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Dipodomyinae Heteromyinae Perognathinae

Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
is a family of rodents consisting of kangaroo rats, kangaroo mice, pocket mice and spiny pocket mice. Most heteromyids live in complex burrows within the deserts and grasslands of western North America, though species within the genus Heteromys
Heteromys
are also found in forests and their range extends down as far as northern South America. They feed mostly on seeds and other plant parts, which they carry in their fur-lined cheek pouches[1] to their burrows.[2] Although they are very different in physical appearance, the closest relatives of the heteromyids are pocket gophers in the family Geomyidae.

Contents

1 Description 2 Distribution 3 Behaviour 4 Ecology 5 Taxonomy 6 References

Description[edit] There are about fifty-nine members of the family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
divided among six genera. They are all small rodents, the largest being the giant kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ingens) with a body length of 15 cm (6 in) and a tail a little longer than this.[3] In many species the tail is tufted and is mainly used for balance. Other adaptations include partially fused vertebrae in the neck, short fore limbs and much enlarged bullae (bubble-shaped bones in the skull). The skulls vary widely across the group but they are all thin and papery and do not have the robust cranial crests and ridges found on the skulls of members of the family Geomyidae. The skull has other peculiarities. There is an extra hole that penetrates the rostrum, distinctive occluded teeth and the masseter muscle, which moves the lower jaw, is set far forward on the snout, an arrangement found in squirrels, beavers, pocket gophers, heteromyids and a few other groups. The dental formula is 1.0.1.31.0.1.3 × 2 = 20 teeth in total. In the kangaroo rats, the teeth continue to grow all the time, being worn away as the animal chews. The molars have two-lobed cusps.[4] The upper incisors are grooved and the enamel on the molars is quickly worn away by chewing leaving the dentine exposed. In the kangaroo rats they are unrooted but in the pocket mice they have roots.[5] Fur-lined cheek pouches are a feature across the family Heteromyidae. They have openings near the mouth and extend backwards along the sides of the neck. The fur on the animal's body is in general short and fine and often matches in colour the soil of the region in which the animal lives, being some shade of buff, pale brown, reddish-brown or grey. The spiny pocket mice have coarser fur and spiky bristles on the back near the tail.[4] Distribution[edit] Heteromyids are endemic to the western United States, Mexico, Central America and northwestern South America. They are creatures of open country, mostly specialising in prairies, arid lands and desert fringes, but the spiny pocket mice are found in both wet and dry tropical forests in Central and northwestern South America. During the Oligocene, the extent of arid lands across the United States was greater than it is today and these animals occurred more widely. Fossils of kangaroo rats are known from the Pliocene.[4] Behaviour[edit] The kangaroo rats, kangaroo mice and pocket mice are adapted for life in deserts and other arid environments where they largely feed on dry seeds. Kangaroo rats have no need to drink because they are able to extract sufficient water from metabolising their food, obtaining half a gram of water from each gram of seeds eaten.[4][6] They carry most of the seeds they find back to their burrows in exterior cheek folds lined with fur rather than in cheek pouches inside the mouth as do hamsters. This is because carrying the food in the mouth would involve wetting it and moisture needs to be conserved as much as possible in dry environments. Most species store the seeds they gather in special chambers in the burrow where they absorb moisture from the humid air. Others, such as Merriam's kangaroo rat, bury them in shallow caches in the open air.[6] It has been found that there is little hoarding done in the winter but that food is most commonly stored in the autumn and spring. Heteromyds use sight and olfactory clues to locate possible food and then use their fore-feet to manipulate objects. Kangaroo mice
Kangaroo mice
make greater use of clumped food where wind or water has concentrated seeds in shallow depressions or around rocks while pocket mice hunt around under vegetation or debris for individual food items. It has been found that pocket mice forage more efficiently than kangaroo rats and this is thought to be due to the fact that they handle their finds more and are better able to distinguish between food and non-food items.[7] These animals excavate long burrow systems with passages, chambers and multiple entrances. They are largely nocturnal, feeding and moving about at night and resting deep in their burrows during the day. Here it is cooler and more humid which conserves moisture and the animals may temporarily block the entrances to augment this. They are able to concentrate their urine to a viscous consistency which further reduces water loss. Under extreme conditions, some are able to aestivate in chambers under ground.[6] Kangaroo rats have large hind feet with long metatarsals and no first digits. With these they bound around not using their fore feet at all for locomotion. Pocket mice
Pocket mice
are smaller and can also move with leaps but they normally run around on four limbs. Members of the genus Heteromys, the spiny pocket mice, move around on all fours and do not leap at all.[4] Ecology[edit] Kangaroo rats and pocket mice form a part of the diet of many predatory creatures. They are eaten by foxes, coyotes, snakes and birds. They have acute hearing and can detect the approaching swoop of an owl or the movements of a snake. Many can leap to avoid the predators as they seek the safety of their underground burrows. The largest kangaroo rats can leap 2.75 metres (9 ft) in a single bound.[6] In the Sonoran Desert
Desert
there are many closely related species of heteromyid mice and rats. Each has its own niche in the environment which means that they do not unnecessarily compete with each other for the limited available resources. Bailey’s pocket mouse climbs into plants and bushes in order to find seeds and berries still attached to the plant. It is the only species able to eat the wax found inside the seeds of the jojoba plant.[8] Merriam's kangaroo rat
Merriam's kangaroo rat
primarily moves rapidly from one bush to another gathering seed but overlooking anything lying on the desert floor. The desert pocket mouse forages across the open desert floor and gathers seeds that have fallen to the ground.[6] Taxonomy[edit]

