HǎIKǒU (Chinese : 海口), is the capital and most populous city of
China . It is situated on the northern coast of
Hainan, by the mouth of the
Nandu River . The northern part of the
city is the district of
Haidian Island , which is separated from the
main part of
Haikou by the
Haidian River , a branch of the Nandu.
Haikou is a prefecture-level city , comprising four
districts, and covering 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi). There are
2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4
urban districts of the city.
Haikou was originally a port city. Today, more than half of the
island's total trade still goes through its ports. The city is home to
Hainan University , which has its main campus on Haidian Island.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Environment
* 2.2.1 Comprehensive city-improvement campaign
* 2.3 Water and sewage treatment
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Subdivisions
* 4.1 Districts
* 4.2 Neighbourhoods
* 4.2.1 Guomao
* 4.2.2 Bo\'ai Road
Hainan University area
Haikou West Coast
* 4.3 Parks and recreational areas
* 4.4 Other notable locations
* 5 Economy
* 6 Education
* 7 Transportation
* 7.1 Urban
* 7.2 Shared bicycles
* 7.3 Air
* 7.4 Intercity highways
* 7.5 Rail
* 7.6 Seaports
* 8 Arts and culture
* 8.1 Nightlife
* 9 Tourism
* 10 Gallery
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
The hanzi characters comprising the city's name, 海口, mean
ocean/sea and mouth/port, respectively. Thus, the name "Haikou" is
also a word for "seaport" - similar to
Portsmouth in England. Haikou
originally served as the port for
Qiongshan , the ancient
administrative capital of
Hainan island, located some 5 km (3.1 mi)
inland to the south east. During its early history
Haikou was a part
Guangdong province. In the 13th century it was fortified and became
a military post under the
Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The port is
located west of the mouth of the
Nandu River , Hainan's principal
Qiongshan was opened to foreign trade under the Treaty of
Tianjin in 1858,
Haikou started to rival the old administrative city.
It was known internationally as 'Hoihow', based on the local dialect.
Qiongshan in population and it was declared a
separate administrative city.
Haikou was developed as a port during
the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) when the Japanese invaded and
Hainan Island from early 1939 to 1945.
Haikou has maintained its position as Hainan's main port,
handling more than half of the island's total trade. It has replaced
Qiongshan as the island's administrative capital. In 1988,
made a prefecture-level city as well as the capital of the newly
Haikou old town contains the oldest buildings in the city and was
largely built by wealthy Chinese from the mainland and some "overseas
Chinese" who had returned to their homeland. The houses are a mixture
of styles including Portuguese , French , and Southeast Asian. The
streets used to be divided into different areas selling Chinese and
western medicine, for silk and bespoke clothes, one for fresh fish and
meat, and others for the sale of incense, candles, paper, ink, and
Various projects are currently under discussion to decide the best
way to restore and preserve these historical buildings.
Haikou city map
Haikou is situated on the north coast of
Hainan Island, by
, facing the
Leizhou Peninsula across the
Qiongzhou Strait that
stretches west from
Beibu Bay near
Vietnam to the James Shoal
bordering the South
China Sea to the west. Most of the city is almost
completely flat and only a few metres above sea level. It has an area
of 2,304.84 km2 (889.90 sq mi).
The northern part of
Haikou City, the district of
Haidian Island , is
separated from the main part of
Haikou by the Haidian River, a
tributary of the
Nandu River . The district is accessed by one of four
bridges, the largest being
Haikou Century Bridge , which connects the
Guomao district with
Haidian Island at the estuary of the Haidian
River. From east to west the remaining three road connections are
provided by the Renmin, Heping and Xinbu Bridges.
Haikou is on the northern edge of the torrid zone , and is part of
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone . April to October is the active
period for tropical storms and typhoons, most of which occur between
August and September. May to October is the rainy season with the
heaviest rainfall occurring in September. Despite its location, the
city has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), falling just short
of a tropical climate , with strong monsoonal influences.
Nevertheless, the area has hot summers and warm winters, usually with
high humidity. Extremes temperatures have ranged from 2.8 to 39.6 °C
(37 to 103 °F) From June to October torrential rains may occur,
with 7.0 days annually receiving at least 50 mm (1.97 in) of rain;
this period accounts for nearly 70 percent of the annual rainfall of
1,650 mm (65 in). With monthly percentage of possible sunshine ranging
from 31% in February to 61% in July, the city receives 2,070 hours of
bright sunshine annually.
CLIMATE DATA FOR HAIKOU (NORMALS 1971–2000, EXTREMES 1961–2000)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
China Meteorological Administration, all-time extreme
As of 2012 ,
Haikou has the second best air quality among major
cities nationally, preceded only by
Tibet . However, since
approximately 2009, due to an increase in the number of automobiles,
there has been worsening air pollution.
