The Info List - Hani People

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The Hani or Ho people
Ho people
(Hani: Haqniq; Chinese: 哈尼族; pinyin: Hānízú; Vietnamese: Người Hà Nhì) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 officially recognized nationalities of the People's Republic of China, and one of the 54 officially recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam. In Laos, the Hani are more commonly known as Ho.


1 Distribution

1.1 China

2 Origins 3 Culture

3.1 Religion 3.2 Language

4 Subgroups

4.1 China 4.2 Vietnam

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Distribution[edit] There are 12,500 Hani living in Lai Châu Province
Lai Châu Province
and Lào Cai Province of Vietnam. The Ho reside in the mountainous northern regions of Phongsaly Province
Phongsaly Province
in Laos, near the Chinese and Vietnamese borders. China[edit] Over ninety percent of present-day Hani peoples live in the Province of Yunnan
in southern China, located across the Ailao Mountains, between the Mekong River
Mekong River
and the Red River (Yuanjiang river). Subdivisions of Hani autonomous counties within prefecture-level cities, and a prefecture, within Yunnan

Mojiang Hani Autonomous County
Mojiang Hani Autonomous County
Pu'er City
Pu'er City
(prefecture-level city) Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County
Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County
Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Yuanjiang Hani, Yi and Dai Autonomous County
Yuanjiang Hani, Yi and Dai Autonomous County
— Yuxi (prefecture-level city) Zhenyuan Yi, Hani and Lahu Autonomous County
Zhenyuan Yi, Hani and Lahu Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture

Origins[edit] The origins of the Hani are not precisely known, though their ancestors, the ancient Qiang tribe, are believed to have migrated southward from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau prior to the third century CE. The Hani oral traditions state that they are descended from the Yi people, and that they split off as a separate tribe fifty generations ago. One of their oral traditions is the recital of the names of Hani ancestors from the first Hani family down to oneself. Culture[edit]

A Hani house in Vietnam.

Hani houses are usually two or three stories high, built with bamboo, mud, stone and wood. The traditional clothing of the Hani is made with dark blue fabric. The men dress in short jackets and in long wide pants. They also wear white or black turbans. The women dress depending on which clan they belong to. There is no gender difference in the clothing of children under the age of seven. Hani are known for their vocal polyphonic singing. Eight-part polyphony was recorded in the 1990s.[2] They play traditional musical instruments, end-blown flute labi (俄比). and three-stringed plucked lute lahe. Part of thousand years old culture are terraced fields.

Elderly Hani ladies enjoying ice cream at Laomeng market. Near Yuanyang, Yunnan
Province, China.

Religion[edit] The Hani are polytheists and they profess a special adoration toward the spirits of their ancestors. They are used to practicing rituals to venerate to the different gods and thus to obtain their protection. The religious hierarchy of the Hani is divided into three main personages: the zuima that directs the main celebrations; the beima, responsible for practicing the exorcisms and the magical rituals; the nima that takes charge of carrying out predictions and to administer the medicinal herbs. This last charge can be performed indistinctly by men and women. Some Hani also practice Theravada Buddhism. Language[edit] See also: Hanoish languages The Hani language
Hani language
spoken by many of the Hani belongs to the Lolo-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Many Hani speak languages related Lolo-Burmese languages. Oral tradition tells of an ancient written script, tradition says it was lost on the migration from Sichuan. They now use a romanization of the Luchun dialect as a written script. Subgroups[edit] China[edit] According to You Weiqiong (2013:159-160),[3] Hani subgroups were classified as follows in 1954, with 11 primary branches. Respective locations (counties) are listed as well.

