Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr. (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was
an American actor, comedian, director, producer, screenwriter, and
stunt performer who is best known for his silent comedy films.
Lloyd ranks alongside
Charlie Chaplin and
Buster Keaton as one of the
most popular and influential film comedians of the silent film era.
Lloyd made nearly 200 comedy films, both silent and "talkies", between
1914 and 1947. He is best known for his bespectacled "Glasses"
character, a resourceful, success-seeking go-getter who was
perfectly in tune with 1920s-era United States.
His films frequently contained "thrill sequences" of extended chase
scenes and daredevil physical feats, for which he is best remembered
today. Lloyd hanging from the hands of a clock high above the street
(in reality a trick shot) in
Safety Last! (1923) is one of the most
enduring images in all of cinema. Lloyd did many dangerous stunts
himself, despite having injured himself in August 1919 while doing
publicity pictures for the Roach studio. An accident with a bomb
mistaken as a prop resulted in the loss of the thumb and index finger
of his right hand (the injury was disguised on future films with
the use of a special prosthetic glove, though the glove often did not
Although Lloyd's individual films were not as commercially successful
as Chaplin's on average, he was far more prolific (releasing 12
feature films in the 1920s while Chaplin released just four), and made
more money overall ($15.7 million to Chaplin's $10.5
1 Early life
2.1 Silent shorts and features
2.2 Talkies and transition
2.3 Radio and retirement
2.4 Renewed interest
3 Personal life
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Harold Clayton Lloyd was born on April 20, 1893 in Burchard, Nebraska,
the son of James Darsie Lloyd and Sarah Elisabeth Fraser. His paternal
great-grandparents were Welsh. In 1910, after his father had
several business ventures fail, Lloyd's parents divorced and his
father moved with his son to San Diego, California. Lloyd had acted in
theater since a child, but in California he began acting in one-reel
film comedies around 1912.
Silent shorts and features
Lloyd worked with Thomas Edison's motion picture company, and his
first role was a small part as a
Yaqui Indian in the production of The
Old Monk's Tale. At the age of 20, Lloyd moved to Los Angeles, and
took up roles in several Keystone comedies. He was also hired by
Universal Studios as an extra and soon became friends with aspiring
filmmaker Hal Roach. Lloyd began collaborating with Roach who had
formed his own studio in 1913. Roach and Lloyd created "Lonesome
Luke", similar to and playing off the success of Charlie Chaplin
Bebe Daniels as a supporting actress in 1914; the two of
them were involved romantically and were known as "The Boy" and "The
Girl". In 1919, she left Lloyd to pursue her dramatic aspirations.
Later that year, Lloyd replaced Daniels with Mildred Davis, whom he
would later marry. Lloyd was tipped off by
Hal Roach to watch Davis in
a movie. Reportedly, the more Lloyd watched Davis the more he liked
her. Lloyd's first reaction in seeing her was that "she looked like a
big French doll".
By 1918, Lloyd and Roach had begun to develop his character beyond an
imitation of his contemporaries.
Harold Lloyd would move away from
tragicomic personas, and portray an everyman with unwavering
confidence and optimism. The persona Lloyd referred to as his "Glass"
character (often named "Harold" in the silent films) was a much
more mature comedy character with greater potential for sympathy and
emotional depth, and was easy for audiences of the time to identify
with. The "Glass" character is said to have been created after Roach
suggested that Harold was too handsome to do comedy without some sort
of disguise. To create his new character Lloyd donned a pair of
lensless horn-rimmed eyeglasses but wore normal clothing;
previously, he had worn a fake mustache and ill-fitting clothes as the
Chaplinesque "Lonesome Luke". "When I adopted the glasses," he
recalled in a 1962 interview with Harry Reasoner, "it more or less put
me in a different category because I became a human being. He was a
kid that you would meet next door, across the street, but at the same
time I could still do all the crazy things that we did before, but you
believed them. They were natural and the romance could be believable."
Unlike most silent comedy personae, "Harold" was never typecast to a
social class, but he was always striving for success and recognition.
Within the first few years of the character's debut, he had portrayed
social ranks ranging from a starving vagrant in
From Hand to Mouth
From Hand to Mouth to
a wealthy socialite in Captain Kidd's Kids.
