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HERTFORDSHIRE (/ˈhɑːrtfərdʃɪər/ ( listen ) ; often abbreviated HERTS) is a county in southern England
England
, bordered by Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
to the north, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London
Greater London
to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England
England
region.

In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 living in an area of 634 square miles (1,640 km2). Four towns have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents: Hemel Hempstead , Stevenage , Watford
Watford
and St Albans . Hertford , once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart (stag) and a ford , used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the north and west. These reach over 240 m in the western projection around Tring which is in the Chilterns . The county's borders are approximately the watersheds of the Colne and Lea ; both flowing to the south; each accompanied by a canal. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by green belt .

The county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios . The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas , especially in St Albans
St Albans
which includes some remains of Verulamium , the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban , a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
.

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
is well-served with motorways and railways, providing good access to London
London
. The largest sector of the economy of the county is in services.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Geology * 2.2 Natural resources and environment * 2.3 Urban areas

* 3 Economy

* 4 Landmarks

* 4.1 Main national footpaths * 4.2 Intra-county notable footpaths

* 5 Transport * 6 Education * 7 Literature * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
in 913. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing (of a watercourse). The name Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
in 1011. Deer
Deer
feature in many county emblems.

There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
from the Mesolithic period . It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age
Iron Age
.

Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43 , the aboriginal Catuvellauni quickly submitted and adapted to the Roman life; resulting in the development of several new towns, including Verulamium (St Albans) where in c. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is traditionally believed to have taken place. Saint Alban , a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
as the yellow background to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire.

With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century , the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom. This relatively short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia . The region finally became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms.

A century later, William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London
London
and his coronation at Westminster
Westminster
. Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop\'s Stortford , and at King\'s Langley , a staging post between London
London
and the royal residence of Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
.

The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
recorded the county as having nine hundreds . Tring and Danais became one— Dacorum —from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking
Viking
not Saxon past. The other seven were Braughing , Broadwater , Cashio , Edwinstree , Hertford , Hitchin and Odsey .

The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley. Peter de Wint , Cornfields near Tring Station, Hertfordshire, 1847, Princeton University Art Museum

As London
London
grew, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
became conveniently close to the English capital; much of the area was owned by the nobility and aristocracy , this patronage helped to boost the local economy. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
came during the Industrial Revolution , after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth
Letchworth
became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946 .

From the 1920s until the late 1980s , the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios . Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars
Star Wars
movies (IV , V , the Harry Potter series was filmed here and the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye .

On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured. The crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack , which consequently saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people; the train was at high speed when it derailed and flipped into the air when one of the carriages slid along the platform where it came to rest.

In early December 2005, the 2005 Hemel Hempstead fuel depot explosions occurred at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal .

In 2012, the canoe and kayak slalom events of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games took place in the town of Waltham Cross , within the borough of Broxbourne .

GEOGRAPHY

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
is the county immediately north of London
London
and is part of the East of England
England
region, a mainly statistical unit . A significant minority of the population across all districts are City of London
London
commuters . To the east is Essex , to the west is Buckinghamshire and to the north are Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
.

The county's boundaries were roughly fixed by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 which eliminated exclaves ; amended when, in 1965 under the London
London
Government Act 1963 , East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished, their area was transferred to form part of the present-day London
London
Borough of Barnet and the Potters Bar Urban District of Middlesex
Middlesex
was transferred to Hertfordshire.

The highest point in the county is at 245 metres (804 ft) (AOD ) on the Ridgeway long distance national path, on the border of Hastoe near Tring with Drayton Beauchamp , Buckinghamshire.

As at the 2011 census of the ten Districts, East Hertfordshire had the minimal, 290 people per km², whereas Watford
Watford
had the maximal 4210 people per km²

An unofficial status, the purple star-shaped flower with yellow stamens, the Pasqueflower is among endemic county flowers .

GEOLOGY

Main article: Geology of Hertfordshire

The rocks of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
belong to the great shallow syncline known as the London
London
Basin . The beds dip in a south-easterly direction towards the syncline's lowest point roughly under the River Thames . The most important formations are the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Chalk , exposed as the high ground in the north and west of the county, forming the Chiltern Hills and the younger Palaeocene , Reading Beds and Eocene , London
London
Clay which occupy the remaining southern part. The eastern half of the county was covered by glaciers during the Ice Age and has a superficial layer of glacial boulder clays .

NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

Despite the spread of built areas, much of the county is given over to agriculture. One product, now largely defunct, was water-cress , based in Hemel Hempstead and Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
supported by reliable, clean chalk rivers.

Some quarrying of sand and gravel occurs in the St Albans
St Albans
area. In the past, clay has supplied local brick-making and still does in Bovingdon , just south-west of Hemel Hempstead. The chalk that is the bedrock of much of the county provides an aquifer that feeds streams and is also exploited to provide water supplies for much of the county and beyond. Chalk has also been used as a building material and, once fired, the resultant lime was spread on agricultural land to improve fertility. The mining of chalk since the early 18th century has left unrecorded underground galleries that occasionally collapse unexpectedly and endanger buildings.

