HOME
The Info List - Hindu Texts


--- Advertisement ---



Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishads

Upanishads Rig vedic

Aitareya Kaushitaki

Sama vedic

Chandogya Kena

Yajur vedic

Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Atharva vedic

Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agamas

Related Hindu
Hindu
texts

Vedangas

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Puranas Brahma
Brahma
puranas

Brahma Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya Bhavishya

Vaishnava puranas

Vishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Vamana Kurma Matsya

Shaiva puranas

Shiva Linga Skanda Vayu Agni

Itihasa

Ramayana Mahabharata

Shastras and sutras

Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras Pramana
Pramana
Sutras Charaka Samhita Sushruta Samhita Natya Shastra Panchatantra Divya Prabandha Tirumurai Ramcharitmanas Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Swara yoga Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Gheranda Samhita Panchadasi Vedantasara Stotra

Timeline

Chronology of Hindu
Hindu
texts

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
texts are manuscripts and historic literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures.[1][2] These include the Vedas
Vedas
and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term " Hindu
Hindu
scripture" given the diverse nature of Hinduism,[2][3] many include Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Agamas as Hindu
Hindu
scriptures,[2][3][4] while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and Yajnavalkya Smriti
Smriti
to the list of Hindu
Hindu
scriptures.[2] There are two historic classifications of Hindu
Hindu
texts: Shruti
Shruti
– that which is heard,[5] and Smriti
Smriti
– that which is remembered.[6] The Śruti
Śruti
refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts, believed to be eternal knowledge authored neither by human nor divine agent but transmitted by sages (rishi). These comprise the central canon of Hinduism.[5][7] It includes the four Vedas
Vedas
including its four types of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas
Aranyakas
and the early Upanishads.[8] Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads
Upanishads
alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.[9][10] The Smriti
Smriti
texts are a specific body of Hindu
Hindu
texts attributed to an author,[8] as a derivative work they are considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism.[6] The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, and includes but is not limited to Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society.[11][12] Many ancient and medieval Hindu
Hindu
texts were composed in Sanskrit, many others in regional Indian languages. In modern times, most ancient texts have been translated into other Indian languages and some in Western languages.[2] Prior to the start of the common era, the Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennia before they were written down into manuscripts.[13][14] This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu
Hindu
texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.[13][14]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscripts colophon

जलाद्रक्षेत्तैलाद्रक्षेद्रक्षेच्छिथिलबन्धनात् मूर्खहस्ते न मां दद्यादिति वदति पुस्तकम्

'Save me from water, protect me from oil, and from loose binding, And do not give me into the hands of fools!' says the manuscript.

—Anonymous verse frequently found at the end of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscripts[15]

Contents

1 The Vedas

1.1 There are four Vedas 1.2 Sub-Classification of Veda

2 The Upanishads 3 The Puranas 4 Post-Vedic texts 5 The Tevaram
Tevaram
Saivite hymns 6 Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
Vaishnavite hymns 7 Other Hindu
Hindu
texts 8 Origin of arts and sciences in India 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 Further reading 13 External links

The Vedas[edit] Main article: Vedas

Manuscripts of 18th-century Hindu
Hindu
texts in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and in a regional language Odiya (below)

The Vedas
Vedas
are a large body of Hindu
Hindu
texts originating in ancient India, with its Samhita
Samhita
and Brahmanas
Brahmanas
complete before about 800 BCE.[16] Composed in Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
hymns, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[17][18][19] Hindus consider the Vedas
Vedas
to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[20] and "impersonal, authorless".[21][22][23] The knowledge in the Vedas
Vedas
is believed in Hinduism
Hinduism
to be eternal, uncreated, neither authored by human nor by divine source, but seen, heard and transmitted by sages.[7] Vedas
Vedas
are also called śruti ("what is heard") literature,[24] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). The Veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations, some way or other the work of the Deity.[25] In the Hindu
Hindu
Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas
Vedas
is credited to Brahma.[26] There are four Vedas[edit]

The Rigveda, The Yajurveda, The Samaveda
Samaveda
and The Atharvaveda.[27][28]

Sub-Classification of Veda[edit] Each Veda
Veda
has been Sub-Classified into four major text types:-

The Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), The Aranyakas
Aranyakas
(text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), The Brahmanas
Brahmanas
(commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and The Upanishads
Upanishads
(text discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).[27][29][30]

The Upanishads[edit] Main article: Upanishad The Upanishads
Upanishads
are a collection of Hindu
Hindu
texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism.[31][note 1] The Upanishads
Upanishads
are commonly referred to as Vedānta, variously interpreted to mean either the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" or "the object, the highest purpose of the Veda".[32] The concepts of Brahman
Brahman
(Ultimate Reality) and Ātman (Soul, Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads,[33][34] and "Know your Ātman" their thematic focus.[34] The Upanishads
Upanishads
are the foundation of Hindu
Hindu
philosophical thought and its diverse traditions.[10][35] Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads
Upanishads
have had a lasting influence on Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[9][10] More than 200 Upanishads
Upanishads
are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads.[36][37] The mukhya Upanishads
Upanishads
are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas
Brahmanas
and Aranyakas[38] and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down verbally. The early Upanishads
Upanishads
all predate the Common Era, some in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE),[39] down to the Maurya period.[40] Of the remainder, some 95 Upanishads
Upanishads
are part of the Muktika
Muktika
canon, composed from about the start of common era through medieval Hinduism. New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued being composed through the early modern and modern era, though often dealing with subjects unconnected to Hinduism.[41][42] The Puranas[edit] Main article: Puranas The Puranas
Puranas
are a vast genre of Hindu
Hindu
texts that encyclopedically cover a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.[43] Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages,[44][45] several of these texts are named after major Hindu
Hindu
deities such as Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva
Shiva
and Goddess Devi.[46][47] The Puranas
Puranas
genre of literature is found in both Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism. The Puranic literature is encyclopedic,[48] and it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy.[43][45][46] The content is highly inconsistent across the Puranas, and each Purana has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent.[44] The Hindu Puranas
Puranas
are anonymous texts and likely the work of many authors over the centuries; in contrast, most Jaina Puranas
Puranas
can be dated and their authors assigned.[44] There are 18 Maha Puranas
Puranas
(Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas
Puranas
(Minor Puranas),[49] with over 400,000 verses.[43] The Puranas
Puranas
do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism,[49] but are considered a Smriti.[50] These Hindu
Hindu
texts have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism.[51] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre.[52][53] Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is hagiographically credited as the compiler of the Puranas. The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas. They existed in an oral form before being written down, and were incrementally modified well into the 16th century. Wendy Doniger, based on her study of indologists, assigns approximate dates to the various Puranas. She dates Markandeya Purana
Markandeya Purana
to c. 250 CE (with one portion dated to c. 550 CE), Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
to c. 250–500 CE, Vayu Purana to c. 350 CE, Harivamsa
Harivamsa
and Vishnu Purana
Vishnu Purana
to c. 450 CE, Brahmanda Purana
Brahmanda Purana
to c. 350–950 CE, Vamana Purana
Vamana Purana
to c. 450–900 CE, Kurma Purana
Kurma Purana
to c. 550–850 CE, and Linga Purana
Linga Purana
to c. 600–1000 CE. Maha Puranas, said to be eighteen in number, divided into three groups of six, though they are not always counted in the same way:-

Sattva
Sattva
("Truth") Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Naradeya Purana, Garuda Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana

Rajas
Rajas
("Passion") Brahmanda Purana, Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana, Markandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Vamana Purana, Brahma
Brahma
Purana

Tamas ("Ignorance") Matsya Purana, Kurma purana, Linga Purana, Shiva
Shiva
Purana, Skanda Purana, Agni
Agni
Purana

