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Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad
Venad
- Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala Unification of Kerala

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The history of Kerala, India, dates back many millennia. Stone Age carvings in the Edakkal Caves
Edakkal Caves
feature pictorial writings believed to date to at least the Neolithic
Neolithic
era around 5,000 BC, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in this region.[1] From as early as 3000 BC, Chera nadu, currently known as Kerala
Kerala
had established itself as a major spice trade centre. Keralam, the then Chera nadu had direct contact across the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
with all the major Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Red Sea
Red Sea
ports as well those of the Far East. The spice trade between Kerala
Kerala
and much of the world was one of the main drivers of the world economy. For much of history, ports in Kerala
Kerala
were the busiest (Muziris) among all trade and travel routes in the history of the world. The word Kerala
Kerala
is first recorded (as Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century BC rock inscription (Rock Edict 2) left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BC).[2] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the five independent kingdoms in southern India
India
during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, Tamiraparani and Satiyaputra.[3]A 3rd century CE, Brahmi inscription, found on Edakal cave, Ambukuthi hill, contained the word ‘Chera' (‘kadummipudha chera'), the earliest inscriptional evidence of the dynasty Chera.[4] The Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Chola Empire
Chola Empire
and Rashtrakuta Empire. In the 8th century, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
was born at Kalady
Kalady
in central Kerala. He travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent establishing institutions of Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
philosophy. Contact with Europeans after the arrival of Vasco Da Gama
Vasco Da Gama
in 1498 gave rise to struggles between colonial and native interests. The state of Keralam was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district
Malabar district
of Madras
Madras
State, and the Kasaragod taluk
Kasaragod taluk
of Dakshina Kannada.[5]

Contents

1 Reference in Old testament 2 Kerala
Kerala
in Hindu Purana

2.1 Mahabali 2.2 Other texts 2.3 Parasurama

3 Prehistory 4 Spice trade
Spice trade
(3000 BC - 1000 BC)

4.1 Ancient sources (c. 1000 BC-AD 100) 4.2 Ancient dynasties (c. 500 BC - AD 500)

5 Ancient religions and ethnic groups 6 Early medieval period (c.AD 500-1400)

6.1 Second Cheras 6.2 Rise of Advaita 6.3 Kingdom of Venad 6.4 Kingdom of Kozhikode

7 Colonial period

7.1 Portuguese period 7.2 French Region in Kerala 7.3 Dutch period 7.4 British period

8 Modern history

8.1 Formation of Kerala
Kerala
state 8.2 Liberation struggle 8.3 Coalition politics

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Reference in Old testament[edit] Many historians locate port cities Ophir and Tarshish mentioned in old testament in ancient Kerala. Poovar
Poovar
near Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
is believed to be Ophir mentioned in old testament bible. Similarly Kollam, another ancient port city, is believed to be Tarshish.[6] Kerala
Kerala
in Hindu Purana[edit] Many of the legends from native people in Kerala
Kerala
are common with the rest of India
India
coming from the Puranas. Mahabali[edit] Perhaps the most famous festival of Kerala, Onam, is deeply rooted in Kerala
Kerala
traditions. Onam
Onam
is associated with the legendary Asura
Asura
king Mahabali, who according to the Hindu Puranas, ruled the Earth and several other planetary systems from Kerala. His entire kingdom was then a land of immense prosperity and happiness. However, he was granted rule over one of the netherworld (Patala) planets called Sutala, by Vamana, the fifth Avatar
Avatar
(earthly incarnation) of Lord Vishnu. Onam
Onam
is celebrated in Kerala
Kerala
with respect to Maveli Thampuran of Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
and Thrikkakkarayappan.[citation needed] Other texts[edit] The oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar
Avatar
(fish incarnation) of Lord Vishnu, in the Malaya Mountains of Dravida, which lie in Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu. The earliest Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text to mention Kerala
Kerala
by name is the Aitareya Aranyaka
Aitareya Aranyaka
of the Rigveda.[7] It is also mentioned in both the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
[8] Parasurama[edit]

Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna
Varuna
to part the seas and reveal Kerala.