Hani 哈尼

Nuobi 糯比: in Xinping, Mojiang Qidi 其弟/期弟: in Honghe, Mojiang, Puer, Zhenyuan, Sipsongpanna Mahei 麻黑: in Puer, Jinggu, Zhenyuan Luomian 罗勉: in Luquan, Wuding Lami 腊米: in Zhenyuan, Mojiang, Honghe, Sipsongpanna Kabie 卡别: in Mojiang Duota 堕塔: in Puer, Xinping, Zhenyuan Sanda 三达: in Sipsongpanna. The Sanda people live in Sanda Township 三达乡 (including in Dazhai 大寨) of Jinghong City, and speak a Yi language with many Hani loanwords (You 2013:136-137).[3] There are 2 elderly women in Dazhai 大寨 who can only remember just over 40 words in the Sanda language.[3] The Chinese name for this group is Sanda 三达, while the Dai name is Lanqian 兰千. The Sanda claim to have migrated from Yibang 倚邦 and Yiwu 易武. Initially, they were classified by the Chinese government as ethnic Yi, but currently they are classified as ethnic Hani. Haini 海尼: in Jinggu Huagu 花姑: in Yuanyang Aka 阿卡: in Puer

Yeni 耶尼 (exonym: Kaduo 卡多): in Mojiang, Xinping, Puer, Zhenyuan, Jingdong, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna Biyue 碧约: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Xinping, Zhenyuan, Simao, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna, Jingdong Haoni 豪尼

Budu 布都: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Xinping Bujiao 补角: in Sipsongpanna Baike 白壳: in Zhenyuan

Gecuo 哥搓 (exonym: Kucong 苦聪): in Zhenyuan, Xinping, Jinping, Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Yuanyang, Jinggu, Jingdong, Shuangbai Axiluma 阿西鲁吗 (exonym: Ximoluo 西摩洛): in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Jingdong Duoni 多尼: in Yuanyang, Jinping Amu 阿木: in Mojiang, Zhenyuan, Puer Suoni 梭尼 (exonym: Asuo 阿梭): in Jinping Luomei 罗美 (exonym: Suobi 梭比): in Xinping Bukong 布孔 (exonyms: Heni 合尼, Baihong 白宏): in Mojiang, Honghe, Puer, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jingdong

Vietnam[edit] The Hani of Vietnam
consist of the following subgroups (Vu 2010:10-11).[4]

The Flowery Hani (Hà Nhì Hoa), who are found in Lai Chau Province and are further split into two subgroups.

Hà Nhì Cồ Chồ Hà Nhì La Mí

The Black Hani, who are found in Bát Xát District, Lao Cai Province

In Vietnam, communes consisting almost exclusively of ethnic Hani include Sín Thầu, Chúng Chải, Mù Cả, Ka Lăng, Thu Lủm (all in Mường Tè District), Y Tý and A Lù (all in Bát Xát District). The Hani of A Lù had originally come from Jinping County of Yunnan, China, and had later spread from A Lù to the communes of Lao Chải, Nậm Pung, and Ngài Thầu. See also[edit]

Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture Yuanyang County, Yunnan, with its Hani majority and immense rice terraced mountains Akha people, a closely related people who have spread out from Yunnan province into Burma, Vietnam, Laos
and Thailand. The Akha that still live in China
are seen as part of the Hani people.[5] Hanoish languages


^ "The 2009 Vietnam
Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ Zhang, Xingrong (1997). ‘A New Discovery: Traditional 8-Part Polyphonic Singing of the Hani of Yunnan’. Chime 10/11 (Spring/Autumn), pg 145–52. http://contemporary_chinese_culture.academic.ru/306/Han_Shaogong ^ a b c You Weiqiong [尤伟琼]. 2013. Classifying ethnic groups of Yunnan
[云南民族识别研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社]. ^ Vũ Quốc Khánh. 2010. Người Hà Nhì ở Việt Nam [The Ha Nhi in Viet Nam]. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản thông tấn. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hani.

Photographs of the Hani of Yuanyang County, Yunnan Hani gallery The Hani ethnic minority on China.org.cn (Chinese government site) Asia harvest ethnic profile ハニ和辞典 (Hani-Japanese glossary) UNESCO about terrace fields

v t e

Ethnic groups in China



Han Bai Hui


Achang Hani Jino Lahu Lisu Nu Yi


Nakhi Pumi Qiang


Derung Jingpo Lhoba Monpa Tibetan Tujia


Blang Gin Palaung Va




She Yao


Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mongol Monguor Yugur


Bouyei Dai Dong Gelao Li Maonan Mulao Sui Zhuang


Evenk Manchu Nanai Oroqen Sibe


Kazakh Kyrgyz Salar Tatar Uyghur Uzbek Yugur


Lai Deng Gejia Utsul Khmu Macanese Mang Jews


Filipinos Gaoshan Japanese Koreans Russian Tajik

Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
· Immigrant ethnic groups in China
· Historic ethnic groups

v t e

Ethnic groups in Vietnam
by language family


Chứt Mường Thổ Việt (Kinh)