According to the 2005 statistical book issued by the National Bureau
Haikou scored the highest among China's main cities in
air quality , with 366 days (2004) of ambient air quality equal to or
above grade II, with only 0.033 milligrams/m2 of particulate matter
(the least of all main cities), 0.003 milligrams/m2 of sulphur dioxide
Lhasa had less), and 0.013 milligrams/m2 of nitrogen dioxide
(the least of all main cities).
In 1995, the
Haikou city government began an initiative to improve
the quality of life for its residents. With the approval of the World
Health Organization , and Ministry of Health , a ten-point plan was
undertaken to address such issues as:
* Community health care
Vaccinations for children
* Green belts and urban trees
Environmentally friendly construction
* Public toilets (These are available throughout the city, are
staffed, and well maintained.)
The groundwater is of international standard , and is classified as
mineral water .
By 2004, the city had established 43 new community health service
centers reaching 85 percent of the population. The initiative has
increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to 2,000 hectares , with
trees lining 40 percent of its roads.
Noise pollution has dropped from
61.1db to 58.2db. 300 public toilets have been built. All industrial
effluents, industrial waste water and solid waste, and all live sewage
, is now processed through centralized treatment centers, and is
disposed of without environmental impact . These improvements and
others have increased life expectancy in
Haikou to 78.26 years.
Haikou city has also built 163 model ecological villages. Now, over
200,000 villagers in 933 villages have tap water in their homes.
Comprehensive City-improvement Campaign
During 2015 and 2016, large-scale city improvements have taken place
as part of a province-wide initiative called 双创 ("double create").
It is described by government sources as a campaign to create a
cleaner city and create a more civilized city. It is focused on
traffic and commerce, but has also improved the overall appearance of
the city, tackling air pollution from industry emissions, aiming to
ensure the safety of drinking water sources, improving public security
in such places as hospitals, schools, malls, and visitor attractions.
Details of these improvements include:
* Traffic: Many new street crossings with traffic lights were
installed around the city to improve two-wheel vehicles (consisting
mainly of electric motorbikes) and pedestrian travel. Throughout the
city, teams of police have been stationed at major intersections to
ensure that two-wheel vehicles obey the law. Although there are many
side lanes for these bikes, the actual pedestrian sidewalks serve as
legal, one-way routes. Police at intersections stop vehicles either
going the wrong way, or running red lights. Offenders may be forced to
wear a red sash, stop other offenders, and lecture them.
* Commerce: Around August 2015, teams of officers physically removed
nearly all illegal structures used for business in the city (a
province-wide campaign). These structures were commonly made of
corrugated metal or cinderblocks and were shop extensions or simply
unused space that had been built upon. Street vendors were banned
(most of whom sold vegetables or fruit), as was the night operation of
roadside BBQ sites and the placement of tables onto the sidewalks by
restaurants. These night time food operations were once common
throughout the city.
* Roads and sidewalks: Many small roads have been repaved including
narrow lanes in old neighbourhoods. Also, many sidewalks have been
upgraded with new brick. Bricks are used as sidewalk material in
Haikou because of the large amount of ficus trees, the roots of which
deform the surrounding sidewalk.
* Demolition and reconstruction: A number of entire neighbourhoods
within the city have been, and are being, entirely demolished with new
buildings and roads being built.
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
The treatment of Haikou's wastewater, and the supply of tap water is
operated by the French company
Veolia Water . The partial
privatization agreement gives 49 percent ownership to
Veolia Water in
a 30-year joint venture with
Haikou Water Group.
According to the 2010 Census , the prefecture-level city of Haikou
has a registered population of 2,046,189 inhabitants, 537,848 more
than the population declared on the past census in 2000. The average
annual population growth during the period 2000–2010 was of 3.1
percent. Most of the population of
Han Chinese (around
97.75 percent, according to the 2010 Census).
Haikou is divided in four districts. The information here presented
uses 2010 Census data.
LONGHUA XIUYING QIONGSHAN MEILAN
(2010) DENSITY (/KM²)
There are several distinct neighborhoods within the city, including:
Guomao is a relatively affluent area located on the coast between
Longquan Road to the east running west for more than one kilometre.
The west part of this area has experienced substantial development
since about 2007, and now contains dozens of newly built high-rise
residential apartment buildings. Shopping street in Bo'ai Lu area
(French colonial district)
Main article: Bo\'ai Road area
This historical area is located on the south side of the Haidian
River, at the northern part of mainland Haikou. Much of the area
comprises arcade style, dilapidated buildings with European
fusion-type architectural facades with Indian and Arabic influences.
