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Page from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Hebrew Bible
Bible
or Hebrew Scriptures (Latin: Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew: תנ"ך‎; Latin: Thanach), the canonical collection of Jewish texts. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The Hebrew Bible
Bible
is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament. The content, to which the Protestant Old Testament closely corresponds, does not act as a source for the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic or to the Anagignoskomena
Anagignoskomena
portions of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Old Testaments. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, which vary with later Christian
Christian
biblical canons. The term Hebrew Bible
Bible
is an attempt to provide specificity with respect to contents but avoid allusion to any particular interpretative tradition or theological school of thought. It is widely used in academic writing and interfaith discussion in relatively neutral contexts meant to include dialogue among all religious traditions, but not widely in the inner discourse of the religions that use its text.[1]

Contents

1 Usage

1.1 Additional difficulties

2 Origins of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
and its components 3 Scholarly editions 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Usage[edit] Hebrew Bible
Bible
refers to the Jewish biblical canon. In its Latin
Latin
form, Biblia Hebraica, it traditionally serves as a title for printed editions of the Masoretic Text. Many biblical studies scholars advocate use of the term "Hebrew Bible" (or "Hebrew Scriptures") as a substitute for less neutral terms with Jewish or Christian connotations (e.g. Tanakh
Tanakh
or Old Testament).[2][3] The Society of Biblical Literature's Handbook of Style, which is the standard for major academic journals like the Harvard Theological Review and conservative Protestant journals like the Bibliotheca Sacra
Bibliotheca Sacra
and the Westminster Theological Journal, suggests that authors "be aware of the connotations of alternative expressions such as... Hebrew Bible [and] Old Testament" without prescribing the use of either.[4] McGrath points out that while the term emphasises that it is largely written in Hebrew and "is sacred to the Hebrew people", it "fails to do justice to the way in which Christianity sees an essential continuity between the Old and New Testaments", arguing that there is "no generally accepted alternative to the traditional term "Old Testament." However, he accepts that there is no reason why non-Christians should feel obliged to refer to these books as the Old Testament, "apart from custom of use."[5] Additional difficulties[edit] In terms of theology, Christianity has recognised the close relationship between the Old and New Testaments from its very beginnings, although there have sometimes been movements like Marcionism
Marcionism
(viewed as heretical by the early church), that have struggled with it.[5][6][7] Modern Christian
Christian
formulations of this tension include Supersessionism, Covenant Theology, New Covenant Theology, Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
and Dual-covenant theology. All of these formulations, except some forms of Dual-covenant theology, are objectionable to mainstream Judaism and to many Jewish scholars and writers, for whom there is one eternal covenant between God and the Israelites, and who therefore reject the term "Old Testament" as a form of antinomianism. In terms of canon, Christian
Christian
usage of "Old Testament" does not refer to a universally agreed upon set of books but, rather, varies depending on denomination. Lutheranism and Protestant denominations that follow the Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
accept the entire Jewish canon as the Old Testament
Old Testament
without additions, although in translation they sometimes give preference to the Septuagint
Septuagint
rather than the Masoretic Text; for example, see Isaiah 7:14. In terms of language, "Hebrew" refers to the original language of the books, but it may also be taken as referring to the Jews of the Second Temple era and Jewish diaspora, and their descendants, who preserved the transmission of the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
up to the present day. The Hebrew Bible
Bible
includes small portions in Aramaic (mostly in the books of Daniel and Ezra), written and printed in Aramaic square-script, which was adopted as the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
after the Babylonian exile. Origins of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
and its components[edit] Main articles: Dating the Bible
Bible
and Development of the Hebrew Bible canon The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible
Bible
developed over roughly a millennium. The oldest texts seem to come from the 11th or 10th centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together. [8] In the late 19th century, a classical consensus emerged that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture) consisted of four sources which had been woven together, known as the J (Yahwist), D (Deuteronomist), E (Elohist) and P (Priestly writer) sources.[9] The classic explanation of their relationship and dating was proposed by Julius Wellhausen.[10] Scholars concluded that J and E were amalgamated after the fall of Samaria
Samaria
in 721 BCE, D was dated to the time of Josiah. The Deuteronomist source, which was credited with the Pentateuch's book of Deuteronomy, is also said to be the source of the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings (the Deuteronomistic history, or DtrH), and the book of Jeremiah. This theory, known as the documentary hypothesis, dominated scholarship into the 20th century,[11] Today, there is no consensus about the dates of the source documents; some scholars reject the existence of the E source and others have suggested that four sources are inadequate.[12] Scholarly editions[edit] Several editions, all titled Biblia Hebraica, have been produced by various German publishers since 1906.

