The HINDU–ARABIC NUMERAL SYSTEM (also called the ARABIC NUMERAL
SYSTEM or HINDU NUMERAL SYSTEM) a positional decimal numeral system ,
is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers
in the world. It was invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by
Indian mathematicians . The system was adopted in
Arabic
Arabic mathematics
by the 9th century. Influential were the books of Muḥammad ibn
Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (On the Calculation with
Hindu
Hindu Numerals,
c.825) and
Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi (On the Use of the
Hindu
Hindu Numerals, c.830). The
system later spread to medieval
Europe
Europe by the
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages .
The system is based upon ten (originally nine) different glyphs . The
symbols (glyphs) used to represent the system are in principle
independent of the system itself. The glyphs in actual use are
descended from
Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals and have split into various
typographical variants since the
Middle Ages
Middle Ages .
These symbol sets can be divided into three main families: Arabic
numerals used in the
Greater Maghreb and in
Europe
Europe , Eastern Arabic
numerals (also called "Indic numerals") used in the
Middle East
Middle East , and
the
Indian numerals used in the
Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent .
This numerical system is still used worldwide today.
CONTENTS
* 1 Etymology
* 2
Positional notation
Positional notation
* 3 Symbols
* 3.1
Glyph comparison
* 4 History
* 4.1 Predecessors
* 4.2 Possible Chinese origin
* 4.3 Development
* 4.4 Adoption in
Europe
Europe
* 4.5 Adoption in
East Asia
East Asia
* 4.6 Spread of the Western
Arabic
Arabic variant
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 Bibliography
ETYMOLOGY
The Hindu-
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals were invented by mathematicians in India.
Perso-
Arabic
Arabic mathematicians called them "
Hindu
Hindu numerals" (where "Hindu
" meant Indian). Later they came to be called "
Arabic
Arabic numerals" in
Europe, because they were introduced to the West by Arab merchants.
POSITIONAL NOTATION
Main articles:
Positional notation
Positional notation and
0 (number)
0 (number)
The Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic system is designed for positional notation in a
decimal system. In a more developed form, positional notation also
uses a decimal marker (at first a mark over the ones digit but now
more usually a decimal point or a decimal comma which separates the
ones place from the tenths place), and also a symbol for "these digits
recur ad infinitum ". In modern usage, this latter symbol is usually a
vinculum (a horizontal line placed over the repeating digits). In this
more developed form, the numeral system can symbolize any rational
number using only 13 symbols (the ten digits, decimal marker,
vinculum, and a prepended dash to indicate a negative number ).
Although generally found in text written with the
Arabic
Arabic abjad
("alphabet"), numbers written with these numerals also place the
most-significant digit to the left, so they read from left to right.
The requisite changes in reading direction are found in text that
mixes left-to-right writing systems with right-to-left systems.
SYMBOLS
Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the
Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic numeral system, most of which developed from the Brahmi
numerals .
The symbols used to represent the system have split into various
typographical variants since the
Middle Ages
Middle Ages , arranged in three main
groups:
* The widespread Western "
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals " used with the Latin ,
Cyrillic , and Greek alphabets in the table, descended from the "West
Arabic
Arabic numerals" which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb
(there are two typographic styles for rendering western Arabic
numerals, known as lining figures and text figures ).
* The "Arabic–Indic" or "Eastern
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals " used with
Arabic
Arabic script, developed primarily in what is now
Iraq
Iraq . A variant of
the Eastern
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals is used in Persian and Urdu.
* The
Indian numerals in use with scripts of the
Brahmic family
Brahmic family in
India and Southeast Asia. Each of the roughly dozen major scripts of
India has its own numeral glyphs (as one will note when perusing
Unicode character charts).