1917 advertisement featuring Lloyd as "Lonesome Luke", with Snub
Pollard and Bebe Daniels
Harold Lloyd in Grandma's Boy (1922)
Lloyd's career was not all laughs, however. In August 1919, while
posing for some promotional still photographs in the Los Angeles
Photography Studio, he was seriously injured holding a prop
bomb thought merely to be a smoke pot. It exploded and mangled his
hand, causing him to lose a thumb and forefinger. The blast was severe
enough that the cameraman and prop director nearby were also seriously
injured. Lloyd was in the act of lighting a cigarette from the fuse of
the bomb when it exploded, also badly burning his face and chest and
injuring his eye. Despite the proximity of the blast to his face, he
retained his sight. As he recalled in 1930, "I thought I would surely
be so disabled that I would never be able to work again. I didn't
suppose that I would have one five-hundredth of what I have now. Still
I thought, 'Life is worth while. Just to be alive.' I still think
Beginning in 1921, Roach and Lloyd moved from shorts to feature-length
comedies. These included the acclaimed Grandma's Boy, which (along
with Chaplin's The Kid) pioneered the combination of complex character
development and film comedy, the highly popular
Safety Last! (1923),
which cemented Lloyd's stardom (and is the oldest film on the American
Film Institute's List of 100 Most Thrilling Movies), and Why Worry?
Lloyd and Roach parted ways in 1924, and Lloyd became the independent
producer of his own films. These included his most accomplished mature
features Girl Shy, The Freshman (his highest-grossing silent feature),
The Kid Brother, and Speedy, his final silent film. Welcome Danger
(1929) was originally a silent film but Lloyd decided late in the
production to remake it with dialogue. All of these films were
enormously successful and profitable, and Lloyd would eventually
become the highest paid film performer of the 1920s. They were
also highly influential and still find many fans among modern
audiences, a testament to the originality and film-making skill of
Lloyd and his collaborators. From this success he became one of the
wealthiest and most influential figures in early Hollywood.
Talkies and transition
In 1924, Lloyd formed his own independent film production company, the
Harold Lloyd Film Corporation, with his films distributed by Pathé
and later Paramount and Twentieth Century-Fox. Lloyd was a founding
member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Lloyd in the 1936 film The Milky Way
Released a few weeks before the start of the Great Depression, Welcome
Danger was a huge financial success, with audiences eager to hear
Lloyd's voice on film. Lloyd's rate of film releases, which had been
one or two a year in the 1920s, slowed to about one every two years
The films released during this period were: Feet First, with a similar
scenario to Safety Last which found him clinging to a skyscraper at
Movie Crazy with Constance Cummings; The Cat's-Paw, which
was a dark political comedy and a big departure for Lloyd; and The
Milky Way, which was Lloyd's only attempt at the fashionable genre of
the screwball comedy film.
To this point the films had been produced by Lloyd's company. However,
his go-getting screen character was out of touch with Great Depression
movie audiences of the 1930s. As the length of time between his film
releases increased, his popularity declined, as did the fortunes of
his production company. His final film of the decade, Professor
Beware, was made by the Paramount staff, with Lloyd functioning only
as actor and partial financier.
On March 23, 1937, Lloyd sold the land of his studio, Harold Lloyd
Motion Picture Company, to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints. The location is now the site of the Los Angeles California
Lloyd produced a few comedies for
RKO Radio Pictures
RKO Radio Pictures in the early
1940s but otherwise retired from the screen until 1947. He returned
for an additional starring appearance in The Sin of Harold Diddlebock,
an ill-fated homage to Lloyd's career, directed by
Preston Sturges and
financed by Howard Hughes. This film had the inspired idea of
following Harold's Jazz Age, optimistic character from The Freshman
Great Depression years. Diddlebock opened with footage from
The Freshman (for which Lloyd was paid a royalty of $50,000, matching
his actor's fee) and Lloyd was sufficiently youthful-looking to match
the older scenes quite well. Lloyd and Sturges had different
conceptions of the material and fought frequently during the shoot;
Lloyd was particularly concerned that while Sturges had spent three to
four months on the script of the first third of the film, "the last
two thirds of it he wrote in a week or less". The finished film was
released briefly in 1947, then shelved by producer Hughes. Hughes
issued a recut version of the film in 1951 through RKO under the title
Mad Wednesday. Such was Lloyd's disdain that he sued Howard Hughes,
the California Corporation and RKO for damages to his reputation "as
an outstanding motion picture star and personality", eventually
accepting a $30,000 settlement.
