside town of
Saly) which takes the name of Portudal, or to
Joal in the Kingdom of
They also traversed the lower
Casamance  and founded
1645. The introduction of Christianity accompanied this business
The Dutch West India Company
Senegambia (Dutch West India Company)
Act of Abjuration
Act of Abjuration in 1581, the United Provinces flouted the
authority of the King of Spain. They based their growth on maritime
trade and expanded their colonial empire in Asia, the
South Africa. In West Africa trading posts were opened at some points
of the current Senegal, Gambia,
Ghana and Angola.
Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company at
Amsterdam in 1655
Created in 1621, the
Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company purchased the island of
Gorée in 1627. The company built two forts that are in ruins
today: in 1628 on the face of Nassau Cove and 1639 at Nassau on the
hill, as well as warehouses for goods destined for the mainland
trading posts .
In his Description of Africa (1668), the humanist Dutch Olfert Dapper
gives the etymology of the name given to it by his countrymen,Goe-ree
Goede Reede, that is to say "good harbor"., which is the name of
(part of) an island in the Dutch province of Zeeland as well.
The Dutch settlers occupied the island for nearly half a century, but
were dislodged several times: in 1629 by the Portuguese, in 1645 and
1659 by the French and in 1663 by the British troops. They dealt in
wax, amber, gold, ivory and also participated in the slave trade, but
kept away from trading posts on the coast.
Against the backdrop of Anglo-French rivalry
The "trade" and the slave trade intensified in the 17th century. In
Senegal, the French and English competed mainly on two issues, the
Gorée and St. Louis. On 10 February 1763 the Treaty of
Paris ended the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War and reconciled, after three years of
negotiations, France, Great Britain and Spain. Great Britain returned
the island of
Gorée to France. As the premier colonial power, it then
acquired, among many other territories, "the river of Senegal, with
forts & trading posts St. Louis, Podor, and Galam and all rights
& dependencies of the said River of Senegal.".
Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the privileges were quite
extensively granted to certain French shipping lines, which still
faced many difficulties. In 1626 Richelieu founded the Norman Company,
an association of Dieppe and
Rouen merchants responsible for the
Senegal and the Gambia. It was dissolved in 1658 and its
assets were acquired by the Company of Cape Vert and Senegal, itself
expropriated following the creation by Colbert in 1664 of the French
West India Company.
The Company of
Senegal was in turn founded by Colbert in 1673. It
became the major tool of French colonialism in Senegal, but saddled
with debt, it was dissolved 1681 and replaced by another that lasted
until 1694, the date of creation of the Royal Company of Senegal,
whose director, Andre Brue, would be captured by the
released against ransom in 1701. A third Company of
founded in 1709 and lasted until 1718. On the British side, the
monopoly of trade with Africa was granted to the Royal African Company
The List of Complaints of Saint-Louis du Sénégal (1789)
« Plan de l'isle de
Gorée avec ses deux forts et le combat que
nous avons rendu le premier du mois de novembre 1677 »
Grand Master of the naval war of Louis XIV, Admiral Jean Estrées
Gorée on November 1, 1677. The island was taken up by the
English on 4 February 1693 before being again occupied by the French
four months later. In 1698 the Director of the Company of Senegal,
Andre Brue, restored the fortifications. But
Gorée became English
once again in the middle of the 18th century.
The excellent location of St. Louis caught the attention of the
English, who occupied it three times for a few months in 1693, then
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War of 1758 until it was taken by the Duc de
Lauzun in 1779, and lastly 1809 in 1816.[clarification needed]
In 1783 the Treaty of Versailles returned
Senegal to France. The
monopoly of gum acacia is licensed to
Appointed governor in 1785, Knight Boufflers focuses for two years to
enhance the colony, while engaged in the smuggling of gum arabic and
gold with signares.
In 1789 people of St. Louis write a List of Complaints. The same year
the French were driven out of Fort St. Joseph in Galam and kingdom of
A trading economy
The Europeans were sometimes disappointed because they hoped to find
more gold in West Africa, but when the development of plantations in
the Americas, mainly in the Caribbean, in Brazil and in the south of
the United States raised a great need for cheap labor, the area
received more attention. The Papacy, who had sometimes opposed
slavery, did not condemn it explicitly to the end of the 17th century;
in fact the Church itself has an interest in the colonial system.
