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Hǎikǒu (Chinese: 海口; Pinyin: Hǎikǒu), is the capital and most populous city of Hainan
Hainan
province, China.[1] It is situated on the northern coast of Hainan, by the mouth of the Nandu River. The northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, which is separated from the main part of Haikou
Haikou
by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu. Administratively, Haikou
Haikou
is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, and covering 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi). There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city.[2] Haikou
Haikou
was originally a port city. Today, more than half of the island's total trade still goes through its ports. The city is home to Hainan
Hainan
University, which has its main campus on Haidian Island.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Environment

2.2.1 Comprehensive city-improvement campaign

2.3 Water and sewage treatment

3 Demographics 4 Subdivisions

4.1 Districts 4.2 Neighbourhoods

4.2.1 Guomao 4.2.2 Bo'ai Road 4.2.3 Hainan
Hainan
University area 4.2.4 Haikou
Haikou
West Coast

4.3 Parks and recreational areas 4.4 Other notable locations

5 Economy 6 Education 7 Transportation

7.1 Urban 7.2 Shared bicycles 7.3 Air 7.4 Intercity highways 7.5 Rail 7.6 Seaports

8 Arts and culture

8.1 Nightlife

9 Tourism 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] The hanzi characters comprising the city's name, 海口, mean ocean/sea and mouth/port, respectively. Thus, the name "Haikou" is also a word for "seaport" - similar to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in England. Haikou originally served as the port for Qiongshan, the ancient administrative capital of Hainan
Hainan
island, located some 5 km (3.1 mi) inland to the south east. During its early history Haikou
Haikou
was a part of Guangdong
Guangdong
province. In the 13th century it was fortified and became a military post under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The port is located west of the mouth of the Nandu River, Hainan's principal river. When Qiongshan
Qiongshan
was opened to foreign trade under the Treaty of Tianjin
Treaty of Tianjin
in 1858, Haikou
Haikou
started to rival the old administrative city. It was known internationally as 'Hoihow', based on the local dialect. In 1926, Haikou
Haikou
overtook Qiongshan
Qiongshan
in population and it was declared a separate administrative city. Haikou was developed as a port during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) when the Japanese invaded and occupied Hainan
Hainan
Island from early 1939 to 1945. The city and island of Hainan
Hainan
stayed under the control of the Nationalists until April 1950, when it fell to the Communists during the Landing Operation on Hainan
Hainan
Island. Since 1949, Haikou
Haikou
has maintained its position as Hainan's main port, handling more than half of the island's total trade. It has replaced Qiongshan
Qiongshan
as the island's administrative capital. In 1988, Haikou
Haikou
was made a prefecture-level city as well as the capital of the newly created Hainan
Hainan
Province. Haikou
Haikou
old town contains the oldest buildings in the city and was largely built by wealthy Chinese from the mainland and some "overseas Chinese" who had returned to their homeland. The houses are a mixture of styles including Portuguese, French, and Southeast Asian. The streets used to be divided into different areas selling Chinese and western medicine, for silk and bespoke clothes, one for fresh fish and meat, and others for the sale of incense, candles, paper, ink, and other goods. Various projects are currently under discussion to decide the best way to restore and preserve these historical buildings. Geography[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
city map

Haikou
Haikou
is situated on the north coast of Hainan
Hainan
Island, by Haikou
Haikou
Bay, facing the Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
across the Qiongzhou Strait
Qiongzhou Strait
that stretches west from Beibu Bay
Beibu Bay
near Vietnam
Vietnam
to the James Shoal bordering the South China
China
Sea to the west. Most of the city is almost completely flat and only a few metres above sea level. It has an area of 2,304.84 km2 (889.90 sq mi).[citation needed][3] The northern part of Haikou
Haikou
City, the district of Haidian Island, is separated from the main part of Haikou
Haikou
by the Haidian River, a tributary of the Nandu River. The district is accessed by one of four bridges, the largest being Haikou
Haikou
Century Bridge, which connects the Guomao district with Haidian Island
Haidian Island
at the estuary of the Haidian River. From east to west the remaining three road connections are provided by the Renmin, Heping and Xinbu Bridges. Directly to the northeast of Haikou
Haikou
and to the east of Haidian Island is Xinbu Island. Climate[edit]