Radio and retirement
In October 1944, Lloyd emerged as the director and host of The Old
Comedy Theater, an
NBC radio anthology series, after Preston
Sturges, who had turned the job down, recommended him for it. The show
presented half-hour radio adaptations of recently successful film
comedies, beginning with
Palm Beach Story
Palm Beach Story with
Claudette Colbert and
Lloyd in 1946, when he was appointed to the Shriners' publicity
Some saw The Old Gold
Comedy Theater as being a lighter version of Lux
Radio Theater, and it featured some of the best-known film and radio
personalities of the day, including Fred Allen, June Allyson, Lucille
Ball, Ralph Bellamy, Linda Darnell, Susan Hayward, Herbert Marshall,
Dick Powell, Edward G. Robinson, Jane Wyman, and Alan Young. But the
show's half-hour format—which meant the material might have been
truncated too severely—and Lloyd's sounding somewhat ill at ease on
the air for much of the season (though he spent weeks training himself
to speak on radio prior to the show's premiere, and seemed more
relaxed toward the end of the series run) may have worked against it.
The Old Gold
Comedy Theater ended in June 1945 with an adaptation of
Tom, Dick and Harry, featuring
June Allyson and
Reginald Gardiner and
was not renewed for the following season. Many years later, acetate
discs of 29 of the shows were discovered in Lloyd's home, and they now
circulate among old-time radio collectors.
Lloyd remained involved in a number of other interests, including
civic and charity work. Inspired by having overcome his own serious
injuries and burns, he was very active as a Freemason and Shriner with
Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children. He was a Past Potentate
of Al-Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles, and was eventually selected as
Imperial Potentate of the
Shriners of North America for the year
1949–50. At the installation ceremony for this position on July
25, 1949, 90,000 people were present at Soldier Field, including then
sitting U.S. President Harry S Truman, also a 33° Scottish Rite
Mason. In recognition of his services to the nation and
Freemasonry, Bro. Lloyd was invested with the Rank and Decoration of
Knight Commander Court of Honour in 1955 and coroneted an Inspector
General Honorary, 33°, in 1965.
He appeared as himself on several television shows during his
retirement, first on Ed Sullivan's variety show
Toast of the Town
Toast of the Town June
5, 1949, and again on July 6, 1958. He appeared as the Mystery Guest
What's My Line?
What's My Line? on April 26, 1953, and twice on This Is Your Life:
on March 10, 1954 for Mack Sennett, and again on December 14, 1955, on
his own episode. During both appearances, Lloyd's hand injury can
clearly be seen.
Lloyd studied colors and microscopy, and was very involved with
3D photography and color film experiments. Some
of the earliest 2-color
Technicolor tests were shot at his Beverly
Hills home (these are included as extra material in the Harold Lloyd
Comedy Collection DVD Box Set). He became known for his nude
photographs of models, such as
Bettie Page and stripper Dixie Evans,
for a number of men's magazines. He also took photos of Marilyn Monroe
lounging at his pool in a bathing suit, which were published after her
death. In 2004, his granddaughter Suzanne produced a book of
selections from his photographs, Harold Lloyd's Hollywood Nudes in 3D!
Lloyd also provided encouragement and support for a number of younger
actors, such as Debbie Reynolds, Robert Wagner, and particularly Jack
Lemmon, whom Harold declared as his own choice to play him in a movie
of his life and work.
The iconic clock scene in Safety Last!
Movie poster for the
Harold Lloyd film World of
Lloyd kept copyright control of most of his films and re-released them
infrequently after his retirement. Lloyd did not grant cinematic
release because most theaters could not accommodate an organist, and
Lloyd did not wish his work to be accompanied by a pianist: "I just
don't like pictures played with pianos. We never intended them to be
played with pianos." Similarly, his features were never shown on
television as Lloyd's price was high: "I want $300,000 per picture for
two showings. That's a high price, but if I don't get it, I'm not
going to show it. They've come close to it, but they haven't come all
the way up". As a consequence, his reputation and public recognition
suffered in comparison with Chaplin and Keaton, whose work has
generally been more available. Lloyd's film character was so
intimately associated with the 1920s era that attempts at revivals in
1940s and 1950s were poorly received, when audiences viewed the 1920s
(and silent film in particular) as old-fashioned.