Bố Y Giáy Lào Lự Nùng Sán Chay Tày Thái

Thái Đen Thái Đỏ Thái Trắng Phu Thai Tày Thanh Thái Hàng Tổng

Cờ Lao La Chí La Ha Pu Péo


Dao H'Mông Pà Thẻn


Ba Na Brâu Bru-Vân Kiều Chơ Ro Co Cờ Ho Cơ Tu Giẻ Triêng Hrê Kháng Khơ Me Khơ Mú Mạ Mảng M'Nông Ơ Đu Rơ Măm Tà Ôi Xinh Mun Xơ Đăng Xtiêng


Hoa Ngái Sán Dìu


Chăm Chu Ru Ê Đê Gia Rai Ra Glai


Cống Hà Nhì La Hủ Lô Lô Phù Lá Si La


Indian Japanese Korean Jewish Nigerian Taiwanese

v t e

Ethnic groups in Laos
by language family


Lao Lu Phuan Phu Thai Saek Tai Daeng (Red Tai) Tai Dam (Black Tai) Tai Khao (White Tai) Tai Maen Tai Nüa


Bo Chut (May) Kinh/Vietnamese Krih Liha Maleng Phong Phon Sung (Aheu) Thavung Tum


Alak Bit Brau (Lavae) Bru Ca Tu Doi Htin Jeng Kaleung Kataang Keu Khang Khamu Kuy Lamet Laven Lavy Makong Mlabri Nghe Nyaheun O Du Oy Pacoh Samtao (Kiorr) Sedang Sou Talieng Ta Oi Xinh Mun (Puoc) Yae (Jeh)


Hmong Lanten Yao


Akha Hani Kado Kaduo Lahu Phana' Phunoi Si La

v t e

Lolo-Burmese languages


Kathu Maang Manga Mango Mantsi Mondzi Maza Muangphe Mauphu Motang Mongphu



Achang Xiandao Pela Lashi Chashan Lhao Vo Zaiwa Hpon


Burmese Arakanese Ramree Danu Intha Myeik Tavoyan Yaw

Loloish (Ngwi)



Naxi Namuyi

Southern Loloish (Hanoish)



Akha Akeu Chepya Muteun Muda? Gokhy?


Hani Nuomei Nuobi Lami Luomian Angluo Guohe Guozuo Gehuo Yiche Qidi Kabie


Honi Woni Baihong Bukong Budu Suobi Duoni Duota Asuo Amu


Bisu Laomian Laopin Pyen Phunoi Sinsali Cantan Cốông Sangkong Tsukong Laopan Laoseng Phongku Phongset Phunyot Cauho Bantang Khongsat


Sila Khir Cosao Paza Phana’ Wanyä


Piyo Kaduo Enu Mpi





(Central Loloish?)


Lawu Awu Lewu?


Lahu Kucong


Nusu Zauzou


Lisu Toloza Lipo Lolopo Mili Hlersu Micha Lamu Limi


Lalo Yangliu Eka Mangdi Xuzhang Alu?


Talu Lavu Lang'e Tagu Popei Naruo Kua-nsi Kuamasi Laizisi Zibusi Sonaga Gomotage


Katso Samu Sanie Sadu Meuma


Northern Loloish (Nisoid)


Nuosu Nyisu?


Nasu Chesu Luoji Gepo Ku Alingpo Aluo

Southeastern Loloish (Axi-Puoid)


Nisu Lope


Sani Axi Azhe Azha Samei?

Highland Phula

Khlula Muji Bokha Phuma Muzi Laghuu Moji Phowa Phukha Thopho Zokhuo

Riverine Phula

Phola Phala Phupa Phuza Phupha Alugu


Pholo Ache Long Xiqi Ati Adu


(other lesser-known languages)


Pai-lang Ugong? Mruic?

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LCCN: sh89004413 SUDOC: 033940622 BNF: cb12474689s (d