Further information: Hainan#Annual fog

Haikou
Haikou
is on the northern edge of the torrid zone, and is part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. April to October is the active period for tropical storms and typhoons, most of which occur between August and September. May to October is the rainy season with the heaviest rainfall occurring in September. Despite its location 378 km (235 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer, the city has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), falling just short of a tropical climate, with strong monsoonal influences. Nevertheless, the area has hot summers and warm winters, usually with high humidity.[4] Extremes temperatures have ranged from 2.8 to 39.6 °C (37 to 103 °F) [5] From June to October torrential rains may occur, with 7.0 days annually receiving at least 50 mm (1.97 in) of rain; this period accounts for nearly 70 percent of the annual rainfall of 1,650 mm (65 in). With monthly percentage of possible sunshine ranging from 31% in February to 61% in July, the city receives 2,070 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Haikou
Haikou
(normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.5 (92.3) 37.2 (99) 38.1 (100.6) 39.6 (103.3) 38.7 (101.7) 38.4 (101.1) 38.4 (101.1) 37.0 (98.6) 36.0 (96.8) 34.5 (94.1) 34.7 (94.5) 31.5 (88.7) 39.6 (103.3)

Average high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 22.3 (72.1) 26.0 (78.8) 29.7 (85.5) 31.9 (89.4) 32.9 (91.2) 33.1 (91.6) 32.3 (90.1) 30.7 (87.3) 28.4 (83.1) 25.1 (77.2) 22.0 (71.6) 28.0 (82.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 18.7 (65.7) 21.8 (71.2) 25.2 (77.4) 27.4 (81.3) 28.5 (83.3) 28.6 (83.5) 28.1 (82.6) 27.2 (81) 25.3 (77.5) 22.3 (72.1) 19.0 (66.2) 24.15 (75.48)

Average low °C (°F) 15.4 (59.7) 16.4 (61.5) 19.1 (66.4) 22.4 (72.3) 24.5 (76.1) 25.5 (77.9) 25.5 (77.9) 25.3 (77.5) 24.6 (76.3) 22.9 (73.2) 19.9 (67.8) 16.7 (62.1) 21.5 (70.7)

Record low °C (°F) 3.2 (37.8) 6.5 (43.7) 6.4 (43.5) 9.8 (49.6) 16.3 (61.3) 21.2 (70.2) 21.3 (70.3) 21.7 (71.1) 17.5 (63.5) 15.5 (59.9) 10.0 (50) 5.3 (41.5) 2.8 (37)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 19.5 (0.768) 35.0 (1.378) 50.6 (1.992) 100.2 (3.945) 181.4 (7.142) 227.0 (8.937) 218.1 (8.587) 235.6 (9.276) 244.1 (9.61) 224.4 (8.835) 81.3 (3.201) 34.9 (1.374) 1,652.1 (65.045)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.4 10.6 10.1 11.5 16.5 16.0 15.0 14.9 14.3 12.5 7.9 7.3 145.0

Average relative humidity (%) 86 88 86 85 84 83 82 85 85 83 80 81 84.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 109.1 98.7 137.3 167.9 218.1 222.8 251.3 217.7 193.8 176.7 144.8 131.3 2,069.5

Percent possible sunshine 32 31 37 45 54 56 61 55 53 49 43 39 47

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration,[6] all-time extreme temperature[7]

Environment[edit] As of 2012[update], Haikou
Haikou
has the second best air quality among major cities nationally, preceded only by Lhasa, Tibet.[8] However, since approximately 2009, due to an increase in the number of automobiles, there has been worsening air pollution. According to the 2005 statistical book issued by the National Bureau of Statistics, Haikou
Haikou
scored the highest among China's main cities in air quality, with 366 days (2004) of ambient air quality equal to or above grade II, with only 0.033 milligrams/m2 of particulate matter (the least of all main cities), 0.003 milligrams/m2 of sulphur dioxide (only Lhasa
Lhasa
had less), and 0.013 milligrams/m2 of nitrogen dioxide (the least of all main cities).[9] In 1995, the Haikou
Haikou
city government began an initiative to improve the quality of life for its residents. With the approval of the World Health Organization, and Ministry of Health, a ten-point plan was undertaken to address such issues as:

Community health care Vaccinations
Vaccinations
for children Waste recycling Green belts and urban trees Environmentally friendly
Environmentally friendly
construction Public toilets (These are available throughout the city, are staffed, and well maintained.) Sewage
Sewage
treatment Communications Noise pollution

The groundwater is of international standard[clarification needed], and is classified as mineral water. By 2004, the city had established 43 new community health service centers reaching 85 percent of the population. The initiative has increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to 2,000 hectares, with trees lining 40 percent of its roads. Noise pollution
Noise pollution
has dropped from 61.1db to 58.2db. 300 public toilets have been built. All industrial effluents, industrial waste water and solid waste, and all live sewage, is now processed through centralized treatment centers, and is disposed of without environmental impact. These improvements and others have increased life expectancy in Haikou
Haikou
to 78.26 years.[10] Haikou
Haikou
city has also built 163 model ecological villages. Now, over 200,000 villagers in 933 villages have tap water in their homes. Comprehensive city-improvement campaign[edit] During 2015 and 2016, large-scale city improvements have taken place as part of a province-wide initiative called 双创 ("double create"). It is described by government sources as a campaign to create a cleaner city and create a more civilized city. It is focused on traffic and commerce, but has also improved the overall appearance of the city, tackling air pollution from industry emissions, aiming to ensure the safety of drinking water sources, improving public security in such places as hospitals, schools, malls, and visitor attractions.[11][12][13] Details of these improvements include:

Traffic: Many new street crossings with traffic lights were installed around the city to improve two-wheel vehicles (consisting mainly of electric motorbikes) and pedestrian travel. Throughout the city, teams of police have been stationed at major intersections to ensure that two-wheel vehicles obey the law. Although there are many side lanes for these bikes, the actual pedestrian sidewalks serve as legal, one-way routes. Police at intersections stop vehicles either going the wrong way, or running red lights. Offenders may be forced to wear a red sash, stop other offenders, and lecture them. Commerce: Around August 2015, teams of officers physically removed nearly all illegal structures used for business in the city (a province-wide campaign). These structures were commonly made of corrugated metal or cinderblocks and were shop extensions or simply unused space that had been built upon. Street vendors were banned (most of whom sold vegetables or fruit), as was the night operation of roadside BBQ sites and the placement of tables onto the sidewalks by restaurants. These night time food operations were once common throughout the city. Roads and sidewalks: Many small roads have been repaved including narrow lanes in old neighbourhoods. Also, many sidewalks have been upgraded with new brick. Bricks are used as sidewalk material in Haikou
Haikou
because of the large amount of ficus trees, the roots of which deform the surrounding sidewalk. Demolition and reconstruction: A number of entire neighbourhoods within the city have been, and are being, entirely demolished with new buildings and roads being built. Starting around the beginning of 2018, the government funded the improvement of facades and painting of the vast majority of buildings throughout the city.

Water and sewage treatment[edit] The treatment of Haikou's wastewater, and the supply of tap water is operated by the French company Veolia Water. The partial privatization agreement gives 49 percent ownership to Veolia Water
Veolia Water
in a 30-year joint venture with Haikou
Haikou
Water Group.[14][15][16][17] Demographics[edit] According to the 2010 Census, the prefecture-level city of Haikou
Haikou
has a registered population of 2,046,189 inhabitants, 537,848 more than the population declared on the past census in 2000.[2] The average annual population growth during the period 2000–2010 was of 3.1 percent.[18] Most of the population of Haikou
Haikou
are Han Chinese
Han Chinese
(around 97.75 percent, according to the 2010 Census). Subdivisions[edit] Districts[edit] Haikou
Haikou
is divided in four districts. The information here presented uses 2010 Census data.