In the early 1960s, Lloyd produced two compilation films, featuring
scenes from his old comedies, Harold Lloyd's World of
Comedy and The
Funny Side of Life. The first film was premiered at the 1962 Cannes
Film Festival, where Lloyd was fêted as a major rediscovery. The
renewed interest in Lloyd helped restore his status among film
historians. Throughout his later years he screened his films for
audiences at special charity and educational events, to great acclaim,
and found a particularly receptive audience among college audiences:
"Their whole response was tremendous because they didn't miss a gag;
anything that was even a little subtle, they got it right away."
The crypt of Harold Lloyd, in the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn
Following his death, and after extensive negotiations, most of his
feature films were leased to
Time-Life Films in 1974. As Tom Dardis
Time-Life prepared horrendously edited musical-sound-track
versions of the silent films, which are intended to be shown on TV at
sound speed [24 frames per second], and which represent everything
that Harold feared would happen to his best films".
Time-Life released the films as half-hour television shows, with two
clips per show. These were often near-complete versions of the early
two-reelers, but also included extended sequences from features such
Safety Last! (terminating at the clock sequence) and Feet First
(presented silent, but with Walter Scharf's score from Lloyd's own
Time-Life released several of the feature films
more or less intact, also using some of Scharf's scores which had been
commissioned by Lloyd. The
Time-Life clips series included a narrator
rather than intertitles. Various narrators were used internationally:
the English-language series was narrated by Henry Corden.
Time-Life series was frequently repeated by the
BBC in the United
Kingdom during the 1980s, and in 1990 a
Thames Television documentary,
Harold Lloyd: The Third Genius was produced by
Kevin Brownlow and
David Gill, following two similar series based on
Charlie Chaplin and
Buster Keaton. Composer
Carl Davis wrote a new score for Safety
Last! which he performed live during a showing of the film with the
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Royal Scottish National Orchestra to great acclaim in 1993.
The Brownlow and Gill documentary was shown as part of the PBS series
American Masters, and created a renewed interest in Lloyd's work in
the United States, but the films were largely unavailable. In 2002,
Harold Lloyd Trust re-launched
Harold Lloyd with the publication
of the book Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian by
Jeffrey Vance and Suzanne
Lloyd and a series of feature films and short subjects called
Harold Lloyd Classic Comedies” produced by
Jeffrey Vance and
executive produced by Suzanne Lloyd for
Harold Lloyd Entertainment.
The new cable television and home video versions of Lloyd's great
silent features and many shorts were remastered with new orchestral
scores by Robert Israel. These versions are frequently shown on the
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies (TCM) cable channel. A DVD collection of these
restored or remastered versions of his feature films and important
short subjects was released by New Line Cinema in partnership with the
Harold Lloyd Trust in 2005, along with theatrical screenings in the
US, Canada, and Europe.
Criterion Collection has subsequently acquired
the home video rights to the Lloyd library, and have released Safety
Last!, The Freshman, and Speedy.
In the June 2006 Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra Silent Film Gala
program book for Safety Last!, film historian
Jeffrey Vance stated
that Robert A. Golden, Lloyd's assistant director, routinely doubled
Harold Lloyd between 1921 and 1927. According to Vance, Golden
doubled Lloyd in the bit with Harold shimmy shaking off the building's
ledge after a mouse crawls up his trousers.
Harold Lloyd Estate
Lloyd married his leading lady
Mildred Davis on February 10, 1923 in
Los Angeles, California. They had two children together: Gloria
Lloyd (1923-2012) and Harold Clayton Lloyd Jr.
(1931–1971). They also adopted Gloria Freeman (1924—1986) in
September 1930, whom they renamed Marjorie Elizabeth Lloyd but was
known as "Peggy" for most of her life. Lloyd discouraged Davis from
continuing her acting career. He later relented but by that time her
career momentum was lost. Davis died from a heart attack in 1969, two
years before Lloyd's death. Though her real age was a guarded secret,
a family spokesperson at the time indicated she was 66 years old.