A 19th century manuscript of the Hindu
Hindu
text Bhagavad Gita

Post-Vedic texts[edit] The texts that appeared afterwards were called smriti. Smriti literature includes various Shastras and Itihasas
Itihasas
(epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata), Harivamsa
Harivamsa
Puranas, Agamas and Darshanas. The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is a part of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata. This scripture presents a synthesis of the concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha through jnana, bhakti, karma, Vedanta
Vedanta
and Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy.[54] The Sutras and Shastras texts were compilations of technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area. The earliest are dated to later half of the 1st millennium BCE. The Dharma-shastras (law books), derivatives of the Dharma-sutras. Other examples were bhautikashastra "physics", rasayanashastra "chemistry", jīvashastra "biology", vastushastra "architectural science", shilpashastra "science of sculpture", arthashastra "economics" and nītishastra "political science".[55] It also includes Tantras
Tantras
and Āgama (Hinduism) literature.[56] This genre of texts includes the Sutras and Shastras of the six schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[57][58] The Tevaram
Tevaram
Saivite hymns[edit] The Tevaram
Tevaram
is a body of remarkable hymns exuding Bhakti
Bhakti
composed more than 1400–1200 years ago in the classical Tamil language by three Saivite composers. They are credited with igniting the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in the whole of India. Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
Vaishnavite hymns[edit] The Nalayira Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
(or Nalayira (4000) Divya Prabhamdham) is a divine collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed before 8th century AD [1], by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The Alvars sung these songs at various sacred shrines. These shrines are known as the Divya Desams.[citation needed] In South India, especially in Tamil Nadu, the Divya Prabhandha is considered as equal to the Vedas, hence the epithet Dravida Veda. In many temples, Srirangam, for example, the chanting of the Divya Prabhandham forms a major part of the daily service. Prominent among the 4,000 verses are the 1,100+ verses known as the Thiru Vaaymozhi, composed by Nammalvar (Kaaril Maaran Sadagopan) of Thiruk Kurugoor.[citation needed] Other Hindu
Hindu
texts[edit] Ancient and medieval era Hindu
Hindu
texts for specific fields, in Sanskrit and other regional languages, have been reviewed as follows,

Field Reviewer Reference

Agriculture and food Gyula Wojtilla [59]

Architecture P Acharya, B Dagens [60][61]

Devotionalism Karen Pechelis [62]

Drama, dance and performance arts AB Keith, Rachel Baumer and James Brandon, Mohan Khokar [63][64][65]

Education, school system Hartmut Scharfe [66]

Epics John Brockington [67]

Gnomic and didactic literature Ludwik Sternbach [68]

Grammar Hartmut Scharfe [69]

Law and jurisprudence J Duncan M Derrett [70]

Lexicography Claus Vogel [71]

Mathematics and exact sciences Kim Plofker David Pingree [72][73]

Medicine MS Valiathan, Kenneth Zysk [74][75]

Music Emmie te Nijenhuis, Lewis Rowell [76][77]

Mythology Ludo Rocher [78]

Philosophy Karl Potter [79]

Poetics Edwin Gerow, Siegfried Lienhard [80]

Gender and Sex Johann Jakob Meyer [81]

State craft, politics Patrick Olivelle [82]

Tantrism, Agamas Teun Goudriaan [83]

Temples, Sculpture Stella Kramrisch [84]

Scriptures ( Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads) Jan Gonda [85]

Origin of arts and sciences in India[edit] The Hindu
Hindu
scriptures provide the early documented history and origin of arts and sciences forms in India such as music, dance, sculptures, architecture, astronomy, science, mathematics, medicine and wellness. Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
(500 BCE to 100 BCE) mentions music and singing by Gandharvas, dance by Apsaras such as Urvashi, Rambha, Menaka, Tilottama
Tilottama
Panchāpsaras, and by Ravana's wives who excelling in nrityageeta or "singing and dancing" and nritavaditra or "playing musical instruments").[86] The evidence of earliest dance related texts are in Natasutras, which are mentioned in the text of Panini, the sage who wrote the classic on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar, and who is dated to about 500 BCE.[87][88] This performance arts related Sutra
Sutra
text is mentioned in other late Vedic texts, as are two scholars names Shilalin (IAST: Śilālin) and Krishashva (Kṛśaśva), credited to be pioneers in the studies of ancient drama, singing, dance and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
compositions for these arts.[87][89] Richmond et al estimate the Natasutras to have been composed around 600 BCE, whose complete manuscript has not survived into the modern age.[88][87] See also[edit]

Hindu
Hindu
Epics List of Hindu
Hindu
scriptures List of historic Indian texts List of sutras Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature Prasthanatrayi

Notes[edit]

^ These include rebirth, karma, moksha, ascetic techniques and renunciation.[31]

References[edit]