Map

Longhua Xiuying Qiongshan Meilan

District Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Area (km²) Population (2010) Density (/km²)

Longhua 龙华区 Lónghuá Qū 275 593,018 2,156

Xiuying 秀英区 Xiùyīng Qū 512 349,544 683

Qiongshan 琼山区 Qióngshān Qū 940 479,960 511

Meilan 美兰区 Měilán Qū 553 623,667 1128

Neighbourhoods[edit] There are several distinct neighborhoods within the city, including: Guomao[edit] Guomao is a relatively affluent area located on the coast between Longquan
Longquan
Road to the east running west for more than one kilometre. The west part of this area has experienced substantial development since about 2007, and now contains dozens of newly built high-rise residential apartment buildings.

Shopping street in Bo'ai Lu area (French colonial district)

Bo'ai Road[edit] Main article: Bo'ai Road area This historical area is located on the south side of the Haidian River, at the northern part of mainland Haikou. Much of the area comprises arcade style, dilapidated buildings with European fusion-type architectural facades with Indian and Arabic influences.[19] The buildings are almost all painted white, and are usually no more than a few storeys tall. The eastern part of the area is mainly residential. The western part contains hubs for such items as exotic foods, pets, and fabrics. The building facades and roads have been restored in most of the area, Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road being the most notable. Hainan
Hainan
University area[edit] Located on Haidian Island, this area comprises the entire portion of the island west of its main north/south road, Renmin Dadao. It appears similar to a typical student ghetto, containing many small, inexpensive food stands and restaurants. Haikou
Haikou
West Coast[edit] A new neighbourhood is under development in Xiuying District
Xiuying District
south of Hainan
Hainan
International Convention And Exhibition Center and around seven km west of Haikou
Haikou
downtown. A number of government offices have moved there and numerous residential apartment complexes are being built. Parks and recreational areas[edit]

The ferris wheel at Baishamen Park

Main article: List of parks in Haikou

Evergreen Park is a 71.3 hectare[20] park located on Binhai Road about 200 m west of the southern foot of Haikou
Haikou
Century Bridge. It is the largest park in Haikou, containing approximately ten thousand coconut trees and several hundred species of South Asian ornamental plants,[20] however, most of the park consists of grassy fields. Baishamen Park
Baishamen Park
(White Sand Gate Park) was created in 2010 and is located on the north shore of Haidian Island. The park contains a small amusement park, and consists mostly of grass fields, with little tree cover. Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park
Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park
(Jinniuling Park) includes a small zoo, a lake, diverse flora, and a high percentage of forest areas, including a large bamboo forest. It is located on Haixiu Road, west of Longquan
Longquan
Road, the main north-south avenue in Haikou. Binhai Park
Binhai Park
is located east of Evergreen Park. There is a bougainvillea hybrid exhibition held each year. This park has a small lake and building used for community purposes in the middle. Haikou People's Park
Haikou People's Park
is a recently refurbished park located in the downtown area on Haixiu Road next to East Lake.[21] The park draws large numbers of people each morning who engage in exercises, predominantly tai chi, fitness dancing, and aerobics. Hainan
Hainan
International Friendship Park is planned to occupy 180,000 square metres (1,900,000 sq ft) of land, with a length of over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).[22] Hongcheng Lake (红城湖) is one of the largest water bodies in the city being around equal in size to the lake at Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park. It has three islands, the largest of which contains a defunct hotel. The lake is a popular location for fishermen. At night, hawker stalls are set up along the roadsides for tourists and locals to drink and dine. Holiday Beach is a 7 kilometres (4.3 miles)-long beach and visitor attraction adjacent to the west side of Haikou. Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve
Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve
lies some 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south east of Haikou
Haikou
and was the first protected mangrove forest zone in China.