Lloyd's son was gay and, according to
Annette D'Agostino Lloyd (no
relation) in the book Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian, Harold Sr. took
this in good spirit. Harold Jr. died from complications of a stroke
three months after his father.
The Lloyds in 1936. From left to right: Peggy and Harold Jr., Harold,
Gloria, and Mildred
In 1925, at the height of his movie career, Lloyd entered into
Freemasonry at the Alexander Hamilton Lodge No. 535 of Hollywood,
advancing quickly through both the
York Rite and Scottish Rite, and
then joined Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles. He took the degrees of
the Royal Arch with his father. In 1926, he became a 32° Scottish
Rite Mason in the Valley of Los Angeles, California. He was vested
with the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander Court of Honor (KCCH)
and eventually with the Inspector General Honorary, 33rd degree.
Beverly Hills home, "Greenacres", was built in 1926–1929,
with 44 rooms, 26 bathrooms, 12 fountains, 12 gardens, and a nine-hole
golf course. A portion of Lloyd's personal inventory of his silent
films (then estimated to be worth $2 million) was destroyed in August
1943 when his film vault caught fire. Seven firemen were overcome
while inhaling chlorine gas from the blaze. Lloyd himself was saved by
his wife, who dragged him to safety outdoors after he collapsed at the
door of the film vault. The fire spared the main house and
outbuildings. After attempting to maintain the home as a museum of
film history, as Lloyd had wished, the Lloyd family sold it to a
developer in 1975.
The grounds were subsequently subdivided but the main house and the
estate's principal gardens remain and are frequently used for civic
fundraising events and as a filming location, appearing in films like
Westworld and The Loved One. It is listed on the National Register of
Greenacres was built in the 1920s in Beverly Hills, one of Los
Angeles' all-white planned communities. The area had restrictive
covenants prohibiting non-whites (this also included Jews) from
living there unless they were in the employment of a white resident
(typically as a domestic servant).:57 In 1940, Lloyd supported a
neighborhood improvement association in
Beverly Hills that attempted
to enforce the all-white covenant in court after a number of black
actors and businessmen had begun buying properties in the area.
However, in his decision, federal judge
Thurmond Clarke dismissed the
action stating that it was time that "members of the Negro race are
accorded, without reservations or evasions, the full rights guaranteed
to them under the 14th amendment." In 1948 the United States
Supreme Court declared in
Shelley v. Kraemer
Shelley v. Kraemer that all racially
restrictive covenants in the United States were unenforceable.
Lloyd died at age 77 from prostate cancer on March 8, 1971, at his
Greenacres home in Beverly Hills, California. He was
interred in a crypt in the Great Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial
Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. His former co-star Bebe
Daniels died eight days after him and his son
Harold Lloyd Jr.
Harold Lloyd Jr. died
three months after him.
In 1927, his was only the fourth concrete ceremony at Grauman's
Chinese Theatre, preserving his handprints, footprints, and autograph,
along with the outline of his famed glasses (which were actually a
pair of sunglasses with the lenses removed). The ceremony took
place directly in front of the Hollywood Masonic Temple, which was the
meeting place of the Masonic lodge to which he belonged.
Lloyd was honored in 1960 for his contribution to motion pictures with
a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 1503 Vine Street.
In 1994, he was honored with his image on a United States postage
stamp designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld.
In 1953, Lloyd received an
Academy Honorary Award for being a "master
comedian and good citizen". The second citation was a snub to Chaplin,
who at that point had fallen foul of
McCarthyism and had his entry
visa to the United States revoked. Regardless of the political
overtones, Lloyd accepted the award in good spirit.
Harold Lloyd filmography
List of American comedy films
List of Notable Freemasons
^ Obituary Variety, March 10, 1971, page 55.
^ Austerlitz, Saul (2010). Another Fine Mess: A History of American
Film Comedy. Chicago Review Press. p. 28. ISBN 1569767637.
^ a b D’Agostino Lloyd, Annette. "Why
Harold Lloyd Is Important".
haroldlloyd.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
^ Slide, Anthony (September 27, 2002). Silent Players: A Biographical
and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film Actors and Actresses.