^ Frazier, Jessica (2011), The Continuum companion to Hindu
Hindu
studies, London: Continuum, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pages 1–15 ^ a b c d e Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page ix-xliii ^ a b Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pages 46–52, 76–77 ^ RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0-679-41078-2, pages 1–11 and Preface ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shruti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 645 ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 656–657 ^ a b Ramdas Lamb (2002). Rapt in the Name: The Ramnamis, Ramnam, and Untouchable Religion in Central India. State University of New York Press. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-0-7914-5386-5.  ^ a b Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2–3 ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-535242-9, page 3; Quote: "Even though theoretically the whole of vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth [shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads
Upanishads
that have continued to influence the life and thought of the various religious traditions that we have come to call Hindu. Upanishads
Upanishads
are the scriptures par excellence of Hinduism". ^ a b c Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-61847-0, pages 2–3; Quote: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu
Hindu
philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus." ^ Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The idea of Hindu
Hindu
law, Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, Vol. 43, pages 103–130 ^ Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu
Hindu
Ethics: A Philosophical Study, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2085-5, pages 16–18 ^ a b Michael Witzel, " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in: Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, pages 68–71 ^ a b William Graham (1993), Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-44820-8, pages 67–77 ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Manuscripts Project, A Collection, Cambridge Digital Library, University of Cambridge ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.  ^ see e.g. MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09 ^ see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09 ^ Sanujit Ghose (2011). "Religious Developments in Ancient India" in Ancient History Encyclopedia. ^ Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, see apauruSeya ^ D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader, Columbia University Press, pages 196–197 ^ Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538496-3, page 290 ^ Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1-4094-6681-9, page 128 ^ Apte 1965, p. 887 ^ Müller 1891, pp. 17–18 ^ Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata Bruce M. Sullivan, Motilal Banarsidass, pages 85–86 ^ a b Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 35–39 ^ Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. A history of Indian literature: I.1 Vedic literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas); I.2 The Ritual Sutras. Wiesbaden 1975, 1977 ^ A Bhattacharya (2006), Hindu
Hindu
Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0-595-38455-6, pages 8–14; George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2, page 285 ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01603-2 ^ a b Olivelle 1998, p. xxiii. ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1 ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 59. ^ a b PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4, pages 35–36 ^ Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al.), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1080-6, page 39; Quote: "The Upanishads form the foundations of Hindu
Hindu
philosophical thought and the central theme of the Upanishads
Upanishads
is the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the inner self and the cosmic self."; Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1-59257-846-7, pages 208–210 ^ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8, Chapter 1 ^ E Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads, ISBN 978-1-58638-021-2, pages 298–299 ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 56. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512435-4, page 12–14 ^ King & Ācārya 1995, p. 52. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 12. ^ Varghese 2008, p. 101. ^ a b c Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, pages 437–439 ^ a b c John Cort (1993), Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts (Editor: Wendy Doniger), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1382-1, pages 185–204 ^ a b Gregory Bailey (2003), The Study of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Editor: Arvind Sharma), The University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7, page 139 ^ a b Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5, pages 1–5, 12–21 ^ Nair, Shantha N. (2008). Echoes of Ancient Indian Wisdom: The Universal Hindu
Hindu
Vision and Its Edifice. Hindology Books. p. 266. ISBN 978-81-223-1020-7.  ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature (1995 Edition), Article on Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426, page 915 ^ a b Cornelia Dimmitt (2015), Classical Hindu
Hindu
Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas, Temple University Press, ISBN 978-81-208-3972-4, page xii, 4 ^ Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, page 503 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5, pages 12–13, 134–156, 203–210 ^ Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page xli ^ Thompson, Richard L. (2007). The Cosmology
Cosmology
of the Bhagavata Purana 'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-208-1919-1.  ^ Bhagavad Gita, Encyclopedia Britannica ^ Jan Gonda (1970 through 1987), A History of Indian Literature, Volumes 1 to 7, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02676-5 ^ Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta (1981), Hindu
Hindu
Tantric and Śākta Literature, A History of Indian Literature, Volume 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02091-6, pages 7–14 ^ Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7, pages 2–5 ^ Karl Potter (1991), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0779-2 ^ Gyula Wojtilla (2006), History of Kr̥ṣiśāstra, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-05306-8 ^ PK Acharya (1946), An Encyclopedia of Hindu
Hindu
Architecture, Oxford University Press, Also see Volumes 1 to 6 ^ Bruno Dagens (1995), MAYAMATA : An Indian Treatise on Housing Architecture and Iconography, ISBN 978-81-208-3525-2 ^ Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3 ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Drama, Oxford University Press ^ Rachel Baumer and James Brandon (1993), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Drama in Performance, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0772-3 ^ Mohan Khokar (1981), Traditions of Indian Classical Dance, Peter Owen Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7206-0574-7 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), Education in Ancient India, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-12556-8 ^ John Brockington (1998), The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Epics, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-10260-6 ^ Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhāṣita: Gnomic and Didactic Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01546-2 ^ Hartmut Scharfe, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8 ^ J Duncan M Derrett (1978), Dharmasastra and Juridical Literature: A history of Indian literature (Editor: Jan Gonda), Vol. 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01519-5 ^ Claus Vogel, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8 ^ Kim Plofker (2009), Mathematics in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12067-6 ^ David Pingree, A Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit, Volumes 1 to 5, American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-0-87169-213-9 ^ MS Valiathan, The Legacy of Caraka, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-2505-4 ^ Kenneth Zysk, Medicine in the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1401-1 ^ Emmie te Nijenhuis, Musicological literature (A History of Indian literature ; v. 6 : Scientific and technical literature ; Fasc. 1), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01831-9 ^ Lewis Rowell, Music and Musical Thought in Early India, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-73033-6 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5 ^ Karl Potter, The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volumes 1 through 27, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4 ^ Edwin Gerow, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8 ^ JJ Meyer, Sexual Life in Ancient India, Vol 1 and 2, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-1-4826-1588-3 ^ Patrick Olivelle, King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-989182-5 ^ Teun Goudriaan, Hindu
Hindu
Tantric and Śākta Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-02091-1 ^ Stella Kramrisch, Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol. 1 and 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3 ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic literature (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01603-5 ^ Ananda W. P. Guruge, 1991, The Society of the Ramayana, Page 180-200. ^ a b c Natalia Lidova (1994). Drama and Ritual of Early Hinduism. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 111–113. ISBN 978-81-208-1234-5.  ^ a b Farley P. Richmond, Darius L. Swann & Phillip B. Zarrilli 1993, p. 30. ^ Tarla Mehta 1995, pp. xxiv, xxxi–xxxii, 17.