Other notable locations[edit]

Zhongjie Road (忠介路), a shopping street with a long history Jiefang East Road, a busy shopping street located west of the Bo'ai Road area Guoxing Avenue, a main east-west street with many notable buildings

Economy[edit]

The new International Tourism and Central Business District
International Tourism and Central Business District
on Guoxing Avenue

The GDP per capita was $3,573 USD in 2008, ranked number 43 among 659 Chinese cities. In 2011, the city's GDP reached 71.3 billion yuan, amounting to about 30 percent of the province's total.[23] Haikou
Haikou
exports substantial quantities of agricultural produce and livestock.[citation needed] There is a small amount of industry, including canning, textiles, rice hulling, and light engineering. The 'International Tourism and Central Business District' is under construction on the west part of Guoxing Avenue. The road was once only home to government buildings. Starting around 2011, HNA and other groups began erecting office buildings. Also located at the western end of Guoxing is the HNA Building, the headquarters of Hainan Airlines.[24] Near the southern end of Haikou, automotive manufacturer, Haima Automobile has its global headquarters. The Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone ( Haikou
Haikou
FTZ) (海口保税区) is a state-level, 1.93 square kilometer area located between Nanhai Road and Yehai Road. It was approved on October 21, 1992 by the State Council.[25] Education[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Hainan

Hainan
Hainan
University just inside the north gate.

Several major educational institutions are located in Haikou:

Hainan
Hainan
University has its main campus on Haikou's Haidian Island, with the South China
China
Tropical Agricultural University, now part of the university, located in the southern part of the city. Hainan
Hainan
Normal University is the oldest institution for higher learning. It has an enrolment of more than 20,000, including approximately 200 foreigner students, and has recently constructed a new campus in Guilinyang, just outside Haikou. Hainan
Hainan
Medical College, founded in 1993, offers degrees in medicine. It is located in the southern part of the city. Qiongzhou University
Qiongzhou University
is located in Qiongshan
Qiongshan
District. Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics, located by Guoxing Avenue, with a new campus in Guilinyang. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
is located across the road from Hainan
Hainan
Medical College. Hainan
Hainan
Middle School is considered one of the most prestigious middle schools in Hainan. Its main gate is located a few metres from the east gate of Hainan
Hainan
Normal University.

Transportation[edit]

Main transportation hubs in Haikou: A: Haikou
Haikou
Port New Seaport B: South Port C: Haikou
Haikou
Railway Station D: Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port E: Haikou
Haikou
New Port F: Haikou
Haikou
South Station (main bus station) G: Haikou
Haikou
East Railway Station H: Haikou
Haikou
Meilan International Airport

Urban[edit] Haikou
Haikou
has an extensive urban bus service. Standard fare is 1 yuan, with no bus pass, ticket, or transfer system in place. Urban minibuses operated prior to 2009, but have since been phased-out. Taxi automobiles and electric motorbikes operate throughout the city. During 2009–2010, petrol-fueled motorbike taxis were banned and seized by police at numerous checkpoints within the city. Haikou
Haikou
has experienced a substantial increase in cars since the early 2000s. Traffic on main streets, once light, is now similar to other major cities, with rush hour problems that have prompted the city to expand several main roads and build a new elevated road from the west end of Guoxing Avenue
Guoxing Avenue
to new developments west of Holiday Beach. Many main roads in the city have a side lane, separated by a median, for two-wheeled vehicles. Physical barriers were installed on many of the main two-way streets throughout the city in order to separate opposing lanes. These were installed for safety reasons to prevent pedestrians from crossing the streets at locations other than intersections. Roundabouts are not prevalent in Haikou, being used mainly on Hai Xiu road, and a few other locations. Traffic cameras are used at many main intersections in the city, with tickets being issued by post for traffic light infractions. There is one tunnel in the city, the Qiaozhong Road Tunnel. Shared bicycles[edit]

A Haikou
Haikou
Public Bicycle System station.

The Haikou
Haikou
Public Bicycle System has about 20,000 bicycles. A pre-paid swipe card system is used to gain access to them. Starting on January 24, 2017 privately run app-based "dockless" shared bikes came into service. By April, there were about 40,000 of these types of bikes available.[26] Ofo, Mobike, and "Quick to" all cost 2 RMB per hour. Ofo and "Quick to" bikes have tires with tubes, meaning many are left around the city with flat tires. The Haikou
Haikou
Public Bicycle System has installed a number of new, more modern bikes with tires that cannot be punctured. Part of Mobike's fleet also uses these types of tires. Air[edit] Haikou
Haikou
is served by Haikou Meilan International Airport
Haikou Meilan International Airport
(IATA: HAK, ICAO: ZJHK[1]), which is located 25 km (16 mi) from the city. In January 2011, Haikou
Haikou
was selected to be the first test site for an experiment allowing private helicopter flight in China.[27] Intercity highways[edit] Three main highways connect Haikou
Haikou
to other parts of Hainan, running east, west, and south through the middle of the province. The Haiwen expressway connects the city with Wenchang
Wenchang
to the southeast. Rail[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
East Railway Station