GLYPH COMPARISON
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Script
See
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Latin script
Latin script
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
〇/零
一
二
三
四
五
六
七
八
九
East Asia
East Asia
Chinese numerals ,
Japanese numerals ,
Korean numerals
ο/ō
Αʹ
Βʹ
Γʹ
Δʹ
Εʹ
Ϛʹ
Ζʹ
Ηʹ
Θʹ
Modern Greek
Greek numerals
Greek numerals
א
ב
ג
ד
ה
ו
ז
ח
ט
Hebrew
Hebrew
Hebrew numerals
Hebrew numerals
०
१
२
३
४
५
६
७
८
९
Devanagari
Devanagari
Indian numerals
૦
૧
૨
૩
૪
૫
૬
૭
૮
૯
Gujarati
੦
੧
੨
੩
੪
੫
੬
੭
੮
੯
Gurmukhi
༠
༡
༢
༣
༤
༥
༦
༧
༨
༩
Tibetan
০
১
২
৩
৪
৫
৬
৭
৮
৯
Assamese / Bengali / Sylheti
Bengali-Assamese numerals
೦
೧
೨
೩
೪
೫
೬
೭
೮
೯
Kannada
Kannada
୦
୧
୨
୩
୪
୫
୬
୭
୮
୯
Odia
൦
൧
൨
൩
൪
൫
൬
൭
൮
൯
Malayalam
Malayalam
௦
௧
௨
௩
௪
௫
௬
௭
௮
௯
Tamil
Tamil numerals
0
౧
౨
౩
౪
౫
౬
౭
౮
౯
Telugu
០
១
២
៣
៤
៥
៦
៧
៨
៩
Khmer
Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals
๐
๑
๒
๓
๔
๕
๖
๗
๘
๙
Thai
Thai numerals
໐
໑
໒
໓
໔
໕
໖
໗
໘
໙
Lao
၀
၁
၂
၃
၄
၅
၆
၇
၈
၉
Burmese
٠
١
٢
٣
٤
٥
٦
٧
٨
٩
Arabic
Arabic
Eastern
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
۰
۱
۲
۳
۴
۵
۶
۷
۸
۹
Persian (Farsi) / Dari /
Pashto
Pashto
Urdu /
Shahmukhi
As in many numbering systems, the numbers 1, 2, and 3 represent
simple tally marks ; 1 being a single line, 2 being two lines (now
connected by a diagonal) and 3 being three lines (now connected by two
vertical lines). After three, numbers tend to become more complex
symbols (examples are the
Chinese numerals and
Roman numerals
Roman numerals ).
Theorists believe that this is because it becomes difficult to
instantaneously count objects past three .
HISTORY
Main article: History of the Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic numeral system
Despite being described as the "Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic numeral system", the
corpus incorporates elements from earlier: Egyptian (decimal system
with a glyph for Zero), Babylonian (Positional notation), Hellenistic
(ο/ō glyphs for Zero), and Chinese (notation for fractions) works;
in addition to a mathematical methodology developed by Indian
mathematicians, and in use extensively throughout India, before being
adopted by Perso-
Arabic
Arabic mathematicians in
Baghdad
Baghdad .
PREDECESSORS
The
Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals at the basis of the system predate the Common Era
. They replaced the earlier
Kharosthi numerals used since the 4th
century BC. Brahmi and
Kharosthi numerals were used alongside one
another in the
Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire period, both appearing on the 3rd century
BC edicts of Ashoka .
Buddhist
Buddhist inscriptions from around 300 BC use the symbols that became
1, 4 and 6. One century later, their use of the symbols that became 2,
4, 6, 7 and 9 was recorded. These
Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals are the ancestors of
the Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic glyphs 1 to 9, but they were not used as a
positional system with a zero , and there were rather separate
numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.).
The actual numeral system, including positional notation and use of
zero, is in principle independent of the glyphs used, and
significantly younger than the Brahmi numerals.
POSSIBLE CHINESE ORIGIN
5625 243 = 23 36 243 {displaystyle {tfrac
{5625}{243}}=23{tfrac {36}{243}}}
10th century
Kushyar ibn Labban division Sunzi division algorithm
of 400AD
6561 9 = 729 {displaystyle {tfrac {6561}{9}}=729}
46468 324 = 143 136 324 {displaystyle {tfrac
{46468}{324}}=143{tfrac {136}{324}}}
Khwarizmi division of 825AD, completely identical to Sun Zi division
algorithm
Singaporean historian of mathematics
Lam Lay Yong (National
University of Singapore) claims that the computation in Kitab al-Fusul
fi al-Hisab al Hindi (925) by al-Uqlidisi, and another Latin
translation of the Arab manuscript written by the Persian
mathematician
Khwarizmi (825), are completely identical to algorithms
for square root extraction, addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division in the rod calculus described in
Sunzi Suanjing , which
was written five centuries earlier. Yong claims that these methods are
too identical to be explained by independent development, and promotes
a theory of Chinese origin of the Hindu-
Arabic
Arabic numerals.
