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The Hani or Ho people
Ho people
(Hani: Haqniq; Chinese: 哈尼族; pinyin: Hānízú; Vietnamese: Người Hà Nhì) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 officially recognized nationalities of the People's Republic of China, and one of the 54 officially recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam. In Laos, the Hani are more commonly known as Ho.

Contents

1 Distribution

1.1 China

2 Origins 3 Culture

3.1 Religion 3.2 Language

4 Subgroups

4.1 China 4.2 Vietnam

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Distribution[edit] There are 12,500 Hani living in Lai Châu Province
Lai Châu Province
and Lào Cai Province of Vietnam. The Ho reside in the mountainous northern regions of Phongsaly Province
Phongsaly Province
in Laos, near the Chinese and Vietnamese borders. China[edit] Over ninety percent of present-day Hani peoples live in the Province of Yunnan
Yunnan
in southern China, located across the Ailao Mountains, between the Mekong River
Mekong River
and the Red River (Yuanjiang river). Subdivisions of Hani autonomous counties within prefecture-level cities, and a prefecture, within Yunnan
Yunnan
are:

Mojiang Hani Autonomous County
Mojiang Hani Autonomous County
Pu'er City
Pu'er City
(prefecture-level city) Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County
Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County
Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Yuanjiang Hani, Yi and Dai Autonomous County
Yuanjiang Hani, Yi and Dai Autonomous County
— Yuxi (prefecture-level city) Zhenyuan Yi, Hani and Lahu Autonomous County
Zhenyuan Yi, Hani and Lahu Autonomous County
— Pu'er City Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture

Origins[edit] The origins of the Hani are not precisely known, though their ancestors, the ancient Qiang tribe, are believed to have migrated southward from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau prior to the third century CE. The Hani oral traditions state that they are descended from the Yi people, and that they split off as a separate tribe fifty generations ago. One of their oral traditions is the recital of the names of Hani ancestors from the first Hani family down to oneself. Culture[edit]

A Hani house in Vietnam.

Hani houses are usually two or three stories high, built with bamboo, mud, stone and wood. The traditional clothing of the Hani is made with dark blue fabric. The men dress in short jackets and in long wide pants. They also wear white or black turbans. The women dress depending on which clan they belong to. There is no gender difference in the clothing of children under the age of seven. Hani are known for their vocal polyphonic singing. Eight-part polyphony was recorded in the 1990s.[2] They play traditional musical instruments, end-blown flute labi (俄比). and three-stringed plucked lute lahe. Part of thousand years old culture are terraced fields.

Elderly Hani ladies enjoying ice cream at Laomeng market. Near Yuanyang, Yunnan
Yunnan
Province, China.

Religion[edit] The Hani are polytheists and they profess a special adoration toward the spirits of their ancestors. They are used to practicing rituals to venerate to the different gods and thus to obtain their protection. The religious hierarchy of the Hani is divided into three main personages: the zuima that directs the main celebrations; the beima, responsible for practicing the exorcisms and the magical rituals; the nima that takes charge of carrying out predictions and to administer the medicinal herbs. This last charge can be performed indistinctly by men and women. Some Hani also practice Theravada Buddhism. Language[edit] See also: Hanoish languages The Hani language
Hani language
spoken by many of the Hani belongs to the Lolo-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Many Hani speak languages related Lolo-Burmese languages. Oral tradition tells of an ancient written script, tradition says it was lost on the migration from Sichuan. They now use a romanization of the Luchun dialect as a written script. Subgroups[edit] China[edit] According to You Weiqiong (2013:159-160),[3] Hani subgroups were classified as follows in 1954, with 11 primary branches. Respective locations (counties) are listed as well.

Hani 哈尼

Nuobi 糯比: in Xinping, Mojiang Qidi 其弟/期弟: in Honghe, Mojiang, Puer, Zhenyuan, Sipsongpanna Mahei 麻黑: in Puer, Jinggu, Zhenyuan Luomian 罗勉: in Luquan, Wuding Lami 腊米: in Zhenyuan, Mojiang, Honghe, Sipsongpanna Kabie 卡别: in Mojiang Duota 堕塔: in Puer, Xinping, Zhenyuan Sanda 三达: in Sipsongpanna. The Sanda people live in Sanda Township 三达乡 (including in Dazhai 大寨) of Jinghong City, and speak a Yi language with many Hani loanwords (You 2013:136-137).[3] There are 2 elderly women in Dazhai 大寨 who can only remember just over 40 words in the Sanda language.[3] The Chinese name for this group is Sanda 三达, while the Dai name is Lanqian 兰千. The Sanda claim to have migrated from Yibang 倚邦 and Yiwu 易武. Initially, they were classified by the Chinese government as ethnic Yi, but currently they are classified as ethnic Hani. Haini 海尼: in Jinggu Huagu 花姑: in Yuanyang Aka 阿卡: in Puer