A railway links Haikou
Haikou
to the mainland. A ferry service transports the railway cars, along with other motor vehicles across the strait. The Hainan
Hainan
East Ring Railway links Haikou
Haikou
and Sanya. There are 15 stations in between, either in operation or still under construction. Trains are designed to travel at 250 km/h (155 mph). Travel time from Haikou
Haikou
to Sanya
Sanya
is approximately 1 hour and 22 minutes. The main station in Haikou
Haikou
is Haikou
Haikou
East Railway Station (东环铁路海口东站) located near the southern end of Long Quan Road. In 2018, the Haikou
Haikou
South Station, the main bus station, relocated and is now directly to the south east of the Haikou
Haikou
East Railway Station. In 2015, the Hainan
Hainan
western ring high-speed railway started operation. This second high-speed railway runs along the west coast of Hainan connecting with the Hainan
Hainan
Eastern Ring Railway. Seaports[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port

Haikou
Haikou
has four seaports for passenger and cargo service. Haikou
Haikou
New Port, formerly known as the Inner Harbour, is located on the southern side of the mouth of the Haidian River. Approximately 7 km (4 mi) west of Haikou New Port
Haikou New Port
is Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port. This port is considerably larger, and is the main distribution centre for cargo entering Hainan. It is also a major port for immigration onto Hainan Island. Around 20 km (12 mi) west of downtown Haikou
Haikou
are South Port
South Port
and Haikou
Haikou
Port New Seaport. Arts and culture[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
City Stadium

Several large public buildings now occupy Guoxing Avenue, the new area for arts and culture. These include the Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Museum, the Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Library, and the Hainan
Hainan
Centre for the Performing Arts. These are all located near to one another on the south side of the road, west of Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics, Haikou
Haikou
campus. At the west side of Evergreen Park is the Haikou
Haikou
Great Hall of the People, a concert hall, and Hainan
Hainan
Exhibition & Convention Center, a large centre for trade shows and other commercial events. Haikou City Stadium, is the main venue for sports events, and is located at the southeast corner of Evergreen Park. Older cultural sites include the now-restored buildings of the Bo'ai Road area, the tomb of Hai Rui, Xiuying Fort
Xiuying Fort
in the Guomao area, the Temple of the Five Lords, the cemetery for the martyrs of Hainan's Battle of the Liberation, and the former temple Haikou
Haikou
Yazhou Gu Cheng. Nightlife[edit] Bars and KTV are patronized until after midnight. There are several popular bar streets within the city. Up until 2015, roadside BBQ sites were common throughout the city. A large-scale campaign to clean up the city has since prohibited them. Tourism[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2011)

Also known as the "Coconut city", Haikou
Haikou
is an important tourist destination for China.[28] The city received 4.11 million tourists in 2002, up 7.99 percent from 2001. The city earned approximately three billion yuan (361 million US dollars) from the tourism industry during that period, up 11 percent from the previous year.[29] Haikou
Haikou
is also developing its Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions industry. The local government set up the Haikou Convention and Exhibition Bureau in June 2012 and pledged RMB35 million (US$5.6 million) to support the development of the MICE industry.[30] More international hotel chains are also arriving. By 2013, international brands included Shangri-La, Westin (opening September 2013[31]), and Sheraton. In 2016, the China
China
Merchants holdings group unveiled its plans to develop Shenzhen, Haikou
Haikou
and Sanya
Sanya
as the three destination ports that its South China
China
Sea passenger cruises would serve. Subsequently, a large passenger cruise terminal was inaugurated in Shenzhen
Shenzhen
in October 2016.[32]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Haikou.