Between 1906 and 1955, Rudolf Kittel
Rudolf Kittel
published nine editions of it. 1966, the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
published the renamed Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia in six editions until 1997. Since 2004 the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
has published the Biblia Hebraica Quinta, including all variants of the Qumran
Qumran
manuscripts as well as the Masorah Magna.

Other projects include:

Hebrew University Bible
Bible
Project Hebrew Bible: A Critical Edition

See also[edit]

Judaism portal

Biblical canon Books of the Bible Early editions of the Hebrew Bible Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible Torah

References[edit]

^ Eliezer Segal, Introducing Judaism (New York, NY: Routledge, 2009). Page: 12 ^ Safire, William (1997-05-25). "The New Old Testament". The New York Times . ^ Hamilton, Mark. "From Hebrew Bible
Bible
to Christian
Christian
Bible: Jews, Christians and the Word of God". Retrieved 2007-11-19. Modern scholars often use the term 'Hebrew Bible' to avoid the confessional terms Old Testament and Tanakh.  ^ Alexander, Patrick H; et al., eds. (1999). The SBL Handbook of Style (PDF). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 17 (section 4.3). ISBN 1-56563-487-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-14.  See Society of Biblical Literature: Questions Regarding Digital Editions… ^ a b McGrath, Alister, Christian
Christian
Theology, Oxford: Blackwell, 2011, p. 120, 123. ISBN 9781444335149. ^ "Marcion", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 . ^ For the recorded teachings of Jesus on the subject see Antithesis of the Law#Antitheses, for the modern debate, see Christian
Christian
views on the old covenant ^ McDermott, John J. (2002). Reading the Pentateuch : a historical introduction. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809140824.  ^ Birch, Bruce C., Walter Brueggemann, Terence E. Fretheim and David L. Petersen. A Theological Introduction to the Old Testament, 2nd edition. Nashville: Abingdon, 2005, p. 31. ^ Childs, Brevard S. Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testament. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2011, p. 123 ^ Hamilton, Mark (April 1998). "From Hebrew Bible
Bible
to Christian
Christian
Bible: Jews, Christians and the Word of God". Frontline. From Jesus to Christ. WGBH Educational Foundation.  ^ Drane, John. Introducing the Old Testament, 3rd edition. Oxford: Lion, 2011, pp. 175-176.

Further reading[edit]

Brueggemann, Walter (1997). An introduction to the Old Testament: the canon and Christian
Christian
imagination. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22412-7.  Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews (First, hardback ed.). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79091-9.  Kugel, James L. (1997). The Bible
Bible
as It Was. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-06940-4.  Kuntz, John Kenneth. The People of Ancient Israel: an introduction to Old Testament
Old Testament
Literature, History, and Thought, Harper and Row, 1974. ISBN 0-06-043822-3 Leiman, Sid. The Canonization of Hebrew Scripture. (Hamden, CT: Archon, 1976). Levenson, Jon. Sinai and Zion: An Entry into the Jewish Bible. (San Francisco: HarperSan Francisco, 1985). Minkoff, Harvey. "Searching for the Better Text". Biblical Archaeology Review (online). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2011.  Pritchard, James B. (1973). The Ancient Near East, Volume I. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691035016.  An abridgement of Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament Noth, Martin. A History of Pentateuchal Traditions. (1948; trans. by Bernhard Anderson; Atlanta: Scholars, 1981). Schniedewind, William M (2004). How the Bible
Bible
Became a Book. Cambridge. ISBN 9780521536226.  Schmid, Konrad. The Old Testament: A Literary History. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hebrew Bibles.

Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Bible
Complete, fully vocalized, contilated, Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
(Leningrad Codex), together with the classic (1917) English translation by the Jewish Publication Society. 929 Chapters Links to Hebrew Bible
Bible
manuscripts, ancient and modern translations, dictionaries, related literature (e.g., Dead Sea Scrolls, Ancient Near East, Christian, Rabbinic), and study tools such as maps and archaeological websites. English translation of the entire Tanach with Rashi's commentary. Translation edited by translator and scholar, Rabbi A.J. Rosenberg. Works by or about Hebrew Bible
Bible
at Internet Archive Works by Hebrew Bible
Bible
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) (in English) (in Hebrew) Hebrew Bible
Bible
from around 1300 CE (in English) (in Hebrew) Hebrew-English Bible
Bible
Mechon-Mamre online edition, from 1917 Jewish Publication Society edition and the Masoretic Text. The Kennicott Bible
Bible
(Bodleian Library MS. Kennicott 1), a lavishly decorated Hebrew Bible
Bible
produce

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