Yeni 耶尼 (exonym: Kaduo 卡多): in Mojiang, Xinping, Puer, Zhenyuan, Jingdong, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna Biyue 碧约: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Xinping, Zhenyuan, Simao, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna, Jingdong Haoni 豪尼

Budu 布都: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Xinping Bujiao 补角: in Sipsongpanna Baike 白壳: in Zhenyuan

Gecuo 哥搓 (exonym: Kucong 苦聪): in Zhenyuan, Xinping, Jinping, Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Yuanyang, Jinggu, Jingdong, Shuangbai Axiluma 阿西鲁吗 (exonym: Ximoluo 西摩洛): in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Jingdong Duoni 多尼: in Yuanyang, Jinping Amu 阿木: in Mojiang, Zhenyuan, Puer Suoni 梭尼 (exonym: Asuo 阿梭): in Jinping Luomei 罗美 (exonym: Suobi 梭比): in Xinping Bukong 布孔 (exonyms: Heni 合尼, Baihong 白宏): in Mojiang, Honghe, Puer, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jingdong

Vietnam[edit] The Hani of Vietnam
Vietnam
consist of the following subgroups (Vu 2010:10-11).[4]

The Flowery Hani (Hà Nhì Hoa), who are found in Lai Chau Province and are further split into two subgroups.

Hà Nhì Cồ Chồ Hà Nhì La Mí

The Black Hani, who are found in Bát Xát District, Lao Cai Province

In Vietnam, communes consisting almost exclusively of ethnic Hani include Sín Thầu, Chúng Chải, Mù Cả, Ka Lăng, Thu Lủm (all in Mường Tè District), Y Tý and A Lù (all in Bát Xát District). The Hani of A Lù had originally come from Jinping County of Yunnan, China, and had later spread from A Lù to the communes of Lao Chải, Nậm Pung, and Ngài Thầu. See also[edit]

Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture Yuanyang County, Yunnan, with its Hani majority and immense rice terraced mountains Akha people, a closely related people who have spread out from Yunnan province into Burma, Vietnam, Laos
Laos
and Thailand. The Akha that still live in China
China
are seen as part of the Hani people.[5] Hanoish languages

References[edit]

^ "The 2009 Vietnam
Vietnam
Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ Zhang, Xingrong (1997). ‘A New Discovery: Traditional 8-Part Polyphonic Singing of the Hani of Yunnan’. Chime 10/11 (Spring/Autumn), pg 145–52. http://contemporary_chinese_culture.academic.ru/306/Han_Shaogong ^ a b c You Weiqiong [尤伟琼]. 2013. Classifying ethnic groups of Yunnan
Yunnan
[云南民族识别研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社]. ^ Vũ Quốc Khánh. 2010. Người Hà Nhì ở Việt Nam [The Ha Nhi in Viet Nam]. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản thông tấn. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hani.

Photographs of the Hani of Yuanyang County, Yunnan Hani gallery The Hani ethnic minority on China.org.cn (Chinese government site) Asia harvest ethnic profile ハニ和辞典 (Hani-Japanese glossary) UNESCO about terrace fields

v t e

Ethnic groups in China

Sino-Tibetan

Sinitic

Han Bai Hui

Burmic

Achang Hani Jino Lahu Lisu Nu Yi

Qiangic

Nakhi Pumi Qiang

Others

Derung Jingpo Lhoba Monpa Tibetan Tujia

Austroasiatic

Blang Gin Palaung Va

Hmong-Mien

Miao

Hmong

She Yao

Mongolic

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mongol Monguor Yugur

Tai-Kadai

Bouyei Dai Dong Gelao Li Maonan Mulao Sui Zhuang

Tungusic

Evenk Manchu Nanai Oroqen Sibe

Turkic

Kazakh Kyrgyz Salar Tatar Uyghur Uzbek Yugur

Unrecognized

Lai Deng Gejia Utsul Khmu Macanese Mang Jews

Others

Filipinos Gaoshan Japanese Koreans Russian Tajik

Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
China
· Immigrant ethnic groups in China
China
· Historic ethnic groups

v t e

Ethnic groups in Vietnam
Vietnam
by language family

Vietic

Chứt Mường Thổ Việt (Kinh)