There are legends dealing with the origins of Kerala
Kerala
geographically and culturally. One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala
Kerala
from the sea, by Parasurama, a warrior sage. It proclaims that Parasurama, an Avatar
Avatar
of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of Kerala
Kerala
arose, and thus was reclaimed from the waters.[9] He was the sixth of the ten avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu. The word Parasu means 'axe' in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and therefore the name Parasurama
Parasurama
means 'Ram with Axe. In Treta yuga, Parasurama
Parasurama
retrieved the land submerged under the ocean from Varuna
Varuna
- the God of the Oceans and Bhumidevi - Goddess of Earth. From Gokarnam he reached Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
and threw his axe northward across the ocean. The place where the axe landed was Kerala. It was 160 katam (an old measure) of land lying between Gokarnam and Kanyakumari. Puranas
Puranas
say that it was Parasurama
Parasurama
who planted the Brahmins and Nayakas in 64 regions of Kerala
Kerala
from Chera and Pandya
Pandya
regions. According to the puranas, Kerala
Kerala
is also known as Parasurama
Parasurama
Kshetram, i.e., 'The Land of Parasurama', as the land was reclaimed from sea by him. Prehistory[edit]

A dolmen erected by Neolithic
Neolithic
people in Marayur.

Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Megalithic
Megalithic
sites in Kerala.[10] These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu). The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala
Kerala
society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Megalithic
Megalithic
ages.[11] However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation.[12] The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and early Iron Age.[13] Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic
Neolithic
era in the Marayur
Marayur
area. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).[14] Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad
Wayanad
are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE.[15][16][17] Historian M.R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state
Kerala state
archaeology department identified a sign of “a man with jar cup” in the engravings, which is the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation.[18] Spice trade
Spice trade
(3000 BC - 1000 BC)[edit] Kerala
Kerala
was a major spice exporter as early as 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records.[19] Its fame as the land of spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians
Egyptians
to Muziris
Muziris
[3] in the 3r and 2nd millennia BCE. Arabs
Arabs
and Phoenicians
Phoenicians
were also successful in establishing their prominence in the Kerala
Kerala
trade during this early period.[20][21]

Muziris
Muziris
in the Tabula Peutingeriana, an itinerarium showing the road network in the Roman Empire.

