1 Personal life 2 Career in journalism
2.1 Political and economic philosophy
3 Political career 4 Death and funeral 5 Views and policy proposals
5.1 Socialization of land and natural resource rents
7 Economic contributions 8 Works 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links
Birthplace in Philadelphia
George was born in
Career in journalism George in 1865, age 26 After deciding against gold mining in British Columbia, George was hired as a printer for the newly created San Francisco Times, and was able to immediately submit editorials for publication, including the popular What the Railroads Will Bring Us., which remained required reading in California schools for decades. George climbed the ranks of the Times, eventually becoming managing editor in the summer of 1867. George worked for several papers, including four years (1871–1875) as editor of his own newspaper San Francisco Daily Evening Post and for a time running the Reporter, a Democratic anti-monopoly publication. The George family struggled but George's increasing reputation and involvement in the newspaper industry lifted them from poverty.
Political and economic philosophy George began as a Lincoln Republican, but then became a Democrat. He was a strong critic of railroad and mining interests, corrupt politicians, land speculators, and labor contractors. He first articulated his views in an 1868 article entitled "What the Railroad Will Bring Us." George argued that the boom in railroad construction would benefit only the lucky few who owned interests in the railroads and other related enterprises, while throwing the greater part of the population into abject poverty. This had led to him earning the enmity of the Central Pacific Railroad's executives, who helped defeat his bid for election to the California State Assembly. One day in 1871 George went for a horseback ride and stopped to rest while overlooking San Francisco Bay. He later wrote of the revelation that he had:
.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 I asked a passing teamster, for want of something better to say, what land was worth there. He pointed to some cows grazing so far off that they looked like mice, and said, "I don't know exactly, but there is a man over there who will sell some land for a thousand dollars an acre." Like a flash it came over me that there was the reason of advancing poverty with advancing wealth. With the growth of population, land grows in value, and the men who work it must pay more for the privilege.
Iconic portrait, taken shortly after writing Progress and Poverty Furthermore, on a visit to New York City, he was struck by the apparent paradox that the poor in that long-established city were much worse off than the poor in less developed California. These observations supplied the theme and title for his 1879 book Progress and Poverty, which was a great success, selling over 3 million copies. In it George made the argument that a sizeable portion of the wealth created by social and technological advances in a free market economy is possessed by land owners and monopolists via economic rents, and that this concentration of unearned wealth is the main cause of poverty. George considered it a great injustice that private profit was being earned from restricting access to natural resources while productive activity was burdened with heavy taxes, and indicated that such a system was equivalent to slavery—a concept somewhat similar to wage slavery. This is also the work in which he made the case for a land value tax in which governments would tax the value of the land itself, thus preventing private interests from profiting upon its mere possession, but allowing the value of all improvements made to that land to remain with investors. George was in a position to discover this pattern, having experienced poverty himself, knowing many different societies from his travels, and living in California at a time of rapid growth. In particular he had noticed that the construction of railroads in California was increasing land values and rents as fast as or faster than wages were rising.
In 1880, now a popular writer and speaker, George moved to
New York City, becoming closely allied with the Irish nationalist
community despite being of English ancestry. From there he made
several speaking journeys abroad to places such as
Campaigning for mayor in 1897, just before his death
In 1886, George campaigned for mayor of
New York City
Death and funeral
George's first stroke occurred in 1890, after a global speaking tour
concerning land rights and the relationship between rent and poverty.
This stroke greatly weakened him, and he never truly recovered.
Despite this, George tried to remain active in politics. Against the
advice of his doctors, George campaigned for
New York City
George's funeral procession on Madison Avenue
The New York Times
The grave of Henry George, Green-Wood Cemetery
Artist depiction of funeral procession
Views and policy proposals
Socialization of land and natural resource rents
Everybody works but the vacant lot.