Traffic of "ebony" was an issue for warriors who traditionally reduced
the vanquished to slavery. Some people specialized in the slave trade,
for example the Dyula in West Africa. States and kingdoms competed,
along with private traders who became much richer in the triangular
trade (although some shipments resulted in real financial disaster).
Politico-military instability in the region was compounded by the
The Black Code, enacted in 1685, regulated the trafficking of slaves
in the American colonies.
A ball signares in St. Louis (burning 1890 )
In Senegal, trading posts were established in Gorée, St. Louis,
Rufisque, Portudal and
Joal and the upper valley of the
including Fort St. Joseph, in the Kingdom of Galam, was in the 18th
century a French engine of trafficking in Senegambia.
In parallel, a mestizo society develops in St. Louis and Gorée.
Slavery was abolished by the
National Convention in 1794, then
reinstated by Bonaparte in 1802. The
British Empire abolished slavery
in 1833; in France it was finally abolished in the Second Republic in
1848, under the leadership of Victor Schoelcher.
The progressive weakening of the colony
The Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna condemned slavery. But this would not
change much economically for the Africans.
After the departure of Governor Schmaltz (he had taken office at the
end of the wreck of the Medusa), Roger Baron particularly encouraged
the development of the peanut, "the earth pistachio", whose
monoculture would be long because of the severe economic backwardness
of Senegal. Despite the ferocity of the Baron, the company was a
The colonization of
Casamance also continued. The island of Carabane,
acquired by France in 1836, was profoundly transformed between 1849
and 1857 by the resident Emmanuel Bertrand Bocandé, a Nantes
Main article: French conquest of Senegal
Monument near the
Maison des Esclaves
Maison des Esclaves on
Saint-Louis in 1780.
French West Africa
French West Africa in 1890.
Various European powers – Portugal, the Netherlands, and
England – competed for trade in the area from the 15th century
onward, until in 1677, France ended up in possession of what had
become a minor slave trade departure point—the infamous island of
Gorée next to modern Dakar. In 1758 the French settlement was
captured by a British expedition as part of the Seven Years' War, but
was later returned to France. It was only in the 1850s that the
French, under the governor, Louis Faidherbe, began to expand their
foothold onto the Senegalese mainland, at the expense of the native
Four Communes of Saint-Louis, Dakar, Gorée, and
Rufisque were the
oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa. In 1848, the
French Second Republic
French Second Republic extended the rights of full French citizenship
to their inhabitants. While those who were born in these towns could
technically enjoy all the rights of native French citizens,
substantial legal and social barriers prevented the full exercise of
these rights, especially by those seen by authorities as full blooded
Most of the African population of these towns were termed originaires:
those Africans born into the commune, but who retained recourse to
African and/or Islamic law (the so-called "personal status"). Those
few Africans from the four communes who were able to pursue higher
education and were willing to renounce their legal protections could
"rise" to be termed
Évolué ("Evolved") and were nominally granted
full French citizenship, including the vote. Despite this legal
framework, Évolués still faced substantial discrimination in Africa
On 27 April 1848, following the February revolution in France, a law
was passed in Paris enabling the Four Quarters to elect a Deputy to
the French Parliament for the first time. On 2 April 1852 the
parliamentary seat for
Senegal was abolished by
Following the downfall of the French Second Empire, the Four Quarters
was again allowed a parliamentary seat which was granted by law on 1
February 1871. On 30 December 1875 this seat was again abolished, but
only for a few years as it was reinstated on 8 April 1879, and
remained the single parliamentary representation from sub-Saharan
Africa anywhere in a European legislature until the fall of the third
republic in 1940.
It was only in 1916 that originaires were granted full voting rights
while maintaining legal protections. Blaise Diagne, who was the prime
advocate behind the change, was in 1914 the first African deputy
elected to the French National Assembly. From that time until
independence in 1960, the deputies of the
Four Communes were always
African, and were at the forefront of the decolonisation struggle.
List of deputies elected to the French Parliament
The French Second Republic:
Barthélémy Durand Valantin 1848–1850 (Mixed race)
Arrival of Blaise Diagne, Deputy for Senegal, High Commissioner of the
Government for the recruitment of black troops in
Dakar in March 1918.