Bibliography[edit]

Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.  Deussen, Paul; Bedekar, V.M. (tr.); Palsule (tr.), G.B. (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 2. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.  King, Richard; Ācārya, Gauḍapāda (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: the Mahāyāna context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2513-8  Collins, Randall (2000). The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00187-7.  Mahadevan, T. M. P (1956), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, ed., History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, George Allen & Unwin Ltd  MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (2004). A Practical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-2000-5.  Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507045-3.  Olivelle, Patrick (1998), Upaniṣads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5  Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, C. A. (1957). A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01958-1.  Ranade, R. D. (1926), A constructive survey of Upanishadic philosophy, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan  Varghese, Alexander P (2008), India : History, Religion, Vision And Contribution To The World, Volume 1, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 978-81-269-0903-2 

Further reading[edit]

R.C. Zaehner (1992), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0-679-41078-2 Dominic Goodall, Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3 Jessica Frazier (2014), The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu
Hindu
studies, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1-4725-1151-5

External links[edit] Manuscripts collections (incomplete)

A handlist of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Manuscripts held by the Wellcome Library, Volume 1, Compiled by Dominik Wujastyk (Includes subjects such as historic Dictionaries, Drama, Erotics, Ethics, Logic, Poetics, Medicine, Philosophy, etc) A handlist of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Manuscripts held by the Wellcome Library, Volume 2, Compiled by Dominik Wujastyk (Includes subjects such as historic Dictionaries, Drama, Erotics, Ethics, Logic, Poetics, Medicine, Philosophy, etc; for complete 6 set collection see ISBN 0-85484-049-4) Clay Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Library publishes Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature with downloadable materials.

Online resources:

Sacred-Texts: Hinduism Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Documents Collection: Documents in ITX format of Upanishads, Stotras
Stotras
etc. GRETIL: Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages, a cumulative register of the numerous download sites for electronic texts in Indian languages.

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

.