According to Sumerian records and Kerala
Kerala
still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India". Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians
Egyptians
to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE.[citation needed] Arabs
Arabs
and Phoenicians
Phoenicians
established trade with Kerala
Kerala
during this period.[citation needed] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India
India
during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra.[citation needed] Scholars[who?] hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar.[22] Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time.[23] The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;[24] contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris
Muziris
in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala
Kerala
was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus
Augustus
and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.[25][26] Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala. The Jewish connection with Chera nadu started in 573 BCE. Arabs
Arabs
also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus
Herodotus
(484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs
Arabs
from Kerala
Kerala
were sold to the Jews
Jews
at Eden. They intermarried with local people, resulting in formation of the Muslim Mappila
Mappila
community. In the 4th century, some Christians also migrated from Persia
Persia
and joined the early Syrian Christian community who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle
in the 1st century. Another Christian migration from middle east to Kerala
Kerala
was of the Knanaya
Knanaya
community. Mappila
Mappila
was an honorific title (Mapillai is a Tamil word for bridegroom, because foreign male partner married to local woman, they have been called Mapillai community) that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas. According to the legends of these communities, the earliest Saint Thomas Christian
Saint Thomas Christian
Churches, Cheraman Juma Masjid
Cheraman Juma Masjid
(629 CE)—the first mosque of India—and Paradesi Synagogue
Paradesi Synagogue
(1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations—were built in Kerala by Cochin
Cochin
Jews. Megasthanes, the Greek Ambassador to the court of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya (4th Century BC) mentions in his work Indica on many South Indian States, including Automela (probably Muziris), and a Pandian trade centre. Ancient Roman Natural philosopher
Natural philosopher
Pliny the Elder mentions in his Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(N.H. 6.26) Muziris
Muziris
[4] in Kerala as India's first port of importance. According to him, Muziris
Muziris
could be reached in 40 days' time from the Red sea ports in Egyptian coast purely depending on the South West Monsoon winds. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
notes that "both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places". Ancient sources (c. 1000 BC-AD 100)[edit] The Sangam works Puṟanāṉūṟu
Puṟanāṉūṟu
and Akanaṉūṟu have many lines which speak of the Roman vessels and the Roman gold that used to come to the Kerala
Kerala
ports in search of pepper and other spices, which had enormous demand in the West. Especially, one of the earliest surviving pieces of literature to have been composed in ancient Kerala, the pathiRRuppathu is an important source that describes the dynasties of Kerala
Kerala
kings (cheral kings) from the early centuries AD.[27] An important source to understand the ancient history of Kerala
Kerala
is the pathinEnmERkanakku. Collections of poems like Purananuru, Akananuru, Silappathikaram and Manimekhalai by poets like Paramer, Kapilar, Gautamanar, mamulanar, and Avvaiyar. The Sangam poems were secular. The poems give us information about the Chera kings like Utiyam, Neducheralathan and Chenkuttawan. Their capital was vanchi (muziris), which was an important trading centre with Rome. A 3rd-century-BC rock inscription by emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
the Great references Kerala
Kerala
as Keralaputra.[28] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholars of ancient India, Katyayana (circa 4th century BC) and Patanjali
Patanjali
(circa 2nd century BC), exhibited in their writings a casual familiarity with Kerala's geography. Ancient dynasties (c. 500 BC - AD 500)[edit] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the five independent kingdoms in southern India
India
during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, Tamiraparani and Satiyaputra.[3] Kerala
Kerala
was governed by several deshavazhi (governors of the region) and the Chera, took the title as the naduvazhi (governor of the area).[29][30][31] which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi).[32] The Cheras ruled western Malabar Coast, the Cholas ruled in the eastern Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
and the Pandyas in the south-central peninsula. There were also numerous small vassal kingdoms and city-states called "Vels". The Chera kingdom consisted of major part of modern Kerala, and Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and Salem districts of modern Tamil Nadu.[33][34] Old Tamil and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was the language of the region; Malayalam, .[35][36] Their capital was at Vanchi (also known as Vanchimutur).[36] The location of the historical city Vanchi is generally considered near the ancient port city of Muziris
Muziris
in Kerala.[37][38] However, Karur
Karur
in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
is also pointed out as the location of the capital city of Cheras.[33] Another view suggests the reign of Cheras from multiple capitals.[15] There were harbours of Naura near Kannur, Tyndis near Koyilandy, and Bacare near Alappuzha
Alappuzha
which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass (churam) facilitated migration and trade. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews
Jews
and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala. The Cochin Jews
Cochin Jews
believe that their ancestors came to the west coast of India
India
as refugees following the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the first century AD. Saint Thomas Christians are the descendants of the converts of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Jesus Christ. Ancient religions and ethnic groups[edit] Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
reached Kerala
Kerala
in this early period. As in other parts of Ancient India, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
co-existed with early Dravidian beliefs during the first five centuries. Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.[39] Jewish connection with Kerala
Kerala
started as early as 573 BC.[40][41] Arabs
Arabs
also had trade links with Kerala, possibly started before the 4th century BC, as Herodotus
Herodotus
(484–413 BC) noted that goods brought by Arabs
Arabs
from Kerala
Kerala
were sold to the Jews
Jews
at Eden.[23] In the 4th century, some Christians also immigrated from Persia
Persia
and joined the early Syrian Christian community who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle
in the 1st century.[42][43] Mappila
Mappila