Family Heteromyidae

Subfamily Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
— spiny pocket mice

Genus
Genus
Heteromys

Panamanian spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
adspersus Trinidad spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
anomalus Southern spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
australis Overlook spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
catopterius[9] Desmarest's spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
desmarestianus Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
gaumeri Goldman's spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
goldmani Mexican spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
irroratus Nelson's spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
nelsoni Cloud-dwelling spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
nubicolens[10] Paraguaná spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
oasicus Mountain spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
oresterus Painted spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
pictus Salvin's spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
salvini Jaliscan spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
spectabilis Ecuadoran spiny pocket mouse, Heteromys
Heteromys
teleus

Subfamily Dipodomyinae
Dipodomyinae
— kangaroo rats and mice

Genus
Genus
Dipodomys
Dipodomys
— kangaroo rats

Agile kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
agilis California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
californicus Gulf Coast kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
compactus Desert
Desert
kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
deserti Texas kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
elator San Quintin kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
gravipes Heermann's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
heermanni Giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ingens Merriam's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
merriami Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
microps Nelson's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
nelsoni Fresno kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
nitratoides Ord's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ordii Panamint kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
panamintinus Phillips's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
phillipsii Dulzura kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
simulans Banner-tailed kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
spectabilis Stephens's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
stephensi Narrow-faced kangaroo rat, Dipodomys
Dipodomys
venustus

Genus
Genus
Microdipodops
Microdipodops
— kangaroo mice

Pale kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops
Microdipodops
pallidus Dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops
Microdipodops
megacephalus

Subfamily Perognathinae
Perognathinae
— pocket mice

Genus
Genus
Perognathus

White-eared pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
alticola Arizona pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
amplus Olive-backed pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
fasciatus Plains pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
flavescens Silky pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
flavus San Joaquin pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
inornatus Little pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
longimembris Merriam's pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
merriami Great Basin pocket mouse, Perognathus
Perognathus
parvus

Genus
Genus
Chaetodipus

Little desert pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
arenarius Narrow-skulled pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
artus Bailey's pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
baileyi California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
californicus Dalquest's pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
dalquesti Chihuahuan pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
eremicus San Diego pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
fallax Long-tailed pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
formosus Goldman's pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
goldmani Hispid pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
hispidus Rock pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
intermedius Lined pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
lineatus Nelson's pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
nelsoni Desert
Desert
pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
penicillatus Sinaloan pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
pernix Baja pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
rudinoris Spiny pocket mouse, Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
spinatus

Hafner et al. (2007)[11] summarized the molecular and morphological data to date and proposed the following taxonomy:

Heteromyidae

Dipodomyinae

Dipodomys

Microdipodops

Heteromys

Perognathinae

Perognathus

Chaetodipus

Finding that the formerly recognized genus Liomys is paraphyletic, they subsumed it into Heteromys. Most authorities prior to this (Alexander and Riddle, 2005; Patton, 2005) treated Liomys as a separate genus. References[edit]