Fresh water is supplied to London
London
from Ware , using the New River built by Hugh Myddleton and opened in 1613. Local rivers, although small, supported developing industries such as paper production at Nash Mills .

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
affords habitat for a variety of flora and fauna. One bird common in the shire is the Royston crow , which is the eponymous name of the regional newspaper, the Royston Crow published in Royston .

URBAN AREAS

See also: List of places in Hertfordshire , List of settlements in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
by population , and List of lost settlements in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire

In November 2013, the uSwitch Quality of Life Index listed Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
as the third-best place to live in the UK. Baldock
Baldock
Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
Bishop\'s Stortford Borehamwood Broxbourne Buntingford Bushey Cheshunt Harpenden Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Hertford Hitchin Hoddesdon Letchworth
Letchworth
Potters Bar Rickmansworth Royston Sawbridgeworth Stevenage St Albans
St Albans
Tring Waltham Cross Ware Watford
Watford
Welwyn Garden City Barnet Enfield Harlow
Harlow
Amersham
Amersham
High Wycombe Luton Stanmore Main towns in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and environs

ECONOMY

View of one of the buildings at Hatfield Business Park , currently the headquarters of EE .

This is a table of trends of regional gross value added of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 11,742 96 3,292 8,354

2000 18,370 77 4,138 14,155

2003 20,937 82 4,348 16,507

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
has headquarters of many large well-known UK companies. Hemel Hempstead is home to DSG International . Welwyn Garden City hosts Tesco
Tesco
, as well as Roche UK's headquarters (subsidiary of the Swiss pharmaceutical firm Hoffman-La Roche ) and Cereal Partners production facilities, Pure the DAB radio maker is based in Kings Langley . JD Wetherspoon is in Watford. Skanska is in Rickmansworth , GlaxoSmithKline has plants in Ware and Stevenage . Hatfield used to be connected with the aircraft industry, as it was where de Havilland developed the world's first commercial jet liner, the Comet . Now the site is a business park and new campus for the University of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
. This major new employment site is home to, among others, EE , Computacenter and Ocado . A subsidiary of BAE Systems
BAE Systems
and Finmeccanica in Stevenage , MBDA , develops missiles . In the same town Airbus (Defence "> Ashridge house St Albans
St Albans
Abbey University of Hertfordshire Bluebells in Dockey Wood The Warner Bros. Making of Harry Potter Studio Tour at Leavesden

Below is a list of notable visitor attractions in Hertfordshire:

* Aldenham Country Park

* Ashridge . The estate surrounding the neo-Gothic house by James Wyatt (not open to the public) is National Trust land

* Bridgewater Monument built in 1832 in memory of Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. 108 feet (33 m) tall and open to the public to ascend to the top

* Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
Castle * Butterfly World , Chiswell Green * Cedars Park, Broxbourne – a historic public park on the site of a Tudor palace * de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre , between London
London
Colney and South Mimms * Gardens of the Rose , Chiswell Green , near St Albans. Home of the Royal National Rose Society

* Hatfield

* Hatfield House
Hatfield House
– Jacobean house, gardens and park * Mill Green Watermill in Hatfield

* Henry Moore Foundation , Much Hadham – sculpture park on the work of Henry Moore
Henry Moore
* Knebworth House , 250 acres (1.0 km2) of country park, venue of regular rock and pop festivals * Leavesden Film Studios , home of the Warner Bros. Making of Harry Potter studio tour

* Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City World's first Garden City . Home of the first planned Green Belt , the UK's first roundabout , and a number of experiments in early town planning and house and factory design

* Spirella Building
Spirella Building

* Magic Roundabout (Hemel Hempstead) a complex road junction * Royston Cave – in Royston town centre * Rye House Gatehouse in Hoddesdon (part of the Rye House Plot to assassinate King Charles II )

* St Albans
St Albans

* Beech Bottom Dyke – large scale iron age defensive or boundary ditch * Sopwell Nunnery * St Albans
St Albans
Cathedral * Verulamium – Roman town remains, including museum of Roman life and the remains of a Roman amphitheatre

* Scott\'s Grotto , Ware in its protected rural buffer area * Shaw\'s Corner , Ayot St Lawrence – home of George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw

* Stevenage – the first UK New Town

* Six Hills Roman barrows site

* Therfield Heath
Therfield Heath
– a local nature reserve in the north of the county * University of Hertfordshire – a public research university based in Hatfield * Welwyn Viaduct to the north of Welwyn Garden City * Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum , Tring a museum-annotated collection of dead mammals, birds, reptiles and insects. * Watford
Watford
Museum , fine art and local artefacts

MAIN NATIONAL FOOTPATHS

* The Ridgeway * Icknield Way * Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
Walk * Harcamlow Way * Hertfordshire Way

INTRA-COUNTY NOTABLE FOOTPATHS

* Hertfordshire Chain Walk

TRANSPORT

Junction of the M1 and M25 near Hemel Hempstead Thameslink and Great Northern provide frequent train services through Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
on the Midland Main Line and East Coast Main Line Bridge 168 on the Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
lies across major road and rail routes connecting London
London
to the Midlands , Northern England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
. As one of the home counties , many towns in the county form part of the London commuter belt .