was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; and Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration might account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas.[44][45] According to the legends of these communities, the earliest Christian churches,[46] mosque,[47] and synagogue(AD 1568)[48] in India
India
were built in Kerala. The combined number of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was relatively small at this early stage. They co-existed harmoniously with each other and with local Hindu society, aided by the commercial benefit from such association.[49] Another notable community arrived from middle east in Kerala
Kerala
is The Knanaya
Knanaya
. A silent revolution was taking place in the social system of the western coast of south India
India
during the last phase of Sangam Age. Towards the end of Sangam age, Brahmins migrated into this region and by about the 8th century, a chain of Brahmin
Brahmin
settlements had come up a large number of which were in Central Kerala. The process of Brahminisation or Sanskritisation began. Temples were constructed, Nambudiri
Nambudiri
community was evolved. Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
the exponent of Advaita (monistic) philosophy lived in the 8th century AD. The whole of Kerala came to be covered by a network of Hindu temple
Hindu temple
centered Brahmin settlements. Under their control, these settlements had a large extend of land, number of tenants and the entailing privileges. With more advanced techniques of cultivation, sociopolitical organisation and a strong sense of solidarity, the Brahmins gradually formed the elite of the society. They succeeded in raising a feudal fighting class and ordered the caste system with numerous graduations of upper, intermediate and lower classes. Early medieval period (c.AD 500-1400)[edit] Second Cheras[edit] Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure.[2] A Second Chera Kingdom
Chera Kingdom
( c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara
Kulasekhara
dynasty of Mahodayapuram, was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which at its zenith ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala
Kerala
and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagercoil
Nagercoil
to Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in 10th century and thus the region became a part of theKulasekara empire.[50][51] During Kulasekhara
Kulasekhara
rule, Kerala witnessed a flourishing period of art, literatute, trade and the Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
of Hinduism.[52] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period.[53] For the local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Nair
Nair
Chieftains known as Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[52] The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala
Kerala
ports. Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
disappeared from the land. The social system became fractured with internal divisions on the lines of caste.[54] Finally, the Kulasekhara
Kulasekhara
dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas.[50] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299-1314) of the southern Venad
Venad
kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was fractured into about thirty small warring principalities under Nair
Nair
Chieftains; most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri
Samuthiri
in the north, Venad
Venad
in the south and Kochi
Kochi
in the middle.[55][56] Rise of Advaita[edit] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
(AD 789), one of the greatest Indian philosopher, born in Kaladi in Kerala
Kerala
who consolidated the doctrine of advaita vedānta.[57][58] Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
of which he is known as the greatest revivalist.[58] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is believed to be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmatatradition of worship. His works in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism). He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishads, and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutra, principal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya
Samkhya
and certain schools of Buddhism.[59][60][61] Kingdom of Venad[edit] Main article: Venad Venad
Venad
was a kingdom in the south west tip of Kerala, which acted as a buffer between Cheras and Pandyas. Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil
Nagercoil
in the south to Thiruvananthapuram in the north. Their capital was at Kollam. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century.[62] When Ay power diminished, Venad
Venad
became the southern most principality of the Second Chera Kingdom[63] Invasion of Cholas into Venad
Venad
caused the destruction of Kollam
Kollam
in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram, fell in the subsequent attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam.[64] Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of Chera dynasty, is probably the founder of the Venad
Venad
royal house, and the title of Chera kings, Kulasekara, was thenceforth adopted by the rulers of Venad. The end of Second Chera dynasty
Chera dynasty
in the 12th century marks the independence of the Venad.[65] The Venadu King then also was known as Venadu Mooppil Nayar. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad
Venad
family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad
Venad
as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles (14 km) north of Thiruvananthapuram, and was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad
Venad
kingdom, especially the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.[63] The most powerful kingdom of Kerala
Kerala
during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad
Venad
by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century. Kingdom of Kozhikode[edit] Historical records regarding the origin of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode is obscure. However, its generally agreed that the Samoothiri were originally the rulers of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis. Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district
Malappuram district
and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west. Legends such as The Origin of Kerala
Kerala
tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu, near present-day Kondotty
Kondotty
by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of the Cheras.[66][67] M.G.S. Narayanan, a Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions (Eralnadu province). Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the coastal marshy lands and established the kingdom of Kozhikode[68] They later assumed the title of Samudrāthiri ("one who has the sea for his border") and continued to rule from Kozhikode. Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode
Kozhikode
to develop his military power. They became the most powerful king in the Malayalam
Malayalam
speaking regions during the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi. He was forced to shift his capital (c. AD 1405) further south. In the 15th century, Kochi
Kochi
was reduced in to a vassal state of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
. Colonial period[edit]

Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
landing in Kerala

The path Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
took to reach India
India
(black line)

Dutch commander De Lannoy surrenders to Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
at the Battle of Colachel (1741). Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace.

Captured Mappila
Mappila
prisoners of 1921 revolt, taken after a battle with British troops.

The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with the Arabs
Arabs
during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad
Kappad
Kozhikode
Kozhikode
in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.[69][70][71] Portuguese period[edit] See also: History of Quilon The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects. Their trade in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi
Kochi
and when Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India
Portuguese India
in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi
Kochi
and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast.[72] Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks due to attacks by Samoothiri Maharaja's forces, especially naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. The Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam
Kollam
(after the invasion of Dutch, it became Dutch Cemetery) of Tangasseri
Tangasseri
in Kollam
Kollam
city was constructed in around 1519 as part of the Portuguese invasion in the city. Buckingham Canal (a small canal between Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Lighthouse and the cemetery) is situated very close to the Portuguese Cemetery.[73][74] A group of pirates known as the Pirates of Tangasseri
Tangasseri
formerly lived at the Cemetery.[75] The remnants of St. Thomas Fort and Portuguese Cemetery still exist at Tangasseri. French Region in Kerala[edit] The French East India
India
Company constructed a fort on the site of Mahé in 1724, in accordance with an accord concluded between André Mollandin and Raja Vazhunnavar of Badagara three years earlier. In 1741, Mahé de La Bourdonnais retook the town after a period of occupation by the Marathas. In 1761 the British captured Mahé, India, and the settlement was handed over to the Rajah of Kadathanadu. The British restored Mahé, India
India
to the French as a part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé, India. In 1783, the British agreed to restore to the French their settlements in India, and Mahé, India
India
was handed over to the French in 1785 Dutch period[edit] The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India
India
Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode
Kozhikode
and Kochi to gain control of the trade. The Dutch Malabar
Dutch Malabar
(1661-1795) in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
of the Travancore
Travancore
Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. The Treaty of Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
was signed by the Dutch and Travancore
Travancore
in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore
Travancore
to a position of preeminence in Kerala.[76] Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
of Mysore conquered northern Kerala
Kerala
in the 18th century, capturing Kozhikode
Kozhikode
in 1766. British period[edit] Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and his successor, Tipu Sultan, came into conflict with the British, leading to the four Anglo-Mysore wars
Anglo-Mysore wars
fought across southern India
India
in the latter half of the 18th century. Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
ceded Malabar District
Malabar District
to the British in 1792, and South Kanara, which included present-day Kasargod District, in 1799. The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin
Cochin
(1791) and Travancore
Travancore
(1795), and these became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British. Malabar and South Kanara
South Kanara
districts were part of British India's Madras
Madras
Presidency. Kerala
Kerala
Varma Pazhassi Raja
Pazhassi Raja
(Kerul Varma Pyche Rajah, Cotiote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam
Kottayam
in Malabar, India
India
between 1774 and 1805. He led the Pychy Rebellion (Wynaad Insurrection, Coiote War) against the English East India
India
Company. He is popularly known as Kerala
Kerala
Simham (Lion of Kerala). Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. Uprisings of note include the rebellion by Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa
Velu Thampi Dalawa
and the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946. In 1919, consequent to their victory in World War I, the British abolished the Islamic Caliphate
Islamic Caliphate
and dismembered the Ottoman Empire. This resulted in protests against the British by Muslims of the Indian sub-continent known as the Khilafat Movement, which was supported by Mahatma Gandhi in order to draw the Muslims into the mainstream national independence movement. In 1921, the Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
in Malabar culminated in widespread riots against the British government and Hindu population in what is now known as the Moplah rebellion. Kerala
Kerala
also witnessed several social reforms movements directed at the eradication of social evils such as untouchability among the Hindus, pioneered by reformists like Srinarayana guru and Chattambiswami among others. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom
Vaikom
Satyagraha
Satyagraha
of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom
Vaikom
temple for people belonging to untouchable castes. In 1936, Sree Chithira Thirunal Balaramavarma, the ruler of Travancore, issued the Temple Entry Proclamation, declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshipers, irrespective of caste. Modern history[edit] Formation of Kerala
Kerala
state[edit] Main article: Travancore-Cochin The two independent kingdoms of Travancore
Travancore
and Cochin
Cochin
joined the Union of India
India
after India
India
gained independence in 1947. On 1 July 1949, the two states were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
was recognised as a state. The Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
was reorganised to form Madras State
Madras State
in 1947. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala
Kerala
was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.[77] In 1957, elections for the new Kerala
Kerala
Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. Namboodiripad.[77] It was the first time a Communist
Communist
government was democratically elected to power anywhere in the world. It initiated pioneering land reforms, leading to lowest levels of rural poverty in India.[78][79] Liberation struggle[edit] It refused to nationalise the large estates but did provide reforms to protect manual labourers and farm workers, and invited capitalists to set up industry. Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the Nairs, which enrolled 40% of the students. The Christians, the land owning communities of Nairs and Namputhiris and the Congress Party protested, with demonstrations numbering in the tens and hundreds of thousands of people. The government controlled the police, which made 150,000 arrests (often the same people arrested time and again), and used 248 lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. Nehru was reluctant but when his daughter Indira Gandhi, the national head of the Congress Party, joined in, he finally did so. New elections in 1959 cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control. Coalition politics[edit] See also: Saptakakshi Munnani and United Front (Kerala) Later in 1967-82 Kerala
Kerala
elected a series of leftist coalition governments; the most stable was that led by Achutha Menon from 1969 to 1977.[80] From 1967 to 1970, Kunnikkal Narayanan led a Naxalite
Naxalite
movement in Kerala. The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.e. CPM is the part of the uprising of Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India.Due to the several difference in the ideological level the CPI-ML split into several groups. Some are come to the democratic way and some to the extreme, anarchic way. The violence alienated public opinion.[81] The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. As a result, to this, ever since 1979, the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change. Politics in Kerala
Kerala
is characterised by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups.[82] Modern politics in Kerala
Kerala
is dominated by two political fronts: the Communist
Communist
party-led Left Democratic Front (LDF) and the Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) since the late 1970s. These two parties have alternating in power since 1982. Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time.[82] According to 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election results, the LDF has a majority in the state assembly seats (91/140) See also[edit]