I do not propose either to purchase or to confiscate private property
in land. The first would be unjust; the second, needless. Let the
individuals who now hold it still retain, if they want to, possession
of what they are pleased to call their land. Let them continue to call
it their land. Let them buy and sell, and bequeath and devise it. We
may safely leave them the shell, if we take the kernel. It is not
necessary to confiscate land; it is only necessary to confiscate
George was opposed to tariffs, which were at the time both the major
method of protectionist trade policy and an important source of
federal revenue, the federal income tax having not yet been
introduced. He argued that tariffs kept prices high for consumers,
while failing to produce any increase in overall wages. He also
believed that tariffs protected monopolistic companies from
competition, thus augmenting their power.
Artist: George de Forest Brush, Sitter: Henry George, Date: 1888
George was one of the earliest and most prominent advocates for
adoption of the secret ballot in the United States.
Money creation, banking, and national deficit reform George supported the use of "debt free" (sovereign money) currency, such as the greenback, which governments would spend into circulation to help finance public spending through the capture of seigniorage rents. He opposed the use of metallic currency, such as gold or silver, and fiat money created by private commercial banks.
Bankruptcy protection and an abolition of debtors' prisons George noted that most debt, though bearing the appearance of genuine capital interest, was not issued for the purpose of creating true capital, but instead as an obligation against rental flows from existing economic privilege. George therefore reasoned that the state should not provide aid to creditors in the form of sheriffs, constables, courts, and prisons to enforce collection on these illegitimate obligations. George did not provide any data to support this view, but in today's developed economies, much of the supply of credit is created to purchase claims on future land rents, rather than to finance the creation of true capital. Michael Hudson and Adair Turner estimate that about 80 percent of credit finances real estate purchases, mostly land. George acknowledged that this policy would limit the banking system but believed that would actually be an economic boon, since the financial sector, in its existing form, was mostly augmenting rent extraction, as opposed to productive investment. "The curse of credit," George wrote, was "... that it expands when there is a tendency to speculation, and sharply contracts just when most needed to assure confidence and prevent industrial waste." George even said that a debt jubilee could remove the accumulation of burdensome obligations without reducing aggregate wealth.
Women's suffrage George was an important and vocal advocate for women's political rights. He argued for extending suffrage to women and even suggested filling one house of Congress entirely with women: "If we must have two houses of Congress, then by all means let us fill one with women and the other with men."
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Dramatic reductions in the size of the military.
Replacement of contract patronage with the direct employment of
government workers, with civil-service protections.
Building and maintenance of free mass transportation and
Campaign finance reform and political spending restrictions.
See also: Georgism
Henry George's ideas on politics and economics had enormous influence
in his time. His ideas gave rise to the economic philosophy now known
as Georgism. However, his influence slowly waned through the 20th
century. Nonetheless, it would be difficult to overstate George's
impact on turn-of-the-century reform movements and intellectual
culture. George's self-published
Progress and Poverty was the first
popular economics text and one of the most widely printed books ever
written. The book's explosive worldwide popularity is often marked as
the beginning of the
Non-political means have also been attempted to further the cause. A
number of "Single
George reconciled the issues of efficiency and equity, showing that
both could be satisfied under a system in harmony with natural
law. He showed that Ricardo's Law of Rent applied not
just to an agricultural economy, but even more so to urban economics.
And he showed that there is no inherent conflict between labor and
capital provided one maintained a clear distinction between classical
factors of production, capital and land.
George developed what he saw as a crucial feature of his own theory of
economics in a critique of an illustration used by Frédéric Bastiat
in order to explain the nature of interest and profit. Bastiat had
asked his readers to consider James and William, both carpenters.
James has built himself a plane, and has lent it to William for a
year. Would James be satisfied with the return of an equally good
plane a year later? Surely not! He'd expect a board along with it, as
interest. The basic idea of a theory of interest is to understand why.