The French Third Republic:
Jean-Baptiste Lafon de Fongauffier 1871–1876 (Mixed race)
Alfred Gasconi 1879–1889 (Mixed race)
Aristide Vallon 1889–1893
Jules Couchard 1893–1898
Hector D'Agoult 1898–1902
François Carpot 1902–1914 (Mixed race)
Blaise Diagne 1914–1934 (African)
Galandou Diouf 1934–1940 (African)
Flag of French
Lamine Guèye 1945-1951 (African)
Léopold Sedar Senghor
Léopold Sedar Senghor 1945–1959 (African)
Abbas Guèye 1951–1955 (African)
Mamadou Dia 1956–1959 (African)
Following the 1945 elections to the Constituent Assembly in France,
which were held with a very limited franchise, the French authorities
gradually extended the franchise until—in November 1955—the
principle of universal suffrage was passed into law and implemented
the following year. The first electoral contests held under universal
suffrage were the municipal elections of November 1956. The first
national contest was the 31 March 1957 election of the Territorial
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The short-lived Fédération du Mali.
In January 1959,
Senegal and the
French Sudan merged to form the Mali
Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960. The
transfer of power agreement with France was signed on 4 April 1960.
Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20
Senegal and Soudan (renamed the Republic of Mali)
proclaimed independence. Léopold Senghor, internationally known poet,
politician, and statesman, was elected Senegal's first president in
The 1960s and early 1970s saw the continued and persistent violating
of Senegal's borders by the Portuguese military from Portuguese
Guinea. In response,
Senegal petitioned the United Nations Security
Council in 1963, 1965, 1969 (in response to shelling by Portuguese
artillery), 1971 and finally in 1972.
After the breakup of the
Mali Federation, President Senghor and Prime
Mamadou Dia governed together under a parliamentary system.
In December 1962, their political rivalry led to an attempted coup by
Prime Minister Dia. The coup was put down without bloodshed and Dia
was arrested and imprisoned.
Senegal adopted a new constitution that
consolidated the President's power.
Senghor was considerably more tolerant of opposition than most African
leaders became in the 1960s. Nonetheless, political activity was
somewhat restricted for a time. Senghor's party, the Senegalese
Progressive Union (now the Socialist Party of Senegal), was the only
legally permitted party from 1965 until 1975. In the latter year,
Senghor allowed the formation of two opposition parties that began
operation in 1976—a Marxist party (the African Independence Party)
and a liberal party (the Senegalese Democratic Party).
In 1980, President Senghor retired from politics, and handed power
over to his handpicked successor, Prime Minister Abdou Diouf, in 1981.
Senegal joined with The
Gambia to form the nominal confederation of
Senegambia on 1 February 1982. However, the envisaged integration of
the two countries was never carried out and the union was dissolved in
1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group in the
Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since
Senegal has a long history of participating in international
Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. Diouf served four
terms as President. In the presidential election of 2000, he was
defeated in a free and fair election by opposition leader Abdoulaye
Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power
and its first from one political party to another.
On 30 December 2004, President
Abdoulaye Wade announced that he would
sign a peace treaty with two separatist factions of the Movement of
Democratic Forces of
Casamance (MFDC) in the
This will end West Africa's longest-running civil conflict. As of late
2006, it seemed the peace treaty was holding, as both factions and the
Senegalese military appeared to honor the treaty. With recognized
prospects for peace, refugees began returning home from neighboring
Guinea-Bissau. However, at the beginning of 2007, refugees began
fleeing again as the sight of Senegalese troops rekindled fears of a
new outbreak of violence between the separatists and the
Abdoulaye Wade conceded defeat to
Macky Sall in the election of
French Colony of Senegal (fr), 1817–1946
Timeline of Senegal (fr)
History of Africa
History of West Africa
Government of Senegal
Prime Minister of Senegal
List of Presidents of Senegal