Culture of Kerala Economy of Kerala Geography of Kerala Cuisine of Kerala

References[edit]

^ "Archaeologists rock solid behind Edakkal Cave". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 28 October 2007.  ^ a b "Kerala." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 December 2011. ^ a b Vincent A. Smith; A. V. Williams Jackson (30 November 2008). History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II – From the Sixth Century BCE to the Mohammedan Conquest, Including the Invasion of Alexander the Great. Cosimo, Inc. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-1-60520-492-5. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ Edakal cave yields one more Tamil-Brahmi inscription. The Hindu (2012-02-09). Retrieved on 2013-07-28. ^ "The land that arose from the sea". The Hindu. 1 November 2003. Retrieved 2009-07-30.  ^ Shashi Tharoor (15 June 2013). Pax Indica: India
India
and the World of the Twenty-first Century. Penguin Books India. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-8475-693-7.  ^ "Literacy – official website of Govt of Kerala". Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ A. Sreedhara Menon (2008). Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D C Books. pp. 13–15. ISBN 9788126419036.  ^ Aiya VN (1906). The Travancore
Travancore
State Manual. Travancore
Travancore
Government Press. pp. 210–212. Retrieved 2007-11-12.  ^ Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 116. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. pp. 118, 123. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 123. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ "Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 September 2009.  ^ "Unlocking the secrets of history". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 December 2004.  ^ a b Subodh Kapoor (1 July 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. p. 2184. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/30/stories/2007103054660500.htmHindu.com. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ Tourism information on districts– Wayanad
Wayanad
Archived 14 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine., official website of the Govt. of Kerala ^ "Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 September 2009.  ^ Striving for sustainability, environmental stress and democratic initiatives in Kerala, p. 79; ISBN 81-8069-294-9, Srikumar Chattopadhyay, Richard W. Franke; Year: 2006. ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ Faces of Goa: a journey through the history and cultural revolution of Goa and other communities influenced by the Portuguese By Karin Larsen (Page 392) ^ Joseph Minattur. "Malaya: What's in the name" (PDF). siamese-heritage.org. p. 1. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ a b K. K. Kusuman (1987). A History of Trade & Commerce in Travancore. Mittal Publications. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-81-7099-026-0. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India
India
were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See [1] ^ Abraham Eraly (1 December 2011). The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India. pp. 246–. ISBN 978-0-670-08478-4. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ Iyengar PTS (2001). History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0145-9. Retrieved 29 December 2008.  ^ John Ralston Marr (1985). The Eight Anthologies. Institute of Asian Studies. p. 263.  ^ "Carving the Buddha" (PDF). Govt of Kerala. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India. CUP Archive. p. 193. GGKEY:2W0QHXZ7K40. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ Bhanwar Lal Dwivedi (1 January 1994). Evolution of Education Thought in India. Northern Book Centre. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-81-7211-059-8. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age
Stone Age
to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 385. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ James Oliver Thomson (1948). History of ancient geography – Google Books. Biblo & Tannen Publishers,1948. ISBN 978-0-8196-0143-8. Retrieved 30 July 2009. . See also [2] ^ a b K. Krishna Reddy. Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Subodh Kapoor (1 July 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. p. 1448. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ J. Allan, T. Wolseley Haig, H. H. Dodwell (1934). The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Angelina Vimala (1 September 2007). History And Civics 6. Pearson Education India. p. 107. ISBN 978-81-317-0336-6. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ A. Sreedhara Menon (1987). Political History of Modern Kerala. D C Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-264-2156-5. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Miguel Serrano (1 January 1974). The Serpent of Paradise: The Story of an Indian Pilgrimage. Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-7100-7784-4. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ Iyengar PTS (2001). History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. pp. 192–195. ISBN 81-206-0145-9. Retrieved 29 December 2008.  ^ De Beth Hillel, David (1832). Travels (Madraspublication). ^ Lord, James Henry (1977). The Jews
Jews
in India
India