^ Morton, S. R.; Hinds, D. S.; MacMillen, R. E. (1980). "Cheek pouch capacity in heteromyid rodents". Oecologia. 46 (2): 143–146. doi:10.1007/BF00540118.  ^ Fleming, Theodore (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 632–633. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.  ^ " Giant kangaroo rat
Giant kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ingens)". ARKive. Retrieved 2013-09-15.  ^ a b c d e Myers, Phil. "Heteromyidae: kangaroo rats, pocket mice, and relatives". ADW: Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. University of Michigan: Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2013-09-15.  ^ Harris, Arthur H. (2012-11-23). "Heteromyidae—Kangaroo Rats and Pocket Mice". Pleistocene vertebrates of Arizona, New Mexico and Trans-pecos Texas. University of Texas at El Paso. Retrieved 2013-09-15.  ^ a b c d e Merlin, Pinau. "Heteromyidae: Kangaroo Rats & Pocket Mice". Arizona-Sonoro Desert
Desert
Museum. Retrieved 2013-09-15.  ^ Lawhon, Debra K.; Hafner, Mark S. (1981). "Tactile Discriminatory Ability and Foraging Strategies in Kangaroo Rats and Pocket Mice (Rodentia: Heteromyidae)". Oecologia. 50 (3): 303–309. doi:10.1007/bf00344967. JSTOR 4216466.  ^ " Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
baileyi". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2013-09-15.  ^ Anderson, R. P.; Gutiérrez, E. E (December 2009). "Taxonomy, Distribution, and Natural History of the Genus
Genus
Heteromys
Heteromys
(Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Central and Eastern Venezuela, with the Description of a New Species from the Cordillera de la Costa". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 331: 33–93. doi:10.1206/582-2.1.  ^ Anderson, R. P.; Timm, R. N. (2006). "A new montane species of spiny pocket mouse (Rodentia, Heteromyidae, Heteromys) from northwestern Costa Rica". American Museum Novitates. 3509: 1–38. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2006)3509[1:ANMSOS]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Hafner, J. C.; Light, J. E.; Hafner, D. J.; Hafner, M. S.; Reddington, E.; Rogers, D. S.; Riddle, B. R. (2007-10-18). "Basal Clades and Molecular Systematics of Heteromyid Rodents". Journal of Mammalogy. 88 (5): 1129–1145. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-413R1.1. 

Alexander, L. F.; Riddle, B. R. (2005). "Phylogenetics of the New World rodent family Heteromyidae". Journal of Mammalogy. 86 (2): 366–379. doi:10.1644/BER-120.1.  Patton, J.L. (2005). "Family Heteromyidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 844–858. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 

v t e

Extant families in order Rodentia

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha ("Squirrel-like")

Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) Gliridae (Dormice) Sciuridae (Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha ("Beaver-like")

Castoroidea Castoridae
Castoridae
(Beavers)

Geomyoidea Geomyidae
Geomyidae
(Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha ("Mouse-like")

Dipodoidea Dipodidae
Dipodidae
(Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice)

Muroidea Platacanthomyidae
Platacanthomyidae
(Oriental dormice) Spalacidae
Spalacidae
(Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae
Nesomyidae
(Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae
Cricetidae
(Hamsters and relatives) Muridae
Muridae
(House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

Anomaluridae (Anomalures) Pedetidae
Pedetidae
(Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) Diatomyidae
Diatomyidae
(Laotian rock rat) Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae (Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae (Cane rats)

Caviomorpha
Caviomorpha
(New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae
Caviidae
(Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae
Dasyproctidae
(Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae
(Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats and coypus) Octodontidae
Octodontidae
(Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae
Chinchillidae
(Chinchillas and viscachas)

v t e

Extant species of family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(subfamily Dipodomyinae)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Superfamily: Geomyoidea

Dipodomys (Kangaroo rats)