Politics of Senegal
Dakar history and timeline
Saint-Louis history and timeline
^ Unless otherwise stated, the material in this part is based on
Ndiouga Benga and on Mandiomé Thiam, "prehistory prehistory and
history", in Atlas du Sénégal, op. cit., p. 74
^ (in French) Théodore Monod, « Sur la découverte du
Paléolithique ancien à Dakar », Bulletin du Comité d'études
historiques et scientifiques de l'AOF, t. XXI, 1938, pp. 518–519
^ (in French)
Abdoulaye Camara et Bertrand Duboscq, La préhistoire
dans le Sud-Est du Sénégal, Actes du 2e Colloque de Kédougou,
18–22 fév. 1985, Doc. du CRA du Musée de l'Homme (Paris), n° 11,
1987, pp. 19-48
^ (in French) Th. Dagan, « Le Site préhistorique de Tiémassas
(Sénégal) », Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Afrique noire,
1956, pp. 432-448
^ (in French) Cyr Descamps, « Quelques réflexions sur le
Néolithique du Sénégal », West African Journal of
Archaeology, 1981, vol. 10–11, pp. 145-151
^ (in French) Mandiomé Thiam, La céramique au Sénégal :
Archéologie et Histoire,
Université de Paris
Université de Paris I, 1991, 464 pages
(thèse de doctorat)
^ (in French) « Le gisement du Cap Manuel », conférence
de Cyr Descamps, en ligne "Archived copy". Archived from the original
on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
^ (in Spanish) « Prehistoria de África: Manifestaciones
artísticas. Esculturas. Senegal » 
^ (in French) Marie-Amy Mbow, « Le site archéologique du Khant
(région de Saint-Louis du Sénégal) : nouveaux
éléments », Présence africaine, 1998, n° 158, pp. 7-22
^ a b "Arrêté n° 12.09.2007 portant publication de la liste des
sites et monuments historiques classés" (in French). Ministre de la
Culture et du Patrimoine historique classé. 12 September 2007.
Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 2 July
^ (in French) Guy Thilmans, Cyr Descamps et B. Khayat, Protohistoire
du Sénégal : recherches archéologiques, tome 1 : Les
Sites Mégalithiques, IFAN, Dakar, 1980, 158 pages
^ See his third thesis supported at the Sorbonne in 1986, La
Métallurgie du fer au Sénégal et ses travaux des années 1990 on
^ (in French) Edmond Dioh et Mathieu Gueye, « Les amas
coquilliers de la lagune de
Joal-Fadiouth (région de Thiès) »,
dans Senegalia, op. cit., pp. 323–328.
Saloum Delta". World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 6
October 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
^ (in French) Annie Ravisé, Contribution à l'étude des
Kjökkenmöddinger (amas artificiels de coquillages) dans la région
de Saint-Louis, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1969 (mémoire de
^ Olga Linares de Sapir, « Shell middens of lower
problems of Diola protohistory », West African Journal of
Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Ibadan, 1971, vol. I, pp.
^ (in French) Jean-Léopold Diouf, Dictionnaire wolof-français et
français-wolof, Paris: Karthala, 2003, p. 216.
^ (in French) Raymond Mauny, Tableau géographique de l'Ouest africain
au Moyen-Âge d'après les sources écrites, la tradition et
l'archéologie, Amsterdam: Swets et Zeitlinger, 1967, p. 163.
^ "Cercles mégalithiques de Sénégambie" (in French). UNESCO.
Retrieved 2 July 2008.
^ (in French) Augustin Holl et Hamady Bocoum, « Variabilité des
pratiques funéraires dans le mégalithisme sénégambien : le
cas de Sine Ngayène », dans Senegalia, op. cit.,
^ (in French) Bruno Chavane, Recherches archéologiques dans la
moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal, 1979 (thèse)
^ (in French) Guy Thilmans, « Les disques perforés en
céramique des sites protohistoriques du fleuve Sénégal »,
Notes africaines, n° 162, 1979, pp. 29–35.
^ (in French) Guy Thilmans et Annie Ravisé, Protohistoire du
Sénégal, Recherches archéologique, tome II, Sinthiou-Bara et les
sites du Fleuve, 1983, Dakar, 213 pages (mémoire IFAN)
^ Wright, Donald (2010). The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A
History of Globalization in Niumi, the
Gambia (3rd ed.). M.E. Sharpe.
p. 51. ISBN 978-0765624840.
^ (in French) Gerti Hesseling, Histoire politique du Sénégal.
Institutions, droit et société, Paris: Karthala, 1985, p. 103.
^ (in French) Mahamadou Maiga, Le bassin du fleuve Sénégal –
De la traite négrière au développement sous-régional autocentré,
Paris: L’Harmattan, 1995, p. 20.
^ Hrbek, I. (1992). volume 3: Africa from the 7th to the 11th Century:
(abridged). General History of Africa. James Carey. p. 67.
^ Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State
in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307.
doi:10.1163/157006696x00299. JSTOR 1581646.
^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland
Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge
University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0521209816.
^ (in French) « Discussion sur les croisements
ethniques », séance du 2 février 1865, Bulletin de la
société d'anthropologie, tome 6, fasc. 4, p. 67.
^ (in French) Gerti Hesseling, op. cit., p. 104.
^ (in French) Raymond Mauny, op. cit., p. 523
^ (in French) Samba Lampsar Sall, Njajaan Njaay. Les mythes de
fondation de l'Empire du Djolof, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1982,
157 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
^ William J. Foltz. From
French West Africa
French West Africa to the
Volume 12 of Yale studies in political science, p136. Published by
Yale University Press, 1965
^ Both Ndiadiane's name and surname are Serer in origin. For the
surname Njie or Ndiaye which Ndiadiane Ndiaye got his name from see
Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop and Egbuna P. Modum. "Towards the African
renaissance: essays in African culture & development", 1946-1960,
p28. Published by Karnak House (1996). ISBN 0-907015-85-9
^ The name comes from the Serer language. See: Victoria Bomba Coifman.
History of the Wolof state of Jolof until 1860 including comparative
data from the Wolof state of Walo, University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1969, p. 276.
^ See also: Godfrey Mwakikagile.
Gambia and Its People: Ethnic
Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa, p. 94.
^ Mam Kumba Njie (or Ndiaye) is a Serer Goddess in the Serer religion
as well as the
Almoravid invasion of Tekrur. See Henry Gravrand. "La
Civilisation Sereer", Pangool, p. 91. See also:
Ed Hindson & Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics:
Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity, p. 21. Harvest
House Publishers, 2008. ISBN 0-7369-2084-6
^ (in French) Jean Boulègue, Le grand Jolof, XIIIe-XVIe siècle, vol.
1: Les Anciens Royaumes Wolof, Façades, Blois ; Paris: Karthala,
^ a b Charles, Eunice A. Precolonial Senegal: the Jolof Kingdom,
1800-1890. African Studies Center, Boston University, 1977. p 3
^ a b Ham, Anthony. West Africa. Lonely Planet. 2009. p 670.
^ Diouf, Sylviane, Servants of Allah: African Muslims enslaved in the
Americas (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 19
^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine" par suivie de
Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le
royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Bulletin de
l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972. p706
^ Stride, G.T. & C. Ifeka: "Peoples and Empires of West Africa:
West Africa in History 1000-1800" page 22. Nelson, 1971
^ (in French) Gerti Hesseling, op. cit., p. 105
^ (in French) Djibril Diop, Décentralisation et gouvernance locale au
Sénégal. Quelle pertinence pour le développement local ?,
Paris: L'Harmattan, 2006, p. 29.
^ (in French) Ferdinand Édouard Buisson, Dictionnaire de pédagogie
et d'instruction primaire, 1887, p. 442.
^ (in French) Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, Les traites négrières.
Documentation photographique, La Documentation française, n° 8032,
^ (in French)
Joseph Roger de Benoist et
Abdoulaye Camara (et al.),
Histoire de Gorée, Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2003, p. 12.
^ This place corresponds to the area of Cape Vert in
Senegal today and
not to the îles du
Cap-Vert which aren't discovered until 1456.
^ (in French)
Joseph Roger de Benoist et Abdoulaye Camara, op. cit.,
pp. 15 and 139.
^ (in French) Abbé David Boilat, « Notice sur Tanguegueth ou
Rufisque », Esquisses sénégalaises, Karthala, Paris, 1984 (1st
edn 1853), p. 55.
^ (in French) Christian Roche, Histoire de la Casamance. Conquête et
résistance : 1850–1920, Paris: Karthala, 1985 (1st edn 1976),
^ The date of 1617, cited by
Olfert Dapper in Description de l'Afrique
contenant les noms, la situation & les confins de toutes ses
parties, leurs rivières, leurs villes & leurs habitations, leurs
plantes & leurs animaux : les moeurs, les coutumes, la
langue, les richesses, la religion & le gouvernement de ses
peuples : avec des cartes des États, des provinces & des
villes, & des figures en taille-douce, qui representent les habits
& les principales cérémonies des habitants, les plantes &
les animaux les moins connus, W. Waesberge, Boom et Van Someren,
Amsterdam, édition de 1686, p. 229, is reprised in many sources.