DEVELOPMENT
The "Galley " method of division.
The place-value system is used in the
Bakhshali Manuscript . Although
date of the composition of the manuscript is uncertain, the language
used in the manuscript indicates that it could not have been composed
any later than 400. The development of the positional decimal system
takes its origins in
Hindu
Hindu mathematics during the
Gupta period .
Around 500, the astronomer
Aryabhata
Aryabhata uses the word kha ("emptiness")
to mark "zero" in tabular arrangements of digits. The 7th century
Brahmasphuta Siddhanta contains a comparatively advanced understanding
of the mathematical role of zero . The Sanskrit translation of the
lost 5th century Prakrit Jaina cosmological text
Lokavibhaga may
preserve an early instance of positional use of zero.
These Indian developments were taken up in
Islamic mathematics in the
8th century, as recorded in al-Qifti 's Chronology of the scholars
(early 13th century).
The numeral system came to be known to both the Perso-Arabic
mathematician
Khwarizmi , who wrote a book, On the Calculation with
Hindu
Hindu Numerals in about 825, and the Arab mathematician
Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi , who
wrote four volumes, On the Use of the
Hindu
Hindu Numerals (كتاب في
استعمال العداد الهندي ) around 830. These earlier
texts did not use the
Hindu
Hindu numerals.
Kushyar ibn Labban who wrote
Kitab fi usul hisab al-hind (Principles of
Hindu
Hindu Reckoning ) is one of
the oldest surviving manuscripts using the
Hindu
Hindu numerals. These
books are principally responsible for the diffusion of the Hindu
system of numeration throughout the
Islamic world
Islamic world and ultimately also
to Europe.
The first dated and undisputed inscription showing the use of a
symbol for zero appears on a stone inscription found at the
Chaturbhuja Temple at
Gwalior
Gwalior in India, dated 876.
In 10th century
Islamic mathematics , the system was extended to
include fractions , as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician
Abu\'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952–953.
ADOPTION IN EUROPE
The bottom row shows the numeral glyphs as they appear in type
in German incunabula (Nicolaus Kesler,
Basel
Basel , 1486) Main article:
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
In Christian Europe, the first mention and representation of
Hindu-
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals (from one to nine, without zero), is in the
Codex Vigilanus
Codex Vigilanus , an illuminated compilation of various historical
documents from the Visigothic period in Spain , written in the year
976 by three monks of the Riojan monastery of
San Martín de Albelda .
Between 967 and 969, Gerbert of Aurillac discovered and studied Arab
science in the Catalan abbeys. Later he obtained from these places the
book De multiplicatione et divisione (On multiplication and division).
After becoming
Pope Sylvester II in the year 999, he introduced a new
model of abacus , the so-called
Abacus of Gerbert , by adopting tokens
representing Hindu-Arab numerals, from one to nine.
Leonardo
Fibonacci
Fibonacci brought this system to Europe. His book Liber
Abaci introduced
Arabic
Arabic numerals, the use of zero, and the decimal
place system to the Latin world. The numeral system came to be called
"Arabic" by the Europeans. It was used in European mathematics from
the 12th century, and entered common use from the 15th century to
replace
Roman numerals
Roman numerals .
Robert of Chester translated the Latin into
English.
The familiar shape of the Western
Arabic
Arabic glyphs as now used with the
Latin alphabet (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are the product of the
late 15th to early 16th century, when they enter early typesetting .