and the Far East; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2. ^ Geoffrey Wainwright (2006). The Oxford History Of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. p. 666. ISBN 9780195138863.  ^ * Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2 ^ Milton J, Skeat WW, Pollard AW, Brown L (31 August 1982). The Indian Christians of St Thomas. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-521-21258-8.  ^ Susan Bayly (2004). Saints, Goddesses and Kings. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780521891035.  ^ Jonathan Goldstein (1999). The Jews
Jews
of China. M.E. Sharpe. p. 123. ISBN 9780765601049.  ^ Nathan Katz (2000). Who Are the Jews
Jews
of India?. University of California Press. p. 245. ISBN 9780520213234.  ^ Rolland E. Miller (1993). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Perspectives and Encounters. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 50. ISBN 9788120811584.  ^ a b K. Balachandran Nayar (1974). In quest of Kerala. Accent Publications. p. 86. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ a b A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. pp. 123–131. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Chaitanya, Krishna (1972). Kerala. New Delhi: National Book Trust, India; [chief stockists in India: India
India
Book House, Bombay]. p. 15. OCLC 515788.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 138. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 9 August 2012.  ^ Educational Britannica Educational (15 August 2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. Retrieved 15 September 2012.  ^ "The Territories and States of India". Europa  – via  Questia (subscription required). 2002. pp. 144–146. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1962). "Chronological Summary of History of Indian Philosophy". Indian Philosophy: A Critical Survey. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. vi.  ^ a b The Seven Spiritual Laws Of Yoga, Deepak Chopra, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN 81-265-0696-2, ISBN 978-81-265-0696-5 ^ Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, India ^ Biography of Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, India ^ The philosophy of Sankar's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya, Sarup & Sons, 2000, ISBN 81-7625-222-0, ISBN 978-81-7625-222-5 ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ a b A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 141. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ "officialwebsite of". Kerala.gov.in. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2010.  ^ Divakaran, Kattakada
Kattakada
(2005). Kerala
Kerala
Sanchaaram. Trivandrum: Z Library.  ^ To corroborate his assertion that Eradi was in fact a favourite of the last Later Chera, M.G.S. cites a stone inscription discovered at Kollam
Kollam
in southern Kerala. It refers to "Nalu Taliyum, Ayiram, Arunurruvarum, Eranadu Vazhkai Manavikiraman, mutalayulla Samathararum" - "The four Councillors, The Thousand, The Six Hundred, along with Mana Vikrama-the Governor of Eralnadu and other Feudatories." M.G.S. indicates that Kozhikode
Kozhikode
lay in fact beyond and not within the kingdom of Polanadu and there was no need of any kind of military movements for Kozhikode. ^ Charles Corn (1999) [First published 1998]. The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade. Kodansha America. pp. 4–5. ISBN 1-56836-249-8.  ^ PN Ravindran (2000). Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-5702-453-5. Retrieved 11 November 2007.  ^ PD Curtin (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-521-26931-8.  ^ J. L. Mehta (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707 - 1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 324–327. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 9 August 2012.  ^ " Tangasseri
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- OOCITIES". OOCITIES. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "Archaeological site and remains". Archaeological Survey of India
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- Thrissur
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Circle. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "A brief history of Tangasseri". Rotary Club of Tangasseri. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ A. Sreedhara Menon (1987). Political History of Modern Kerala. D C Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-264-2156-5. Retrieved 10 August 2012.  ^ a b Plunkett, Cannon & Harding 2001, p. 24 ^ Biswas, Soutik (2010-03-17). "Conundrum of Kerala's struggling economy by Soutik Biswas". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-09-25.  ^ Thomas Johnson Nossiter (1982). Communism in Kerala: a study in political adaptation. C. Hurst for the Royal Institute of International Affairs. ISBN 0-905838-40-8.  ^ Ramachandra Guha (2011). India
India
After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Pan Macmillan. pp. 290–301.  ^ K. Sreejith, "Naxalites and the New Democratic Revolution: The Kerala
Kerala
Experience 1967-70," Bengal Past & Present: A Journal of Modern Indian & Asian History (1999) 118#2 pp 69-82 ^ a b "Refworld India: 1. Please provide some background as to the politics of the State of Kerala, particularly clashes between the CPIM and INC or DIC or their student arms. 2. Is there any information of Simon Britto and whether he is a legislative assembly member? 3. Which party was in power in Kerala
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State Assembly from the early 1980s? 4. Please provide some background on the Democratic Indira Congress and Mr. Karunakaran in Kerala. 5. Please provide background or any detail on RSS attacks on Christians particularly in Chitoor, Kerala". Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal. 2007-03-19. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 