Implausible, given thé date of creation of the company, it is
challenged by two historians of Gorée: J.-R. de Benoist et A. Camara,
op. cit., pp. 15-18
^ (in French) Olfert Dapper, op. cit., p. 229
^ Wikisource: Article 10 of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 Treaty of
^ "Goree and the Atlantic
Slave Trade", Philip Curtin, History Net,
accessed 9 July 2008.
^ Les Guides Bleus: Afrique de l'Ouest(1958 ed.), p. 123.
^ "Amadou Lamine-Gueye", Assemblée nationale.
^ "Léopold Sédar Senghor", Assemblée nationale.
^ "Abbas Gueye", Assemblée nationale.
^ "Mamadou Dia", Assemblée nationale.
^ *Chafer, Tony. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France's
Successful Decolonization, Berg (2002), p. 145.
Senegal and the Peacekeeping Operations Senegal". www.un.int.
Retrieved 24 August 2017.
^ "Abdou Diouf", Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Cornado, Estelle, "Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade's rise and
rule", BBC News, 26 March 2012.
^ Harsch, Ernest, "Peace pact raises hope in Senegal", Africa Renewal,
Vol. 19 #1 (April 2005), p. 14.
^ "Refugees: General Peace Agreement between the Government of the
Senegal and MFDC", Peace Accords Matrix, University of
^ Nossiter, Adam, "A Turbulence-Free Election in Senegal", The New
York Times, 25 March 2012.
Background Note: Senegal
Auchnie, Ailsa. "The commandement indigène" in Senegal. 1919–1947,
London: SOAS, 1983, 405 pages (Thèse)
Chafer, Tony. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France's
Successful Decolonization. Berg (2002). ISBN 1-85973-557-6
Gellar, Sheldon. Senegal: an African nation between
Islam and the West
(Boulder: Westview Press, 1982).
Idowu, H. Oludare. The Conseil General in Senegal, 1879–1920,
Ibadan: University of Ibadan, 1970 (Thèse)
Leland, Conley Barrows. Général Faidherbe, the Maurel and Prom
Company, and French Expansion in Senegal, University of California,
Los Angeles, 1974, XXI-t.1, pp. 1–519 ; t.2,
pages 520–976, (thèse)
Nelson, Harold D., et al. Area Handbook for
Senegal (2nd ed.
Washington: American University, 1974) full text online, 411pp;
Robinson Jr, David Wallace Faidherbe,
Senegal and Islam, New York,
Columbia University, 1965, 104 pages (thèse)
French West Africa
French West Africa and the Sahara: Colony of
Senegal". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1921.
pp. 897+ – via Internet Archive.
Wikle, Thomas A., and Dale R. Lightfoot. "Landscapes of the Slave
Senegal and The Gambia", Focus on Geography (2014) 57#1 pp.
Michel Adanson, Histoire naturelle du Sénégal. Coquillages. Avec la
relation abrégée d'un voyage fait en ce pays pendant les années
1749, 50, 51, 52 et 53, Paris, 1757, réédité partiellement sous le
titre Voyage au Sénégal, présenté et annoté par Denis Reynaud et
Jean Schmidt, Publications de l'Université de Saint-Étienne, 1996.
Stanislas, chevalier de Boufflers, Lettres d'Afrique à Madame de
Sabran, préface, notes et dossier de François Bessire, s. l., Babel,
1998, 453 pages (coll. Les Épistolaires)
Marie Brantôme, Le Galant exil du marquis de Boufflers, 1786
Jean Baptiste Léonard Durand, Voyage au Sénégal 1785–1786, Paris:
Georges Hardy, La mise en valeur du Sénégal de 1817 à 1854, Paris:
Larose, 1921, XXXIV + 376 pages (Thèse de Lettres)
André Charles, marquis de La Jaille, Voyage au Sénégal pendant les
années 1784 et 1785, avec des notes jusqu’à l'an X par P.
Labarthe, Paris, Denter,1802.
Saugnier, Relation des voyages de Saugnier à la côte d'Afrique, au
Maroc, au Sénégal, à Gorée, à Galam, publiée par Laborde, Paris:
René Claude Geoffroy de Villeneuve, L’Afrique ou Histoire, mœurs,
usages et coutumes des Africains : le Sénégal, orné de 44
planches exécutées la plupart d'après des dessins originaux
inédits faits sur les lieux, Paris: Nepveu,1814.
