HERMAN HOLLERITH (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that was amalgamated (via stock acquisition) in 1911 with three other companies to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company later renamed IBM . Hollerith is regarded as one of the seminal figures in the development of data processing . His invention of the punched card tabulating machine marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems, and his concept dominated that landscape for nearly a century.
* 1 Personal life * 2 Electromechanical tabulation of data * 3 Inventions and businesses * 4 Death and legacy * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Herman Hollerith was born the son of German immigrant Prof. Georg Hollerith from Großfischlingen (near Neustadt an der Weinstraße ) in Buffalo, New York , where he spent his early childhood. He entered the City College of New York in 1875, graduated from the Columbia University School of Mines with an "Engineer of Mines" degree in 1879 at age 19, and in 1890 asked for (and was awarded) a Ph.D based on his development of the tabulating system. In 1882 Hollerith joined the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he taught mechanical engineering and conducted his first experiments with punched cards. He eventually moved to Washington, D.C. , living in Georgetown , with a home on 29th Street and a business building at 31st Street and the C"> Photo dated 1919.12.31 of census worker with Hollerith pantograph punch. The keyboard layout is for the US Census 1920 population card. Hollerith tabulating machine with sorting box. The "sorting box" was controlled by the tabulator. The "sorter", an independent machine, was a later development.
The herein-described method of compiling statistics, which consists in recording separate statistical items pertaining to the individual by holes or combinations of holes punched in sheets of electrically non-conducting material, and bearing a specific relation to each other and to a standard, and then counting or tallying such statistical items separately or in combination by means of mechanical counters operated by electro-magnets the circuits through which are controlled by the perforated sheets, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
INVENTIONS AND BUSINESSES
Hollerith punched card Hollerith's grave at Oak Hill Cemetery in Georgetown in Washington, D.C.
Hollerith had left teaching and begun working for the United States Census Bureau in the year he filed his first patent application. Titled "Art of Compiling Statistics", it was filed on September 23, 1884; U.S. Patent 395,782 was granted on January 8, 1889.
Hollerith initially did business under his own name, as _The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System_, specializing in punched card data processing equipment . He provided tabulators and other machines under contract for the Census Office, which used them for the 1890 census . The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the scheduled publications, and the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census.
In 1896 Hollerith founded the _Tabulating Machine Company_ (in 1905 renamed _The Tabulating Machine Company_). Many major census bureaus around the world leased his equipment and purchased his cards, as did major insurance companies. Hollerith's machines were used for censuses in England, Italy, Germany, Russia, Austria, Canada, France, Norway, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines, and again in the 1900 census .
He invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism and the first keypunch . The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate on 1890 Census cards. A control panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator simplified rewiring for different jobs. The 1920s removable control panel supported prewiring and near instant job changing. These inventions were among the foundations of the data processing industry and Hollerith's punched cards (later used for computer input/output ) continued in use for almost a century.
In 1911 four corporations, including Hollerith's firm, were amalgamated to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR). Under the presidency of Thomas J. Watson , CTR was renamed International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1924. By 1933 _The Tabulating Machine Company_ name had disappeared as subsidiary companies were subsumed by IBM.
DEATH AND LEGACY
Hollerith is buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
Hollerith cards were named after the elder Herman Hollerith, as were Hollerith constants (also sometimes called Hollerith strings), an early type of string constant declaration (in computer programming).
His great-grandson, the Rt. Rev. Herman Hollerith IV is the Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of Southern Virginia , and another great-grandson, Randolph Marshall Hollerith, is an Episcopal priest and the dean of Washington National Cathedral in Washington D.C. .
* ^ "Lucia Beverly Talcott". ancestry.com . Retrieved 28 Feb 2015. * ^ Cambell-Kelly, Martin; Aspray, William (2004). _Computer: a history of the information machine_ (2 ed.). Basic Books. p. 16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Da Cruz, Frank (28 Mar 2011). "Herman Hollerith". _www.columbia.edu_. Columbia University. Retrieved 28 Feb 2014. * ^ Brooks, Frederick P.; Iverson, Kenneth E. (1963). _Automatic Data Processing_. Wiley. p. 94 "semiautomatic". * ^ " Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)". _www.hnf.de_. Paderborn : Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum. 18 Apr 2012. Retrieved 28 Feb 2014. * ^ Austrian, 1982, p.56 * ^ O'Connor, J.J.; Robertson, E.F. "Herman Hollerith". _The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive_. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 5 March 2013. * ^ Lydenberg, Harry Miller (1924). _John Shaw Billings: Creator of the National Medical Library and its Catalogue, First Director of the New York Public Library_. American Library Association. p. 32. * ^ Randell (ed.), Brian (1982). _The Origins of Digital Computers, Selected Papers_ (3rd ed.). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-11319-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ US patent 395782, Herman Hollerith, "Art of compiling statistics", issued 1889-01-08 * ^ (Truesdell, 1965, p.144) * ^ Austrian, Geoffrey D. (1982). _Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing_. Columbia University Press. pp. 41, 178–179. ISBN 0-231-05146-8 . * ^ "Oak Hill Cemetery Map". _www.oakhillcemeterydc.org_. * ^ US 395782 * ^ (Austrian, 1982, p.153) * ^ Report of the Commissioner of Labor In Charge of The Eleventh Census to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1895 Washington, D.C., July 29 1895 Page 9: "You may confidently look for the rapid reduction of the force of this office after the 1st of October, and the entire cessation of clerical work during the present calendar year. ... The condition of the work of the Census Division and the condition of the final reports show clearly that the work of the Eleventh Census will be completed at least two years earlier than was the work of the Tenth Census." Carroll D. Wright Commissioner of Labor in Charge. * ^ (Engelbourg, 1954, p.52) * ^ " IBM Archives: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Some accounts of the forming CTR state that only three corporations were included. This reference notes that only three of the four corporations are represented in the CTR name. That may be the reason for the differing accounts. * ^ William Rodgers (1969). _THINK: A Biography of the Watsons and IBM_. p. 83. * ^ Steven G. Vegh (13 February 2009). "New Epsicopal bishop to face tough challenges". _Virginian-Pilot_. * ^ "Virginia diocese to install bishop". _Richmond Times-Dispatch_.
* Ashurst, Gareth (1983). _Pioneers of Computing_. Frederick Muller. pp. 77–90. * Austrian, Geoffrey D. (1982). _Herman Hollerith: The Forgotten Giant of Information Processing_. Columbia University Press. p. 418. ISBN 0-231-05146-8 . * Beniger, James R. (1986/2009) _The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society ,_ Harvard University Press, 1986 pp. 390–425 * Cortada, James W. (1993). _Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, & Remington Rand & the Industry they created, 1865 - 1956_. Princeton. p. 344. ISBN 0-691-04807-X . * Essinger, James (2004). _Jacquard's Web: How a Hand-Loom Led to the Birth of the Information Age_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Engelbourg, Saul (1954). _International Business Machines: A Business History_ (Ph.D.). Columbia University. p. 385. Reprinted by Arno Press, 1976, _from the best available copy_. Some text is illegible. * Heide, Lars (2009). _Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880-1945_. Johns Hopkins. ISBN 0-8018-9143-4 .
* Hollerith, Herman (April 1889). "An Electric Tabulating System". _The Quarterly, Columbia