Muslim scientists used the Babylonian numeral system , and merchants
used the
Abjad numerals , a system similar to the Greek numeral system
and the
Hebrew
Hebrew numeral system . Similarly, Fibonacci's introduction of
the system to
Europe
Europe was restricted to learned circles. The credit for
first establishing widespread understanding and usage of the decimal
positional notation among the general population goes to
Adam Ries ,
an author of the
German Renaissance
German Renaissance , whose 1522 Rechenung auff der
linihen und federn was targeted at the apprentices of businessmen and
craftsmen.
*
Gregor Reisch , Madame Arithmatica, 1508
*
A calculation table (de), used for arithmetic using
Roman numerals
Roman numerals
*
Adam Ries , Rechenung auff der linihen und federn, 1522
*
Two arithmetic books published in 1514—Köbel (left) using a
calculation table and Böschenteyn using numerals
*
Adam Ries , Rechenung auff der linihen und federn (2nd Ed.), 1525
*
Robert Recorde , The ground of artes, 1543
*
Peter Apian , Kaufmanns Rechnung, 1527
*
Adam Ries , Rechenung auff der linihen und federn (2nd Ed.), 1525
ADOPTION IN EAST ASIA
In AD
690 , Empress Wu promulgated Zetian characters , one of which
was "〇". The word is now used as a synonym for the number zero.
In
China
China ,
Gautama Siddha introduced
Hindu
Hindu numerals with zero in 718,
but Chinese mathematicians did not find them useful, as they had
already had the decimal positional counting rods .
In Chinese numerals, a circle (〇) is used to write zero in Suzhou
numerals . Many historians think it was imported from Indian numerals
by
Gautama Siddha in 718, but some Chinese scholars think it was
created from the Chinese text space filler "□".
Chinese and Japanese finally adopted the Hindu–
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals in
the 19th century, abandoning counting rods.
SPREAD OF THE WESTERN ARABIC VARIANT
An Arab telephone keypad with both the Western "
Arabic
Arabic numerals"
and the
Arabic
Arabic "Arabic–Indic numerals" variants.
The "Western Arabic" numerals as they were in common use in Europe
since the
Baroque
Baroque period have secondarily found worldwide use together
with the
Latin alphabet , and even significantly beyond the
contemporary spread of the
Latin alphabet , intruding into the writing
systems in regions where other variants of the Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic numerals
had been in use, but also in conjunction with Chinese and Japanese
writing (see
Chinese numerals ,
Japanese numerals ).
SEE ALSO
*
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
*
Decimal
Decimal
*
Positional notation
Positional notation
*
Numeral system
Numeral system
*
History of mathematics
*
0 (number)
0 (number)
NOTES
* ^
David Eugene Smith and
Louis Charles Karpinski , The
Hindu–
Arabic
Arabic Numerals, 1911
* ^ William Darrach Halsey, Emanuel Friedman (1983). Collier\'s
Encyclopedia, with bibliography and index. When the Arabian empire was
expanding and contact was made with India, the
Hindu
Hindu numeral system
and the early algorithms were adopted by the Arabs
* ^ Brezina, Corona (2006), Al-Khwarizmi: The Inventor of Algebra,
The Rosen Publishing Group, pp. 39–40, ISBN 978-1-4042-0513-0 :
"Historians have speculated on al-Khwarizmi's native language. Since
he was born in a former Persian province, he may have spoken the
Persian language. It is also possible that he spoke Khwarezmian, a
language of the region that is now extinct."
* ^ Rowlett, Russ (2004-07-04), Roman and "Arabic" Numerals,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , retrieved 2009-06-22
* ^ Language may shape human thought, New Scientist, news service,
Celeste Biever, 19:00 19 August 2004.
* ^ Flegg (2002), p. 6ff.
* ^
Lam Lay Yong : "The Development of Hindu-
Arabic
Arabic and Traditional
Chinese Arithmetic", Chinese Science 13 (1996) p45 diagram i to viii
* ^ Lam Lay Yong, "The Development of Hindu-
Arabic
Arabic and Traditional
Chinese Arithmetic", Chinese Science, 1996 p38, Kurt Vogel notation
* ^ Lam Lay Yong, Fleeting Footsteps ISBN 981-02-3696-4
* ^ Lam Lay Yong, An Tian Se, Fleeting Footsteps, p47
* ^ Lam Lay Yong, An Tian Se, Fleeting Footsteps, p42-44
* ^ Lam Lay Yong, An Tian Se, Fleeting Footsteps, p143
* ^ Pearce, Ian (May 2002). "The Bakhshali manuscript". The
MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Retrieved 2007-07-24.