Agile kangaroo rat
Agile kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
agilis) California kangaroo rat
California kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
californicus) Gulf Coast kangaroo rat
Gulf Coast kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
compactus) Desert
Desert
kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
deserti) Texas kangaroo rat
Texas kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
elator) Big-eared kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
elephantinus) San Quintin kangaroo rat
San Quintin kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
gravipes) Heermann's kangaroo rat
Heermann's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
heermanni) Giant kangaroo rat
Giant kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ingens) San José Island kangaroo rat
San José Island kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
insularis) Margarita Island kangaroo rat
Margarita Island kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
margaritae) Merriam's kangaroo rat
Merriam's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
merriami) Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat
Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
microps) Nelson's kangaroo rat
Nelson's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
nelsoni) Fresno kangaroo rat
Fresno kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
nitratoides) Ord's kangaroo rat
Ord's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
ordii) Panamint kangaroo rat
Panamint kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
panamintinus) Phillips's kangaroo rat
Phillips's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
phillipsii) Banner-tailed kangaroo rat
Banner-tailed kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
spectabilis) Stephens's kangaroo rat
Stephens's kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
stephensi) Narrow-faced kangaroo rat
Narrow-faced kangaroo rat
( Dipodomys
Dipodomys
venustus)

Microdipodops (Kangaroo mice)

Pale kangaroo mouse
Pale kangaroo mouse
( Microdipodops
Microdipodops
pallidus) Dark kangaroo mouse
Dark kangaroo mouse
( Microdipodops
Microdipodops
megacephalus)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(subfamily Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
(Spiny pocket mice))

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Superfamily: Geomyoidea

Heteromys

Panamanian spiny pocket mouse
Panamanian spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
adspersus) Trinidad spiny pocket mouse
Trinidad spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
anomalus) Southern spiny pocket mouse
Southern spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
australis) Desmarest's spiny pocket mouse
Desmarest's spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
desmarestianus) Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse
Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
gaumeri) Goldman's spiny pocket mouse ( Heteromys
Heteromys
goldmani) Mexican spiny pocket mouse
Mexican spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
irroratus) Nelson's spiny pocket mouse
Nelson's spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
nelsoni) Heteromys
Heteromys
nubicolens Paraguaná spiny pocket mouse
Paraguaná spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
oasicus) Mountain spiny pocket mouse
Mountain spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
oresterus) Painted spiny pocket mouse
Painted spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
pictus) Salvin's spiny pocket mouse
Salvin's spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
salvini) Jaliscan spiny pocket mouse
Jaliscan spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
spectabilis) Ecuadoran spiny pocket mouse
Ecuadoran spiny pocket mouse
( Heteromys
Heteromys
teleus)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(subfamily Perognathinae
Perognathinae
(Pocket mice))

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Superfamily: Geomyoidea

Chaetodipus

Little desert pocket mouse
Little desert pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
arenarius) Narrow-skulled pocket mouse
Narrow-skulled pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
artus) Bailey's pocket mouse
Bailey's pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
baileyi) California pocket mouse
California pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
californicus) Dalquest's pocket mouse
Dalquest's pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
dalquesti) Chihuahuan pocket mouse
Chihuahuan pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
eremicus) San Diego pocket mouse
San Diego pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
fallax) Long-tailed pocket mouse
Long-tailed pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
formosus) Goldman's pocket mouse
Goldman's pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
goldmani) Hispid pocket mouse
Hispid pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
hispidus) Rock pocket mouse
Rock pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
intermedius) Lined pocket mouse
Lined pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
lineatus) Nelson's pocket mouse
Nelson's pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
nelsoni) Desert
Desert
pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
penicillatus) Sinaloan pocket mouse
Sinaloan pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
pernix) Baja pocket mouse
Baja pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
rudinoris) Spiny pocket mouse
Spiny pocket mouse
( Chaetodipus
Chaetodipus
spinatus)

Perognathus

White-eared pocket mouse
White-eared pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
alticola) Arizona pocket mouse( Perognathus
Perognathus
amplus) Olive-backed pocket mouse
Olive-backed pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
fasciatus) Plains pocket mouse
Plains pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
flavescens) Silky pocket mouse
Silky pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
flavus) San Joaquin pocket mouse
San Joaquin pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
inornatus) Little pocket mouse
Little pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
longimembris) Merriam's pocket mouse
Merriam's pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
merriami) Great Basin pocket mouse
Great Basin pocket mouse
( Perognathus
Perognathus
parvus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q607610 ADW: Heteromyidae EoL: 8694 EPPO: 1HETMF Fossilworks: 41673 GBIF: 5504 ITIS: 180231 MSW: 12

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