Bastiat said that James had given William over that year "the power,
inherent in the instrument, to increase the productivity of his
labor," and wants compensation for that increased
George did not accept this explanation. He wrote, "I am inclined to
think that if all wealth consisted of such things as planes, and all
production was such as that of carpenters – that is to say, if
wealth consisted but of the inert matter of the universe, and
production of working up this inert matter into different shapes –
that interest would be but the robbery of industry, and could not long
exist." But some wealth is inherently fruitful, like a
pair of breeding cattle, or a vat of grape juice soon to ferment into
wine. Planes and other sorts of inert matter (and the most lent item
of all – money itself) earn interest indirectly, by being part of
the same "circle of exchange" with fruitful forms of wealth such as
those, so that tying up these forms of wealth over time incurs an
opportunity cost.
George's theory had its share of critiques.
(T)he separation of production into two groups, in one of which the vital forces of nature form a distinct element in addition to labour, while in the other they do not, is entirely untenable... The natural sciences have long ago told us that the cooperation of nature is universal. ... The muscular movement of the man who planes would be of very little use, if the natural powers and properties of the steel edge of the plane did not come to his assistance.
Later, George argued that the role of time in production is pervasive. In The Science of Political Economy, he writes:
[I]f I go to a builder and say to him, "In what time and at what price will you build me such and such a house?" he would, after thinking, name a time, and a price based on it. This specification of time would be essential. ... This I would soon find if, not quarreling with the price, I ask him largely to lessen the time. ... I might get the builder somewhat to lessen the time ... ; but only by greatly increasing the price, until finally a point would be reached where he would not consent to build the house in less time no matter at what price. He would say [that the house just could not be built any faster]. ... The importance ... of this principle – that all production of wealth requires time as well as labor – we shall see later on; but the principle that time is a necessary element in all production we must take into account from the very first.
According to Oscar B. Johannsen, "Since the very basis of the Austrian concept of value is subjective, it is apparent that George's understanding of value paralleled theirs. However, he either did not understand or did not appreciate the importance of marginal utility." On the contrary, George explicitly used marginal utility in his analyses of both the 'margin of production' in macroeconomics and microeconomic decision theory. Another spirited response came from British biologist T.H. Huxley in his article "Capital – the Mother of Labour," published in 1890 in the journal The Nineteenth Century. Huxley used the scientific principles of energy to undermine George's theory, arguing that, energetically speaking, labor is unproductive.
Our Land and Land Policy 1871
Progress and Poverty 1879 unabridged text (1912)
The Land Question 1881 (The Irish Land Question)
Social Problems 1883
Protection or Free Trade
Charles Hall – An early precursor to Henry George
^ Kaye, Harvey J. "Founding Father of the American Left." The New York Times, The New York Times, 31 July 2005, query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9801E2DB153CF932A05754C0A9639C8B63
^ Greenslade, William (2005). Grant Allen : literature and cultural politics at the Fin de Siècle. Aldershot, Hants, England Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 0754608654.
^ Barnes, Peter (2006).
^ Becker, Gary. "
^ Drewry, John E. (2010). Post Biographies Of Famous Journalists. Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
^ Contemporary Europe since 1870. Carlton J. H. Hayes. 1953. https://books.google.com/books?id=yCmUjgEACAAJ Quote: "A young Welsh Liberal, David Lloyd George, was especially impressed by Henry George."
^ Stone, Tanya Lee (2018). Pass go and collect $200: the real story of
^ Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
^ Nearing, The Making of a Radical, pg. 29.
^ Putz, Paul Emory (July 2, 2015). "Summer Book List: Henry George (and George Norris) and the Crisis of Inequality". Retrieved July 2, 2015.
^ McNab, John (1972). Towards a Theology of Social Concern: A Comparative Study of the Elements for Social Concern in the Writings of Frederick D. Maurice and Walter Rauschenbusch (PhD thesis). Montreal: McGill University. p. 201. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
^ Evans, Christopher H. (2005). "Rauschenbusch, Walter (1861–1918)". In Shook, John R. (ed.). The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers. 4. Bristol, England: Thoemmes Continuum. p. 2010. ISBN 978-1-84371-037-0.
^ Piott, Steven L. (2006). American Reformers, 1870–1920: Progressives in Word and Deed. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Litlefield Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-7425-2763-8.
^ Soule, George. Ideas of the Great Economists. New English Library, 1979.