Univ. Press of Kentucky. p. 221. ISBN 978-0813122496.
^ An American Comedy; Lloyd and Stout; 1928; page 129
Comedy in the 1920's - 1950's". alphadragondesign.com. Retrieved
April 13, 2015.
^ "Encyclopedia of the Great Plains - Lloyd, Harold (1893-1971)".
unl.edu. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
Hal Roach article". Silentsaregolden.com. Retrieved
^ Pawlak, Debra Ann (January 15, 2011). Bringing Up Oscar: The Story
of the Men and Women Who Founded the Academy. New York: Pegasus Books.
p. 62. ISBN 978-1605981376.
Harold Lloyd biography". haroldlloyd.com. Retrieved November 12,
^ Hall, Gladys (October 1930). "Discoveries About Myself". Motion
Picture Magazine. New York: Brewster Publications. Retrieved October
^ a b "Died". Time. March 22, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008. Harold
Lloyd, 77, comedian whose screen image of horn-rimmed incompetence
made him Hollywood's highest-paid star in the 1920s; of cancer; in
Hollywood. He usually played a feckless Mr. Average who triumphed over
misfortune. 'My character represented the white-collar middle class
that felt frustrated but was always fighting to overcome its
shortcomings,' he once explained. Lloyd usually did his own stunt
work, as in Safety Last (1923), in which he dangled from a clock high
above the street; he was protected only by a wooden platform two
^ "Los Angeles California Temple". The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints. Retrieved June 8, 2008. The land for the Los
Angeles California Temple was purchased from
Harold Lloyd Motion
Picture Company on March 23, 1937.
^ "Harold LLoyd" Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
"In 1949, Harold's face graced the cover of TIME Magazine as the
Imperial Potentate of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the
Mystic Shrine, their highest-ranking position. He devoted an entire
year to visiting 130 temples across the country giving speeches for
over 700,000 Shriners. The last twenty years of his life he worked
tirelessly for the twenty-two Shriner Hospitals for Children and in
the 1960s, he was named President and Chairman of the Board."
^ Lloyd, Harold. "Phoenix Masonry Masonic Museum". Masonic Research.
Phoenix Masonry. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
^ "Harold Lloyd". IMDB. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
Harold Lloyd — The Third Genius.
^ Loos, Ted (2002-07-21). "Books in Brief – Nonfiction – A Matter
of Attitude". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
^ "Behind the Laughter". latimes. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
^ "Safety Last!". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved April 13,
^ "The Freshman". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved April 13,
^ "Speedy". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
^ ""Safety Last!: Notes on the Making of the Film" : Los Angeles
Chamber Orchestra Silent Film Gala program book, June 3, 2006 revised
and reprinted as "Safety Last!" San Francisco Silent Film Festival
program book, July 18–21, 2013". Silentfilm.org. Retrieved
^ Los Angeles, California, County Marriages 1850-1952
^ "Gloria Lloyd, daughter of Harold Lloyd, dies". Variety. February
11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
^ Brownlow, Kevin (27 February 2012). "Obituaries: Gloria Lloyd:
Actress who had a gilded life as Harold Lloyd's daughter". The
Independent. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
Harold Lloyd Jr.
Harold Lloyd Jr. Dies. Actor, Son of
Comedy Star". The New York
Times. June 10, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
^ James W. Loewen (September 29, 2005). Sundown Towns: A Hidden
Dimension Of American Racism. The New Press. p. 112.
ISBN 978-1-59558-674-2. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
^ Andrew Wiese (December 15, 2005). Places of Their Own: African
American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century. University of
Chicago Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-226-89625-0. Retrieved
August 19, 2012.
^ Michael Gross (November 1, 2011). Unreal Estate: Money, Ambition,
and the Lust for Land in Los Angeles. Random House Digital, Inc.
ISBN 978-0-7679-3265-3. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
^ Stephen Grant Meyer (October 1, 2001). As Long As They Don't Move
Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods.
Rowman & Littlefield. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8476-9701-4.
Retrieved August 19, 2012.