Tai–Kadai

Bố Y Giáy Lào Lự Nùng Sán Chay Tày Thái

Thái Đen Thái Đỏ Thái Trắng Phu Thai Tày Thanh Thái Hàng Tổng

Cờ Lao La Chí La Ha Pu Péo

Hmong–Dao

Dao H'Mông Pà Thẻn

Austroasiatic

Ba Na Brâu Bru-Vân Kiều Chơ Ro Co Cờ Ho Cơ Tu Giẻ Triêng Hrê Kháng Khơ Me Khơ Mú Mạ Mảng M'Nông Ơ Đu Rơ Măm Tà Ôi Xinh Mun Xơ Đăng Xtiêng

Chinese

Hoa Ngái Sán Dìu

Malayo-Polynesian

Chăm Chu Ru Ê Đê Gia Rai Ra Glai

Tibeto-Burman

Cống Hà Nhì La Hủ Lô Lô Phù Lá Si La

Other

Indian Japanese Korean Jewish Nigerian Taiwanese

v t e

Ethnic groups in Laos
Laos
by language family

Lao-Tai

Lao Lu Phuan Phu Thai Saek Tai Daeng (Red Tai) Tai Dam (Black Tai) Tai Khao (White Tai) Tai Maen Tai Nüa

Vietic

Bo Chut (May) Kinh/Vietnamese Krih Liha Maleng Phong Phon Sung (Aheu) Thavung Tum

Mon–Khmer

Alak Bit Brau (Lavae) Bru Ca Tu Doi Htin Jeng Kaleung Kataang Keu Khang Khamu Kuy Lamet Laven Lavy Makong Mlabri Nghe Nyaheun O Du Oy Pacoh Samtao (Kiorr) Sedang Sou Talieng Ta Oi Xinh Mun (Puoc) Yae (Jeh)

Hmong–Mien

Hmong Lanten Yao

Tibeto-Burman

Akha Hani Kado Kaduo Lahu Phana' Phunoi Si La

v t e

Lolo-Burmese languages

Mondzish

Kathu Maang Manga Mango Mantsi Mondzi Maza Muangphe Mauphu Motang Mongphu

Burmish

Northern

Achang Xiandao Pela Lashi Chashan Lhao Vo Zaiwa Hpon

Southern

Burmese Arakanese Ramree Danu Intha Myeik Tavoyan Yaw

Loloish (Ngwi)

(Proto-Loloish)

Naxish?

Naxi Namuyi

Southern Loloish (Hanoish)

Hanoid

Akha

Akha Akeu Chepya Muteun Muda? Gokhy?

Hani

Hani Nuomei Nuobi Lami Luomian Angluo Guohe Guozuo Gehuo Yiche Qidi Kabie

Haoni

Honi Woni Baihong Bukong Budu Suobi Duoni Duota Asuo Amu

Bisoid

Bisu Laomian Laopin Pyen Phunoi Sinsali Cantan Cốông Sangkong Tsukong Laopan Laoseng Phongku Phongset Phunyot Cauho Bantang Khongsat

Siloid

Sila Khir Cosao Paza Phana’ Wanyä

Bi-Ka

Piyo Kaduo Enu Mpi

Jino

Jino

unclassified

Habei

(Central Loloish?)

Lawoish

Lawu Awu Lewu?

Lahoish

Lahu Kucong

Nusoish

Nusu Zauzou

Lisoish

Lisu Toloza Lipo Lolopo Mili Hlersu Micha Lamu Limi

Laloid

Lalo Yangliu Eka Mangdi Xuzhang Alu?

Taloid

Talu Lavu Lang'e Tagu Popei Naruo Kua-nsi Kuamasi Laizisi Zibusi Sonaga Gomotage

Kazhuoish

Katso Samu Sanie Sadu Meuma

Nisoish

Northern Loloish (Nisoid)

Nosoid

Nuosu Nyisu?

Nasoid

Nasu Chesu Luoji Gepo Ku Alingpo Aluo

Southeastern Loloish (Axi-Puoid)

Nisu

Nisu Lope

Sani–Azha

Sani Axi Azhe Azha Samei?

Highland Phula

Khlula Muji Bokha Phuma Muzi Laghuu Moji Phowa Phukha Thopho Zokhuo

Riverine Phula

Phola Phala Phupa Phuza Phupha Alugu

unclassified

Pholo Ache Long Xiqi Ati Adu

Others

(other lesser-known languages)

Unclassified

Pai-lang Ugong? Mruic?

Authority control

LCCN: sh89004413 SUDOC: 033940622 BNF: cb12474689s (d

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