^ Dictionary of American Biography, 1st. ed., s.v. "George, Henry," edited by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, Vol. VII (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931), pp. 211–212.
^ David Montgomery, American National Biography Online, s.v. "George, Henry," Feb. 2000, http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00261.html Accessed September 3, 2011
^ a b "American National Biography Online."
^ Obituaries, New York Times, September 30, 1912,
^ "SINGLE TAXERS DINE JOHNSON; Medallion Made by Son of Henry George
Presented to Cleveland's Former Mayor",
The New York Times
^ "Obituary – The New York Times, May 4, 1897" (PDF).
^ De Mille, Agnes. "Finding aid to the Agnes De Mille papers SSC.MS.00046". asteria.fivecolleges.edu.
^ Hill, Malcolm, 1943- (1999). Enemy of injustice : the life of Andrew MacLaren, Member of Parliament. London: Othila Press. ISBN 1901647196. OCLC 42137055.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "How Henry George, Jr., Got into the
^ Formaini, Robert L. "
^ George, Henry (October 1868). "What the Railroad Will Bring Us". Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine. 1 (4): 297–306.
^ Henry, George, Jr. The Life of Henry George. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1900, chap. 11.
^ "George, Henry". Encyclopedia.com. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
^ Charles A. Barker, "
^ Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "George, Henry," pp. 211–212.
^ a b c Montgomery, American National Biography Online, s.v. "George, Henry," http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00261.html Accessed September 3, 2011.
^ a b Henry George, "What the Railroad Will Bring Us," Overland
Monthly 1, no. 4 (Oct. 1868), http://www.grundskyld.dk/1-railway.html
Archived April 26, 2012, at the
^ Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "George, Henry," 213.
^ Nock, Albert Jay. Henry George: Unorthodox American, Part IV[permanent dead link]
^ Jurgen G. Backhaus, "Henry George's Ingenious Tax: A Contemporary
Restatement," American Journal of
^ Henry George, Progress and Poverty, (1879; reprinted, London: Kegan Paul, Tench & Co., 1886), 283–284.
^ Charles A. Barker, "
^ According to his granddaughter Agnes de Mille, Progress and Poverty
and its successors made
^ Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "George, Henry," 214–215.
^ Dictionary of American Biography, s. V. "George, Henry," 215.
^ Montgomery, American National Biography, s.v. "George, Henry," http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00261.html
^ "Henry George's Death Abroad. London Papers Publish Long Sketches and Comment on His Career". New York Times. October 30, 1897. Retrieved March 7, 2010. The newspapers today are devoting much attention to the death of Henry George, the candidate of the Jeffersonian Democracy for the office of Mayor of Greater New York, publishing long sketches of his career and philosophical and economical theories.
^ a b c
New York Times
^ Gabriel, Ralph (1946). Course of American democratic thought. p. 204.
^ Yardley, Edmund (1905). Addresses at the funeral of Henry George, Sunday, October 31, 1897. Chicago: The Public publishing company. hdl:2027/loc.ark:/13960/t39z9vd7k.
^ University of Chicago. Office of the President. Harper, Judson and Burton Administrations. Records, [Box 37, Folder 3], Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library
^ "The Funeral Procession" (PDF). The New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
^ a b Lepore, Jill. "Forget 9-9-9. Here's a Simple Plan: 1". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
^ Henry George, Citizen of the World. By Anna George de Mille. Edited by Don C. Shoemaker. With an Introduction by Agnes de Mille. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1950.
^ George, Henry (1879). "The True Remedy". Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth. VI. New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. ISBN 0-914016-60-1. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
^ Lough, Alexandra. "The Last Tax:
^ Backhaus, "Henry George's Ingenious Tax," 453–458.
^ "Supplement to Encyclopædia Britannica". 1889. The labor vote in
the election was trifling until
^ Thompson, Robert Ellis; Barker, Wharton (1888). "The American: A National Journal, Volumes 15-16".
^ "A RECEPTION TO MR.GEORGE". The New York Times. October 21, 1882. Mr. George expressed his thanks for the reception and predicted that soon the movement in favor of land nationalization would be felt all over the civilized world.