Gravrand, Henry, "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol. 2, Les
Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, 1990, pp, 9, 20 & 77,
91, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, Vol. 1, Cosaan: les
origines", Nouvelles Editions africaines, 1983,
University of Calgary, Dept. of Archaeology, Society of Africanist
Archaeologists in America, Society of Africanist Archaeologists,
Newsletter of African archaeology, Issues 47–50, Dept. of
Archaeology, University of Calgary, 1997, pp. 27, 58
Becker, Charles, "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé
clans les pays sereer",
Dakar (1993), CNRS – ORS TO M
Foltz, William J., "From
French West Africa
French West Africa to the
Volume 12 of Yale studies in political science, p. 136, Yale
University Press, 1965
Diop, Cheikh Anta, Modum, Egbuna P., "Towards the African renaissance:
essays in African culture & development", 1946–1960, p. 28,
Karnak House (1996). ISBN 0-907015-85-9
Coifman, Victoria Bomba, "History of the Wolof state of Jolof until
1860 including comparative data from the Wolof state of Walo", p. 276,
University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1969
Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine" par suivie de Notes
sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le
royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Bulletin de
l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972, p. 706
Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine–Saloum", Introduction,
bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B,
n° 3-4, 1986–1987
Rodolphe Alexandre, La Révolte des tirailleurs sénégalais à
Cayenne, 24–25 février 1946, 1995, 160
pages ISBN 2-7384-3330-8
Jean-Luc Angrand, Céleste ou le temps des signares, Éditions Anne
Boubacar Barry, La Sénégambie du XVe au XIXe siècle. Traite
Islam et conquête coloniale, Paris, L'Harmattan, 1991
(rééd.), 544 pages ISBN 2-85802-670-X
Boubacar Barry, Le Royaume du Waalo : le Sénégal avant la
Conquête, Karthala, 2000 (rééd.), 420
pages ISBN 2-86537-141-7
Abdoulaye Bathily, Les Portes de l'or : le royaume de Galam
(Sénégal) de l'ère musulmane au temps des négriers (VIIIe-XVIIIe
siècles), Paris: L'Harmattan, 1989.
Claire Bernard, Les Aménagements du bassin fleuve Sénégal pendant
la colonisation française (1850–1960), ANRT, 1996,
Germaine Françoise Bocandé, L’implantation militaire française
dans la région du Cap-Vert : causes, problèmes et conséquences
des origines à 1900, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1980, 112 pages
(Mémoire de Maîtrise)
Jean Boulègue, Le Grand Jolof : XIIIe-XVIe siècles, les Anciens
royaumes Wolof, t. 1, Karthala, 1987, 207 pages
Paul Bouteiller, Le Chevalier de Boufflers et le Sénégal de son
temps (1785–1788), Lettres du Monde, Paris, 1995.
Bruno A. Chavane, Villages de l'ancien Tekrour : recherches
archéologiques dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal,
Karthala-CRA, 2000 (rééd.)
Sékéné Mody Cissoko, Le Khasso face à l'empire Toucouleur et à la
France dans le Haut- Sénégal 1854–1890, Paris: L'Harmattan, 1988,
351 pages ISBN 2-7384-0133-3
Catherine Clément, Afrique esclave, Agnès Vienot, 1999, 200
pages ISBN 2-911606-36-1
Cyr Descamps, Contribution à la préhistoire de l'Ouest-sénégalais,
Paris: Université de Paris, 1972, 345 pages (Thèse de 3e cycle
publiée en 1979, Dakar, Travaux et Documents Faculté des Lettres,
Falilou Diallo, Histoire du Sénégal : de la conférence de
Brazzaville à la fondation du bloc démocratique sénégalais :
Université de Paris
Université de Paris I, 1983, 318 pages (Thèse de
Papa Momar Diop, Les administrateurs coloniaux au Sénégal.