^ Steve Sheppard (April 1, 2007). The History of Legal Education in
the United States: Commentaries And Primary Sources. The Lawbook
Exchange, Ltd. p. 948n. ISBN 978-1-58477-690-1. Retrieved
August 19, 2012.
^ "Harold Lloyd, Bespectacled Film Comic, Dies of Cancer at 77". Los
Angeles Times. March 9, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008. Comedian Harold
Lloyd, 77, who bumbled through more than 300 films as a bespectacled
victim of life's difficulties, died of cancer Monday at his Beverly
^ Illson, Murray (March 9, 1971). "Horn-Rims His Trademark; Harold
Lloyd, Screen Comedian, Dies at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved
June 8, 2008. A pair of inexpensive, horn-rimmed eyeglass frames
without lenses, the shy expression of a somewhat bewildered adolescent
and a single-track ambition made Harold Clayton Lloyd the highest-paid
screen actor in Hollywood's golden age of the nineteen twenties.
Harold Lloyd at Find a Grave
^ "Harold Lloyd's Prints At Mann's Chinese Theatre". Getty Images.
^ Bengtson, John (2011-05-21). "
Harold Lloyd – lasting impressions
at Grauman's Chinese". Chaplin-Keaton-Lloyd film locations (and more).
^ Ridenour, Al (2002-05-02). "A Chamber of Secrets". Los Angeles
Times. pp. 1–2. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved
Harold Lloyd Hollywood Walk of Fame". www.walkoffame.com.
^ Hirschfeld, Al (2015). The Hirschfeld Century: Portrait of an Artist
and His Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 291, 293.
ISBN 9781101874974. OCLC 898029267.
^ McAllister, Bill (1994-04-15). "Hirschfeld's 'Silent' Stars". The
Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
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and New York Through the Films of Harold Lloyd. Santa Monica Press.
Brownlow, Kevin (1976) . "Harold Lloyd" from The Parade's Gone
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Dale, Alan (2002).
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Movies. University of Minnesota Press.
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Help with a Smile" from The Crazy
Comedy and the American Image. Dell.
Everson, William K. (1978). American Silent Film. Oxford University
Gilliatt, Penelope (1973). "Physicists" from Unholy Fools: Wits,
Comics, Disturbers of the Peace. Viking.
Hayes, Suzanne Lloyd (ed.), (1992). 3-D Hollywood with
Harold Lloyd. Simon & Schuster. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
Kerr, Walter (1990) . The Silent Clowns. Alfred A. Knopf, Da
Lacourbe, Roland (1970). Harold Lloyd. Paris: Editions Seghers.
Lahue, Kalton C. (1966). World of Laughter: The Motion Picture Comedy
Short, 1910–1930. University of Oklahoma Press.
Lloyd, Annette D'Agostino (2003). The
Harold Lloyd Encyclopedia.
McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1514-2.
Lloyd, Annette D'Agostino (2009). Harold Lloyd: Magic in a Pair of
Horn-Rimmed Glasses. BearManor Media.
Lloyd, Harold; Stout, W. W. (1971) . An American Comedy.
Lloyd, Suzanne (2004). Harold Lloyd's Hollywood Nudes in 3-D. Black
Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-57912-394-9.
Maltin, Leonard (1978). The Great Movie Comedians. Crown
Mast, Gerald (1979) . The Comic Mind:
Comedy and the Movies.
University of Chicago Press.
McCaffrey, Donald W. (1968). 4 Great Comedians: Chaplin, Lloyd,
Keaton, Langdon. A.S. Barnes.
McCaffrey, Donald W. (1976). Three Classic Silent Screen Comedies
Starring Harold Lloyd. Associated University Presses.
Mitchell, Glenn (2003). A–Z of Silent Film Comedy. B.T. Batsford
Reilly, Adam (1977). Harold Lloyd: The King of Daredevil Comedy.
Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-601940-X.
Robinson, David (1969). The Great Funnies: A History of Film Comedy.
Schickel, Richard (1974). Harold Lloyd: The Shape of Laughter. New
York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-0595-1.
Vance, Jeffrey; Lloyd, Suzanne (2002). Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian.