^ George, Henry (1879). "How Equal Rights to the Land May Be Asserted and Secured". Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth. VIII. New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. ISBN 0-914016-60-1. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
^ Armstrong, K. L. (1895). The Little Statesman: A Middle-of-the-road Manual for American Voters. Schulte Publishing Company. pp. 125–127. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
^ George, Henry (October 6, 1886). "Throwing His Hat in the Ring:
^ George, Henry (2016). The annotated works of Henry George. Madison New Jersey Lanham, Maryland New York, NY: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc., Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. ISBN 978-1611477016.
^ Weir, "A Fragile Alliance," 425–425
^ Henry George, Protection or Free Trade: An Examination of the Tariff Question, with Especial Regard to the Interests of Labor(New York: 1887).
^ MacCallum, Spencer H. (Summer–Fall 1997). "The Alternative Georgist Tradition" (PDF). Fragments. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
^ Cowen, Tyler (May 1, 2009). "Anti-Capitalist Rerun". The American Interest. 4 (5). Retrieved November 15, 2014.
^ Powell, Jim (June 11, 2016). "Milton Friedman's Favorite Book on Trade". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
^ Obenhaus, Matthew (March 7, 2016). "Free Trade Lessons for the Economically Challenged". The Gymnasium. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
^ Lepore, Jill (October 13, 2008). "Rock, Paper, Scissors: How we used to vote". New Yorker. New Yorker.
^ Saltman, Roy (2008). The history and politics of voting technology : chads and other scandals. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 97. ISBN 978-0230605985.
^ For a more complete discussion of the adoption of the Australian Ballot, see Saltman, Roy G., (2006), The History and Politics of Voting Technology, Palgrave Macmillan, NY, pp. 96–103.
^ "To illustrate: It is not the business of government to interfere with the views which any one may hold of the Creator or with the worship he may choose to pay him, so long as the exercise of these individual rights does not conflict with the equal liberty of others; and the result of governmental interference in this domain has been hypocrisy, corruption, persecution and religious war. It is not the business of government to direct the employment of labor and capital, and to foster certain industries at the expense of other industries; and the attempt to do so leads to all the waste, loss and corruption due to protective tariffs."
"On the other hand it is the business of government to issue money. This is perceived as soon as the great labor saving invention of money supplants barter. To leave it to every one who chose to do so to issue money would be to entail general inconvenience and loss, to offer many temptations to roguery, and to put the poorer classes of society at a great disadvantage. These obvious considerations have everywhere, as society became well organized, led to the recognition of the coinage of money as an exclusive function of government. When in the progress of society, a further labor-saving improvement becomes possible by the substitution of paper for the precious metals as the material for money, the reasons why the issuance of this money should be made a government function become still stronger. The evils entailed by wildcat banking in the United States are too well remembered to need reference. The loss and inconvenience, the swindling and corruption that flowed from the assumption by each State of the Union of the power to license banks of issue ended with the war, and no one would now go back to them. Yet instead of doing what every public consideration impels us to, and assuming wholly and fully as the exclusive function of the General Government the power to issue money, the private interests of bankers have, up to this, compelled us to the use of a hybrid currency, of which a large part, though guaranteed by the General Government, is issued and made profitable to corporations. The legitimate business of banking—the safekeeping and loaning of money, and the making and exchange of credits—is properly left to individuals and associations; but by leaving to them, even in part and under restrictions and guarantees, the issuance of money, the people of the United States suffer an annual loss of millions of dollars, and sensibly increase the influences which exert a corrupting effect upon their government." The Complete Works of Henry George. "Social Problems," p. 178, Doubleday Page & Co, New York, 1904
^ Turner, Adair (April 13, 2012). "A new era for monetary policy". Berlin: INET. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
^ Hudson, Michael. "Scenarios for Recovery: How to Write Down the Debts and Restructure the Financial System" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
^ George, Henry. "Consequences of a Growing National Debt". Retrieved January 15, 2016.