Gallery[edit]

A view south from Bin Hai road

Haikou Century Bridge
Haikou Century Bridge
connecting Haidian Island
Haidian Island
over the Haidian River

Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Library

Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Museum

A view east from Evergreen Park area

The customs building

See also[edit]

China
China
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in China

References[edit]

^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.  ^ a b 海口市2010第六次人口普查主要数据公报. 中国海口政务门户网站 (in Chinese). 海口市统计局. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015.  ^ "Geography of Haikou" (in Chinese). Official website of Haikou government. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-06-11.  ^ " China
China
Tourist Cities". Asia-planet.net. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-12-02.  ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China
China
Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.  ^ Hong, Lin; Thai, Michael. " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
ranks third in air quality across the nation". chinadaily.com.cn. ChinaDaily. Retrieved 2014-06-18.  ^ "Ambient Air Quality in Main Cities (2004) in China
China
Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "Haikou's Healthy New Environment". China.org.cn. 2004-08-27. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^ "-- 海南省人民政府网". www.hainan.gov.cn.  ^ http://news.0898.net/GB/368630/372289/372613/index.html ^ 冉苗俊. "为海口"双创"从啃硬骨头下手点赞__海南新闻网_南海网". www.hinews.cn.  ^ "海口威立雅水务". Haikouvw.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ "Veolia's big bid for Haikou
Haikou
Water Global Water Intelligence – Archive: Global Water Intelligence". Globalwaterintel.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ " Haikou
Haikou
City No. 1 Water Affairs Company Limited – Individual Project Information – Private Infrastructure Projects – The World Bank & PPIAF". Ppi.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ "威立雅水務(海口)投資有限公司注册信息Veolia Water (Haikou) Investment Co. Limited registered information" (in Chinese). Hkcopinfo.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China ^ "Qilou Arcade Streets in Haikou, China's Hainan". Usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-04-26.  ^ a b "Evergreen Park Haikou
Haikou
Living ~ 'drs2biz'". Drs2biz.wordpress.com. 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ " Haikou
Haikou
Parks".  ^ Hainan
Hainan
to build International Friendship Park in Haikou
Haikou
– What's On Sanya ^ Zhao, Zhang. " Haikou
Haikou
promotes projects for international fair". chinadaily.com.cn. ChinaDaily. Retrieved 2014-06-18.  ^ "Contact Us Archived 2010-07-23 at the Wayback Machine.." Hainan Airlines. Retrieved on October 3, 2009. ^ " Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone". hktdc.com. Retrieved 2012-06-20.  ^ " Hainan
Hainan
to record unruly shared bike usage in personal credit system". www.ecns.cn.  ^ " China
China
Loosens the Screws on a Toehold of Its Airspace".  ^ " Haikou
Haikou
travel guide". www.travelchinaguide.com. Travel China
China
Guide. Retrieved 20 December 2016.  ^ "More Scenic Sites to Be Built in South China
China
Province". China.org.cn. 2003-03-22. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^ "Surf's up for Hainan
Hainan
island". TTGmice. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  ^ "THE WESTIN HAIKOU – OPENING SEPTEMBER 28, 2013". Westin. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  ^ "Silver Seas - Brochure and Press release". China
China
merchants group.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haikou.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Haikou.

Haikou
Haikou
Government Haikou
Haikou
Government (in simplified Chinese) Detailed information about Haikou Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone map Map of Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone Real-time air quality index

v t e

City of Haikou

Geography

Districts

Longhua Meilan Qiongshan Xiuying

Features

Parks

List of parks in Haikou Evergreen Golden Bull Mountain Ridge People's Hainan
Hainan
International Friendship Baishamen Park Binhai Park

Other

Guoxing Avenue Haidian Island Haidian River Haikou
Haikou
Bay Holiday Beach Movie Town Haikou

Education

Hainan
Hainan
University Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics Hainan
Hainan
Medical College Hainan
Hainan
Normal University Haikou
Haikou
Volcanic Cluster Global Geopark

Transportation

Sea

Haikou
Haikou
New Port Haikou
Haikou
Port New Seaport Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port