* ^ Ifrah, G. The Universal History of Numbers: From prehistory to
the invention of the computer. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2000.
Translated from the French by David Bellos, E.F. Harding, Sophie Wood
and Ian Monk
* ^ al-Qifti 's Chronology of the scholars (early 13th century):
... a person from India presented himself before the
Caliph
Caliph al-Mansur
in the year 776 who was well versed in the siddhanta method of
calculation related to the movement of the heavenly bodies, and having
ways of calculating equations based on the half-chord calculated in
half-degrees ...
Al-Mansur ordered this book to be translated into
Arabic, and a work to be written, based on the translation, to give
the Arabs a solid base for calculating the movements of the planets
...
* ^ Martin Levey and Marvin Petruck, Principles of
Hindu
Hindu Reckoning,
translation of
Kushyar ibn Labban Kitab fi usul hisab al-hind, p3,
University of Wisconsin Press, 1965
* ^ Bill Casselman (February 2007). "All for Nought". Feature
Column. AMS.
* ^ Berggren, J. Lennart (2007). "Mathematics in Medieval Islam".
The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A
Sourcebook. Princeton University Press. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-691-11485-9
.
* ^ A B Qian, Baocong (1964), Zhongguo Shuxue Shi (The history of
Chinese mathematics), Beijing: Kexue Chubanshe
* ^ Wáng, Qīngxiáng (1999), Sangi o koeta otoko (The man who
exceeded counting rods), Tokyo: Tōyō Shoten, ISBN 4-88595-226-3
REFERENCES
* Flegg, Graham (2002). Numbers: Their History and Meaning. Courier
Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42165-1 .
* The
Arabic
Arabic numeral system – MacTutor History of Mathematics
BIBLIOGRAPHY
* Menninger, Karl W. (1969). Number Words and Number Symbols: A
Cultural History of Numbers. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13040-8 .
* On the genealogy of modern numerals by Edward Clive Bayley
* v
* t
* e
Types of writing systems
OVERVIEW
*
History of writing
*
Grapheme
LISTS
* Writing systems
* undeciphered
* inventors
* constructed
* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts
TYPES
ABJADS
* Numerals
* Aramaic
* Hatran
*
Arabic
Arabic
*
Pitman shorthand
*
Hebrew
Hebrew
* Ashuri
* Cursive
* Rashi
*
Solitreo
*
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Manichaean
* Nabataean
* Old North Arabian
* Pahlavi
* Pegon
* Phoenician
* Paleo-
Hebrew
Hebrew
* Proto-Sinaitic
* Psalter
* Punic
* Samaritan
* South Arabian
* Zabur
* Musnad
* Sogdian
* Syriac
* ʾEsṭrangēlā
* Serṭā
* Maḏnḥāyā
*
Teeline Shorthand
* Ugaritic
ABUGIDAS
BRAHMIC
NORTHERN
* Asamiya (Ôxômiya)
* Bānglā
* Bhaikshuki
* Bhujinmol
* Brāhmī
* Devanāgarī
* Dogra
* Gujarati
* Gupta
* Gurmukhī
*
Kaithi
* Kalinga
*
Khojki
* Khotanese
* Khudawadi
* Laṇḍā
* Lepcha
* Limbu
*
Mahajani
* Marchen
* Marchung
* Meitei Mayek
* Modi
* Multani
* Nāgarī
*
Nandinagari
* Odia
* \'Phags-pa
* Newar
* Pungs-chen
* Pungs-chung
* Ranjana
* Sharada
* Saurashtra
* Siddhaṃ
* Soyombo
*
Sylheti Nagari
* Takri
* Tibetan
* Uchen
* Umê
*
Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian
* Zanabazar Square
SOUTHERN
* Ahom
* Balinese
* Batak
*
Baybayin
* Bhattiprolu
* Buhid
* Burmese
* Chakma
* Cham
* Grantha
*
Goykanadi
* Hanunó\'o
* Javanese
* Kadamba
*
Kannada
Kannada
* Kawi
* Khmer
* Kulitan
* Lanna
* Lao
* Leke
* Lontara
*
Malayalam
Malayalam
* Maldivian