^ George, Henry, and Kenneth C. Wenzer. An Anthology of Henry George's Thought. Rochester, N.Y., USA: University of Rochester Press, 1997.
^ Brechin, Gray (2003). Indestructable By Reason of Beauty: The Beaumanance of a Public Library Building (PDF). Greenwood Press. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
^ The Single
^ Altgeld, John (1899). Live Questions (PDF). Geo. S Bowen & Son. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
^ Martí, José (2002). José Martí : selected writings. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0142437042.
^ Buder, Stanley. Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
^ Fox, Stephen R. "The Amateur Tradition: People and Politics." The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin, 1985. 353.
^ Bryan, William Jennings (October 30, 1897). "William Jennings Bryan:
^ "John Dewey: An Appreciation of Henry George". www.wealthandwant.com.
Albert Jay Nock
^ A sermon that first appeared as No. VIII, Series 1944–45 of the Community Pulpit, published by The Community Church, New York, New York. Reprinted as a pamphlet by the Robert Schalkenbach Foundation <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>
^ Louis F. Post and Fred C. Leubusher, Henry George's 1886 Campaign: An Account of the George-Hewitt Campaign in the New York Municipal Election of 1886 (New York: John W. Lovell Company, 1887)
^ Sekirin, Peter (2006). Americans in conversation with Tolstoy : selected accounts, 1887–1923. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland. ISBN 078642253X.
^ Hobson, John A. (1897). "The Influence of
^ Henderson, Archibald. George Bernard Shaw, His Life and Works. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1911.
^ Davis, Stephen (1986). "
Joseph Jay Pastoriza
^ "Wonder Woman at Massey Hall:
^ "Progress & Poverty". Robert Schalkenbach Fdn..
^ Mulvey, Paul (2002). "The Single-Taxers and the Future of Liberalism, 1906–1914". Journal of Liberal Democrat (34/35 Spring/Summer). Retrieved August 15, 2015.
^ Mulvey, Paul (2010). The Political Life of Josiah C. Wedgwood: Land, Liberty and Empire, 1872–1943. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0861933082.
^ "Letters: Marx-Engels Correspondence 1881". www.marxists.org.
^ Henry George's Thought
^ L. Tolstoï. Où est l'issu? (1899) In Les Rayons de l'aube (Dernières études philosophiques). (Tr. J-W Bienstock) Paris; P.-V. Stock Éditeur, 1901, chap. xxiii, pp. 393-411.
^ Wikisource:Letter on
^ Wikisource:Letter on
^ http://www.cooperative-individualism.org/einstein-albert_letters-to-anna-george-demille-1934.html[permanent dead link]
^ Gaffney, Mason and Harrison, Fred. The Corruption of Economics. (London: Shepheard-Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd., 1994) ISBN 978-0-85683-244-4 (paperback).
^ Stewart, John, 1931- (2001). Standing for justice : a biography of Andrew MacLaren, MP. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. ISBN 0856831948. OCLC 49362105.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "The Mason Gaffney Reader". masongaffneyreader.com.
^ Arnott, Richard J.; Joseph E. Stiglitz (November 1979). "Aggregate Land Rents, Expenditure on Public Goods, and Optimal City Size" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Economics. 93 (4): 471–500. doi:10.2307/1884466. JSTOR 1884466.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
^ Frédéric Bastiat, That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen," 1850.
^ Henry George, Progress and Poverty,, 161.
^ Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest: A Critical History of Economic Theory transl. William Smart (London: Macmillan and Co., 1890), 417.
^ Henry George, The Science of Political Economy (New York: Doubleday & McClure Co., 1898), 369–370.
^ "The Science of Political Economy, Part III, Chapter 5". politicaleconomy.org.
^ T.H. Huxley, "Capital – the Mother of Labour: An Economical Problem Discussed from a Physiological Point of View," The Nineteenth Century (Mar. 1890).
Further reading Barker, Charles Albro Henry George. Oxford University Press 1955 and Greenwood Press 1974. ISBN 0-8371-7775-8 External links
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