The county has some of the principal roads in England: A1 , A1(M) , A5 , A6 , A41 , M1 , M11 , and M25 .

Four principal national railway lines pass through the county:

* the WEST COAST MAIN LINE from London
London
Euston . London
London
Midland provides local commuter and regional services in the far west of the county. Virgin Trains also operates high speed inter-city services via Watford
Watford
Junction to the Midlands , North Wales , the North West England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
* the EAST COAST MAIN LINE from London
London
King\'s Cross . Local commuter and regional services are provided by Great Northern . Virgin Trains East Coast runs high speed inter-city services via Stevenage to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, North East England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
* the MIDLAND MAIN LINE which forms part of the THAMESLINK route between Bedford
Bedford
and Brighton
Brighton
via Central London
London
with services are provided by Thameslink . East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains
also provide inter-city services along the line from London
London
St. Pancras to the East Midlands and Yorkshire * the WEST ANGLIA MAIN LINE from London
London
Liverpool Street . Local commuter and regional services are provided by Greater Anglia mainly in the east of the county

A number of other local rail routes also cross Hertfordshire:

* the LONDON TO AYLESBURY LINE from London
London
Marylebone runs via Rickmansworth and Chorleywood * the ABBEY LINE , a local line from Watford
Watford
to St Albans
St Albans
Abbey * the CAMBRIDGE LINE , a branch of the East Coast line which runs via Royston and Letchworth
Letchworth
to Cambridge

Three commuter lines operated by Transport for London
London
enter the county:

* the LEA VALLEY LINES , a suburban metro line from Liverpool Street to Cheshunt via Seven Sisters * the WATFORD DC LINE , a suburban metro line from Euston to Watford Junction * five stations on the London
London
Underground METROPOLITAN LINE — Chorleywood , Croxley , Moor Park , Rickmansworth and Watford
Watford
— are in Hertfordshire.

Stansted and Luton are within 10 miles (16 km) of the county's borders. A commercial airfield is at Elstree for light aircraft.

The Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
passes through much of the far west of Hertfordshire: Rickmansworth , Watford
Watford
, Hemel Hempstead , Berkhamsted and Tring .

Local bus services are run by a number of private operators. Intalink is an organisation run by the county council that manages transport and funds bus services in rural areas.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TRANSPORT IN HERTFORDSHIRE .

EDUCATION

St George\'s School See also: List of schools in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
has 26 independent schools and 73 state secondary schools. The state secondary schools are entirely comprehensive , although 7 schools in the south and southwest of the county are partially selective (see Education in Watford
Watford
). All state schools have sixth forms , and there are no sixth form colleges . The tertiary colleges, each with multiple campuses, are Hertford Regional College , North Hertfordshire College , Oaklands College and West Herts College . The University of Hertfordshire is a modern university based largely in Hatfield . It has more than 23,000 students.

LITERATURE

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
is the location of Jack Worthing 's country house in Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
's play The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest
.

Jane Austen 's novel Pride and Prejudice is primarily set in Hertfordshire..

The location of Mr Jarndyce's Bleak House in Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
's Bleak House is near St. Albans.

The eponymous residence in E. M. Forster's novel, Howards End was based on Rooks Nest House just outside Stevenage .

George Orwell
George Orwell
based Animal Farm
Animal Farm
on Wallington, Hertfordshire where he lived between 1936 and 1940. Manor Farm and The Great Barn both feature in the novel.

SEE ALSO

* Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
portal

* Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire * High Sheriff of Hertfordshire * Custos Rotulorum of Hertfordshire
Custos Rotulorum of Hertfordshire
– Keeper of the Rolls * Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
constituency * List of Jewish communities in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* Hertfordshire GAA
Hertfordshire GAA

NOTES

* ^ Less commonly today also /ˈhɑːrtfərdʃər/ * ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding * ^ includes hunting and forestry * ^ includes energy and construction * ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

REFERENCES

* ^ " Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
2017/2018". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 9 June 2017. * ^ "Resident Population". Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Local Information System. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ "Area Measurements". Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Local Information System. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ " Zeppelin
Zeppelin
Raids - Herts at War". www.hertsatwar.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2017. * ^ Archived 7 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "The East of England". East of England
England
Local Government Association . Retrieved 23 January 2012. * ^ "Wild Plants: Pasqueflower" Plantlife . Retrieved 26 February 2015 * ^ "About the chalk mines". Dacorum Borough Council. 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2009. * ^ Hassan, Jafar. "UK Quality of Life Index". uSwitch. Retrieved 14 November 2013. * ^ Regional Gross Value Added Archived 1 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine ., Office for National Statistics , pp. 240–253. * ^ Forster, E. M. (Edward Morgan) (1 November 2001). "Howards End" – via Project Gutenberg.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
at Curlie (based

.