Harry N Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1674-6.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Harold Lloyd (category)
Harold Lloyd on IMDb
HaroldLloyd.us—a site with articles and information, maintained by
Annette D'Agostino Lloyd
Harold Lloyd Forum part of ComedyClassics.org
Harold Lloyd Photos at Silent Ladies & Gents
BBC Radio Interview with Suzanne Lloyd (2002)
Harold Lloyd in The Sin Of Harold Diddlebock at The Internet Archive
Photographs and bibliography
Comedy Theater Episodes
Academy Honorary Award
Warner Bros. /
Charlie Chaplin (1928)
Walt Disney (1932)
Shirley Temple (1934)
D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith (1935)
The March of Time
The March of Time /
W. Howard Greene and
Harold Rosson (1936)
Edgar Bergen /
W. Howard Greene /
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art Film Library /
Mack Sennett (1937)
J. Arthur Ball /
Walt Disney /
Deanna Durbin and
Mickey Rooney /
Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art
Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills,
Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst /
Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey /
Harry Warner (1938)
Douglas Fairbanks /
Judy Garland /
William Cameron Menzies / Motion
Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad
Technicolor Company (1939)
Bob Hope /
Nathan Levinson (1940)
Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA
Manufacturing Company /
Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey
Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941)
Charles Boyer /
Noël Coward /
George Pal (1943)
Bob Hope /
Margaret O'Brien (1944)
Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound
Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner
Harold Russell /
Laurence Olivier /
Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr.
James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith,
George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor /
Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947)
Walter Wanger /
Monsieur Vincent /
Sid Grauman /
Adolph Zukor (1948)
Jean Hersholt /
Fred Astaire /
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer /
George Murphy /
The Walls of Malapaga (1950)
Gene Kelly /
Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper /
Bob Hope /
Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph
M. Schenck /
Forbidden Games (1952)
20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph
Breen / Pete Smith (1953)
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company /
Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta
Jon Whiteley /
Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954)
Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955)
Eddie Cantor (1956)
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M.
"Broncho Billy" Anderson /
Charles Brackett /
B. B. Kahane (1957)
Maurice Chevalier (1958)
Buster Keaton /
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest (1959)
Gary Cooper /
Stan Laurel /
Hayley Mills (1960)
William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler /
Jerome Robbins (1961)
William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle (1964)
Bob Hope (1965)
Yakima Canutt /
Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman (1966)
Arthur Freed (1967)
John Chambers /
Onna White (1968)
Cary Grant (1969)
Lillian Gish /
Orson Welles (1970)
Charlie Chaplin (1971)
Charles S. Boren /
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson (1972)
Henri Langlois /
Groucho Marx (1973)
Howard Hawks /
Jean Renoir (1974)
Mary Pickford (1975)
Margaret Booth (1977)
Walter Lantz /
Laurence Olivier /
King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art
Department of Film (1978)
Hal Elias /
Alec Guinness (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Barbara Stanwyck (1981)
Mickey Rooney (1982)
Hal Roach (1983)
James Stewart /
National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts (1984)
Paul Newman /
Alex North (1985)
Ralph Bellamy (1986)
Kodak Company /
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada (1988)
Akira Kurosawa (1989)
Sophia Loren /
Myrna Loy (1990)
Satyajit Ray (1991)
Federico Fellini (1992)
Deborah Kerr (1993)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1994)
Kirk Douglas /
Chuck Jones (1995)
Michael Kidd (1996)
Stanley Donen (1997)
Elia Kazan (1998)
Andrzej Wajda (1999)
Jack Cardiff /
Ernest Lehman (2000)
Sidney Poitier /
Robert Redford (2001)
Peter O'Toole (2002)
Blake Edwards (2003)
Sidney Lumet (2004)
Robert Altman (2005)
Ennio Morricone (2006)
Robert F. Boyle (2007)
Lauren Bacall /
Roger Corman /
Gordon Willis (2009)
Kevin Brownlow /
Jean-Luc Godard /
Eli Wallach (2010)
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011)
D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker /
Hal Needham /
George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr. (2012)
Angela Lansbury /
Steve Martin /
Piero Tosi (2013)
Jean-Claude Carrière /
Hayao Miyazaki /
Maureen O'Hara (2014)
Spike Lee /
Gena Rowlands (2015)
Jackie Chan /
Lynn Stalmaster /
Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman
Charles Burnett /
Owen Roizman /
Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda
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