Further reading[edit]

Bose, Satheese Chandra and Varughese, Shiju Sam (eds.) 2015. Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan. Franke, Richard W., Pyralal Raghavan and T. M. Thomas Isaac. Democracy at Work in an Indian Industrial Cooperative: The Story of Kerala Dinesh Beedi (1998) excerpt and text search Kumar, S. Political evolution in Kerala: Travancore
Travancore
1859-1938 (New Delhi: Phoenix Publishing House, 1994) Jose, D (1998), "EMS Namboodiripad dead", Rediff, retrieved 12 January 2006  Menon, K.P. Padmanabha. History of Kerala
Kerala
(4 vol 1929) Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books.  Nair, P. Sadasivan. "Understanding Below-Replacement Fertility in Kerala, India" Journal of Health Population and NutritionVol. 28, No. 4, August 2010 online Osella, F. & C. Osella Social mobility in Kerala: modernity and identity in conflict (London: Pluto, 2000) Palackal, Antony and Wesley Shrum. Information Society and Development: The Kerala
Kerala
Experience (2007) Plunkett, R; Cannon, T, Davis, P, Greenway, P; Harding, P (2001), Lonely Planet South India, Lonely Planet, ISBN 1-86450-161-8  Singh, Anjana (2010). Fort Cochin
Cochin
in Kerala, 1750-1830: The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu. Brill.  Singh, Raghubir. Kerala: The Spice Coast of India
India
by Raghubir Singh (1986) Government of Travancore
Travancore
(1906), The Travancore
Travancore
State Manual, Travancore
Travancore
Government Press, retrieved 12 January 2006 

External links[edit]

Malabar on the Columbia University, New York website About the Dutch colonial presence in Kerala

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topics

History

Sangam period Edakkal Caves Ariyannur Umbrellas Kudakkallu Parambu Chovvanur burial cave Chera Venad
Venad
Swaroopam Kerala
Kerala
school Battle of Kulachal Anglo-Mysore Wars Battle of Quilon Vaikom
Vaikom
Satyagraham Perumpadapu Swaroopam Malabar Migration

Government Politics

Agencies Chief Ministers Governors Legislative Assembly Panchayat elections Saptakakshi Munnani Aikya Munnani Left Democratic Front United Democratic Front Politicians

Geography

Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Ashtamudi Lake Backwaters Districts Eravikulam National Park Flora and fauna Malabar Coast Marayoor Nelliampathi
Nelliampathi
Mountains Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Hills Palakkad
Palakkad
Gap Protected areas Vembanad Lake

Demographics Economy Religion

Malayalis Namboothiris Ambalavasis Samanthas Nairs Saint Thomas Christians Kerala
Kerala
Iyers Ezhavas Cochin
Cochin
Jews Jainism
Jainism
in Kerala Pulayar Dravidians Mappilas Adivasis Scheduled Tribes Kerala
Kerala
model Tourism Education

colleges and universities

Culture

Arts Architecture Cuisine Kalarippayattu Literature Sarpam Thullal Triumvirate poets Vallamkali

Dance / Drama / Cinema

Kathakali Kolkali Koodiyattam Mohiniyattam Margamkali Ottamthullal Theyyam Cinema of Kerala

Festivals

Vishu Onam Pooram

Languages

Malayalam Malayalam
Malayalam
calendar Mappila
Mappila
dialect Suriyani Malayalam Judeo-Malayalam Irula language

Music

Chenda
Chenda
(Thayambaka) Kolkali Panchari melam Panchavadyam Sopanam

Organisations/Agencies

NSS SNDP

Tourism

Alappuzha Athirappilly Falls Beaches in Kerala Bekal Kerala
Kerala
Backwaters Kollam Islands of Kollam Kovalam Munnar Estuaries of Paravur Visitor attractions in Thrissur Tourism in Thiruvananthapuram Vallamkali Wayanad

Portal

v t e

History of India

States

Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

NCT

Delhi

Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

Kerala
Kerala
portal Dravidian civilizations p

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