Rail

Haikou
Haikou
East railway station Haikou
Haikou
railway station Meilan railway station

Air

Haikou
Haikou
Meilan International Airport

Culture

Sites

Bo'ai Road area Martyrs' cemetery Tomb of Hai Rui Haikou
Haikou
Yazhou Gu Cheng Temple of the Five Lords Xiuying Fort

Facilities

Haikou
Haikou
City Stadium Wuyuan River Stadium Hainan
Hainan
Centre for the Performing Arts Hainan
Hainan
Library Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Museum

Media

Haikou
Haikou
Television Hainan
Hainan
Television Hainan
Hainan
Daily Haikou
Haikou
Evening News Nanguo Metropolis Daily

Category Commons

v t e

Hainan
Hainan
topics

Haikou
Haikou
(capital)

General

History Historical and cultural sites Politics Economy

Geography

Islands of Hainan Dazhou
Dazhou
Island Haidian Island Haitang Bay Sanya
Sanya
Bay Nandu River Wanquan River Songtao Reservoir Wuzhizhou Island Wuzhi Mountain Yangpu Peninsula Yongxing Island/Woody Island

Flora and fauna

Hainan
Hainan
yellow lantern chili Hainan
Hainan
gymnure Hainan
Hainan
partridge Hainan
Hainan
peacock-pheasant Hainan
Hainan
black crested gibbon Hainan
Hainan
hare

Media

Hainan
Hainan
TV Haikou
Haikou
TV Nanguo Metropolis Daily Hainan
Hainan
Daily

Transportation

Hainan
Hainan
Eastern Ring HSR Hainan
Hainan
Western Ring HSR Hainan
Hainan
Airlines Haikou
Haikou
Meilan International Airport Qionghai
Qionghai
Bo'ao Airport Sanya
Sanya
Phoenix International Airport Basuo
Basuo
Port Haikou
Haikou
New Port Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port Macun Port Port of Yangpu

Education

Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics Hainan
Hainan
Medical University Hainan
Hainan
Normal University Hainan
Hainan
University Qiongzhou University/ Hainan
Hainan
Tropical Ocean University Sanya
Sanya
University

Demographics

Hainanese Hui Miao Han Chinese Li (Hlai) Zhuang Utsul

Buildings and structures

Crown of Beauty Theatre Haikou
Haikou
Century Bridge Haikou
Haikou
Great Hall of the People Hainan
Hainan
Centre for the Performing Arts Hainan
Hainan
Exhibition & Convention Center Hainan
Hainan
Library

Cuisine

Hainan
Hainan
chicken rice Wenchang
Wenchang
chicken

Visitor attractions

Statue of Guanyin Hainan
Hainan
Museum Leiqiong/ Haikou
Haikou
Volcanic Cluster Global Geopark Luobi Cave Mission Hills Star Trophy Nanwan Monkey Island Nanshan Temple Phoenix Island Temple of the Five Lords Tianya Haijiao Yangpu Ancient Salt Field Yalong Bay

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Hainan
Hainan
Province

Haikou
Haikou
(capital)

Prefecture level

Prefecture-level cities

Haikou

Longhua District Meilan District Qiongshan
Qiongshan
District Xiuying District

Sanya

Jiyang District Tianya District Haitang District Yazhou District

Sansha

Sansha

Xisha District*

Yongxing Town (Yongxing Management Area) Qilianyu Management Area Yongle Archipelago Management Area

Nansha District*

(directly governed — no township-level divisions)

Zhongsha District*

(unincorporated)

* Not a formal administrative subdivision

Danzhou

v t e

Danzhou

Towns

Nada Heqing Nanfeng Dacheng Yaxing Lanyang Guangcun Mutang Haitou Eman Sandou

Yangpu EDZ

Wangwu Baimajing Zhonghe Paipu Dongcheng Xingzhou

County level

County-level cities

Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang

Counties

Ding'an Tunchang Chengmai Lingao

Autonomous counties

Baisha Changjiang Ledong Lingshui Baoting Qiongzhong

Township-level divisions of Hainan Politics of Hainan

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa
Lhasa
(Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234318

.