*
Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
*
Eveyla Akuru
*
Thaana
* Mon
* Old Sundanese
* Pallava
* Pyu
* Rejang
* Rencong
* Sinhala
* Sundanese
* Tagbanwa
* Tai Le
* Tai Tham
* Tai Viet
* Tamil
* Telugu
* Thai
* Tigalari
* Vatteluttu
*
Kolezhuthu
*
Malayanma
* Visayan
OTHERS
* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand
* Canadian syllabics
* Blackfoot
*
Déné syllabics
* Fox I
* Ge\'ez
* Gunjala Gondi
*
Japanese Braille
* Jenticha
* Kayah Li
*
Kharosthi
* Mandombe
* Masaram Gondi
* Meroitic
* Miao
* Mwangwego
* Sorang Sompeng
*
Pahawh Hmong
*
Thomas Natural Shorthand
ALPHABETS
LINEAR
* Abkhaz
* Adlam
* Armenian
* Avestan
*
Avoiuli
* Bassa Vah
* Borama
* Carian
* Caucasian Albanian
*
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic
* Cyrillic
* Deseret
*
Duployan shorthand
* Chinook writing
* Early Cyrillic
*
Eclectic shorthand
* Elbasan
* Etruscan
* Evenki
* Fox II
* Fraser
*
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay
* Georgian
*
Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
*
Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
*
Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
* Glagolitic
* Gothic
*
Gregg shorthand
* Greek
*
Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
*
Hangul
Hangul
* IPA
* Kaddare
* Latin
* Beneventan
*
Blackletter
*
Carolingian minuscule
*
Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic
* Insular
*
Kurrent
* Merovingian
* Sigla
*
Sütterlin
*
Tironian notes
* Visigothic
* Luo
* Lycian
* Lydian
* Manchu
* Mandaic
* Molodtsov
* Mongolian
* Mru
* Neo-
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* New Tai Lue
* N\'Ko
*
Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat
* Ol Chiki
* Old Hungarian
* Old Italic
* Old Permic
* Orkhon
* Old Uyghur
* Osage
* Osmanya
* Pau Cin Hau
* Rohingya Hanifi
* Runic
* Anglo-Saxon
* Cipher
* Dalecarlian
*
Elder Futhark
*
Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
* Gothic
* Marcomannic
* Medieval
* Staveless
* Sidetic
* Shavian
* Somali
*
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Vagindra
*
Visible Speech
Visible Speech
* Vithkuqi
* Zaghawa
NON-LINEAR
*
Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags
*
Morse code
*
New York Point
*
Semaphore line
*
Flag semaphore
*
Moon type
IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS
* Adinkra
* Aztec
* Blissymbol
* Dongba
* Ersu Shaba
*
Emoji
*
IConji
* Isotype
* Kaidā
* Míkmaq
* Mixtec
*
New Epoch Notation Painting
*
Nsibidi
Nsibidi
* Ojibwe Hieroglyphs
*
Siglas poveiras
*
Testerian
*
Yerkish
* Zapotec
LOGOGRAMS
CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS
CHINESE CHARACTERS
* Simplified
* Traditional
*
Oracle bone script
* Bronze Script
* Seal Script
* large
* small
* bird-worm
*
Hanja
Hanja
* Idu
*
Kanji
Kanji
* Chữ nôm
* Zhuang
CHINESE-INFLUENCED
* Jurchen
*
Khitan large script
* Sui
* Tangut
CUNEIFORM
* Akkadian
* Assyrian
* Elamite
* Hittite
* Luwian
* Sumerian
OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC
* Anatolian
* Bagam
* Cretan
* Isthmian
* Maya
* Proto-Elamite
* Yi (Classical)
LOGO-CONSONANTAL
* Demotic
*
Hieratic
Hieratic
* Hieroglyphs
NUMERALS
* Hindu-Arabic
*
Abjad
* Attic (Greek)
* Muisca
* Roman
SEMI-SYLLABARIES
FULL
* Celtiberian
* Northeastern Iberian
* Southeastern Iberian
* Khom
REDUNDANT
* Espanca
*
Pahawh Hmong
*
Khitan small script
* Southwest Paleohispanic