1900–1914, Dakar: Université de Dakar, 1985, 107 pages (Mémoire de
Mamadou Diouf, Le Kajoor au XIXe, Karthala, 1989
Mamadou Diouf, Le Sénégal sous Abdou Diouf, Karthala, 1990
Mamadou Diouf, Une histoire du Sénégal : le modèle
islamo-wolof et ses périphéries, Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose,
2001, 250 pages ISBN 2-7068-1503-5
Babacar Fall, Le Travail forcé en Afrique Occidentale Française
(1900–1946), Karthala, 2000, 336 pages ISBN 2-86537-372-X
Denys Ferrando-Durfort, Lat Dior le résistant, Paris : Chiron,
1989. – 45 pages ISBN 2-7027-0403-4
Jean Girard, L'Or du Bambouk : du royaume de Gabou à la
Casamance une dynamique de civilisation ouest-africaine, Genève:
Georg, 1992, 347 pages
Bernard Grosbellet, Le Moniteur du Sénégal et dépendances comme
sources de l'histoire du Sénégal pendant le premier gouvernement de
Faidherbe (1856–1861), Dakar: Université de Dakar, 1967, 113 pages
(Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures)
Gerti Hesseling, Histoire politique du Sénégal: institutions, droit
et société (translation Catherine Miginiac), Karthala, 2000, 437
pages ISBN 2-86537-118-2
Abdoulaye Ly, La Compagnie du Sénégal, Karthala, 2000, 448
pages ISBN 2-86537-406-8
Mahamadou Maiga, Le Bassin du fleuve Sénégal – De la traite
négrière au développement, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1995, 330
pages ISBN 2-7384-3093-7
Laurence Marfaing, Évolution du commerce au Sénégal :
1820–1930, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1991, 320
pages ISBN 2-7384-1195-9
Saliou Mbaye, Le Conseil privé du Sénégal de 1819 à 1854, Paris,
Université de Paris, 1974, 431 pages (Thèse de l'École des Chartes)
Djibril Tamsir Niane, Soundjata ou l'épopée Mandingue, Présence
africaine, 2000 (rééd.) 160 pages ISBN 2-7087-0078-2
Jean-Pierre Phan, Le Front Populaire au Sénégal (1936–1938),
Université de Paris
Université de Paris I, 1974, 176 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
Christian Roche, Histoire de la Casamance : Conquête et
résistance 1850–1920, Karthala, 2000, 408
pages ISBN 2-86537-125-5
Christian Roche, Le Sénégal à la conquête de son indépendance,
1939–1960. Chronique de la vie politique et syndicale, de l'Empire
français à l'Indépendance, Paris: Karthala, 2001, 286 pages
Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, Une source de l'histoire coloniale du
Sénégal. Les rapports de situation politique (1874–1891), Dakar:
Université de Dakar, 1964, 147 pages (Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures)
Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, La formation territoriale de la colonie du
Sénégal sous le Second Empire 1850–1871, Nantes: Université de
Nantes, 1980, 2 vol. 1096 pages (Thèse d'État)
Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, Le Sénégal sous le Second Empire, Karthala,
2000, 680 pages ISBN 2-86537-201-4
H. Y. Sanchez-Calzadilla, A l'origine de l'expansion française, la
commission des comptoirs du Sénégal, Paris:
Université de Paris
Université de Paris I,
1973 (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
Alain Sinou, Comptoirs et villes coloniales du Sénégal: Saint-Louis,
Gorée, Dakar, Karthala, 1999, 344 pages ISBN 2-86537-393-2
Charles Uyisenga, La participation de la colonie du Sénégal à
l'effort de guerre 1914–1918, Dakar: Université de Dakar, 1978, 216
pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
Nicole Vaget Grangeat, Le Chevalier de Boufflers et son temps, étude
d'un échec, Paris, Nizet, 1976
Baïla Wane, Le Conseil colonial du Sénégal, 1920–1946, Paris:
Université de Paris
Université de Paris VII, 1978, 20 pages (Diplôme d'Études
"VIIe Colloque euroafricain" Aline Robert – Les sources
écrites européennes du XVe au XIXe s : un apport
complémentaire pour la connaissance du passé africain
Uniformes des tirailleurs sénégalais
Arab slave trade
French West Africa
African slave trade
Bissau-Guinean Civil War
Bissau-Guinean Civil War involvement
Environmental issues in Senegal
World Heritage Sites
Court of Cassation (judiciary)
Water supply and sanitation
Coat of arms
History of Africa
Cape Verde (Cabo Verde)
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
São Tomé and Príncipe
States with limited
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla (Spain)
Mayotte / Réunion (France)
Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da
Cunha (United Kingd