* Zhùyīn fúhào
SOMACHEIROGRAMS
*
ASLwrite
*
SignWriting
* si5s
* Stokoe Notation
SYLLABARIES
* Afaka
* Bamum
* Bété
* Byblos
* Cherokee
* Cypriot
* Cypro-Minoan
* Eskayan
* Geba
*
Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics
* Iban
* Japanese
*
Hiragana
Hiragana
*
Katakana
Katakana
* Man\'yōgana
*
Hentaigana
*
Sogana
*
Jindai moji
* Kikakui
* Kpelle
*
Linear B
Linear B
*
Linear Elamite
Linear Elamite
* Lisu
* Loma
* Nüshu
*
Nwagu Aneke script
* Old Persian
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
* Vai
* Woleai
* Yi (Modern)
* Yugtun
* v
* t
* e
Braille
Braille ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑
BRAILLE CELL
*
1829 braille
1829 braille
* International uniformity
* ASCII braille
* Unicode braille patterns
BRAILLE SCRIPTS
French-ordered scripts
(see for more)
* Albanian
* Amharic
*
Arabic
Arabic
* Armenian
* Azerbaijani
* Belarusian
* Bharati
*
Devanagari
Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali)
* Bengali
* Punjabi
* Sinhalese
* Tamil
* Urdu
* etc.
* Bulgarian
* Burmese
* Cambodian
* Cantonese
* Catalan
* Chinese (Mandarin, mainland)
* Czech
* Dutch
* Dzongkha (Bhutanese)
* English (Unified English )
* Esperanto
* Estonian
* Faroese
* French
* Georgian
* German
* Ghanaian
* Greek
* Guarani
* Hawaiian
*
Hebrew
Hebrew
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Inuktitut (reassigned vowels)
* Iñupiaq
* IPA
* Irish
* Italian
* Kazakh
* Kyrgyz
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Maltese
* Mongolian
* Māori
* Nigerian
* Northern Sami
* Persian
* Philippine
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Samoan
* Scandinavian
* Slovak
* South African
* Spanish
* Tatar
* Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned)
* Thai
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* Algerian
Braille
Braille (obsolete)
FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS
* American
Braille
Braille (obsolete)
INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS
* Japanese
* Korean
* Two-Cell Chinese
EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS
* Luxembourgish
*
Kanji
Kanji
*
Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)
SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE
*
Braille
Braille music
* Canadian currency marks
* Computer
Braille
Braille Code
*
Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6)
* International Phonetic
Alphabet
Alphabet (IPA)
* Nemeth braille code
BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY
*
Braille
Braille e-book
*
Braille
Braille embosser
*
Braille
Braille translator
*
Braille
Braille watch
*
Mountbatten Brailler
Mountbatten Brailler
*
Optical braille recognition
*
Perforation
*
Perkins Brailler
*
Refreshable braille display
Refreshable braille display
*
Slate and stylus
Slate and stylus
*
Braigo
PERSONS
* Louis
Braille
Braille
*
Charles Barbier
*
Valentin Haüy
*
Thakur Vishva Narain Singh
*
Sabriye Tenberken
*
William Bell Wait
ORGANISATIONS
*
Braille
Braille Institute of America
*
Braille
Braille Without Borders
*
Japan
Japan
Braille
Braille Library
* National
Braille
Braille Association
* Blindness organizations
* Schools for the blind
*
American Printing House for the Blind
OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS
*
Decapoint
*
Moon type
*
New York Point
*
Night writing
*
Vibratese
RELATED TOPICS
*
Accessible publishing
*
Braille
Braille literacy
* Ro