The buildings are almost all painted white, and are usually no more
than a few storeys tall. The eastern part of the area is mainly
residential. The western part contains hubs for such items as exotic
foods, pets, and fabrics. The building facades and roads have been
restored in most of the area,
Zhongshan Road being the most notable.
Hainan University Area
Haidian Island , this area comprises the entire portion of
the island west of its main north/south road, Renmin Dadao. It appears
similar to a typical student ghetto , containing many small,
inexpensive food stands and restaurants.
Haikou West Coast
A new neighbourhood is under development in
Xiuying District south of
Hainan International Convention And Exhibition Center and around seven
km west of
Haikou downtown. A number of government offices have moved
there and numerous residential apartment complexes are being built.
PARKS AND RECREATIONAL AREAS
The ferris wheel at
Baishamen Park Main article: List of
* Evergreen Park is a 71.3 hectare park located on Binhai Road
about 200 m west of the southern foot of
Haikou Century Bridge. It is
the largest park in Haikou, containing approximately ten thousand
coconut trees and several hundred species of South Asian ornamental
plants, however, most of the park consists of grassy fields.
Baishamen Park (White Sand Gate Park) was created in 2010 and is
located on the north shore of Haidian Island. The park contains a
small amusement park, and consists mostly of grass fields, with little
Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park
Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park (Jinniuling Park) includes a small
zoo, a lake, diverse flora, and a high percentage of forest areas,
including a large bamboo forest. It is located on Haixiu Road, west of
Longquan Road, the main north-south avenue in Haikou.
Binhai Park is located east of Evergreen Park. There is a
bougainvillea hybrid exhibition held each year. This park has a small
lake and building used for community purposes in the middle.
Haikou People\'s Park is a recently refurbished park located in
the downtown area on Haixiu Road next to East Lake. The park draws
large numbers of people each morning who engage in exercises,
predominantly tai chi , fitness dancing , and aerobics.
Hainan International Friendship Park is planned to occupy 180,000
square metres (1,900,000 sq ft) of land, with a length of over 2,000
metres (6,600 ft).
* Hongcheng Lake (红城湖) is one of the largest water bodies in
the city being around equal in size to the lake at Golden Bull
Mountain Ridge Park. It has three islands, the largest of which
contains a defunct hotel. The lake is a popular location for
fishermen. At night, hawker stalls are set up along the roadsides for
tourists and locals to drink and dine.
* Holiday Beach is a 7 kilometres (4.3 miles)-long beach and visitor
attraction adjacent to the west side of Haikou.
Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve lies some 15 kilometres (9.3 mi)
south east of
Haikou and was the first protected mangrove forest zone
OTHER NOTABLE LOCATIONS
* Zhongjie Road (忠介路), a shopping street with a long history
* Jiefang East Road, a busy shopping street located west of the
Bo'ai Road area
Haikou Tower is an under-construction supertall skyscraper on
Guoxing Avenue. The tallest of the 10-building ensemble will be 428
metres (1,404 ft).
The new International Tourism and Central Business District on
The GDP per capita was $3,573 USD in 2008, ranked number 43 among 659
Chinese cities. In 2011, the city's GDP reached 71.3 billion yuan,
amounting to about 30 percent of the province's total.
Haikou exports substantial quantities of agricultural produce and
livestock. There is a small amount of industry, including canning ,
textiles , rice hulling, and light engineering.
The "International Tourism and Central Business District" is under
construction on the west part of Guoxing Road. The road was once only
home to government buildings. Starting around 2011, HNA and other
groups began erecting office buildings. Also located at the western
end of Guoxing is the
HNA Building , the headquarters of Hainan
Near the southern end of Haikou, automotive manufacturer, Haima
Automobile has its global headquarters.
Haikou Free Trade Zone (
Haikou FTZ) (海口保税区) is a
state-level, 1.93 square kilometer area located between Nanhai Road
and Yehai Road. It was approved on October 21, 1992 by the State
See also: List of universities and colleges in
University just inside the north gate.
Several major educational institutions are located in Haikou:
Hainan University has its main campus on Haikou's
Haidian Island ,
with the South
China Tropical Agricultural University, now part of the
university, located in the southern part of the city.
Hainan Normal University is the oldest institution for higher
learning. It has an enrolment of more than 20,000, including
approximately 200 foreigner students, and has recently constructed a
new campus in
Guilinyang , just outside Haikou.
Hainan Medical College , founded in 1993, offers degrees in
medicine. It is located in the southern part of the city.
Qiongzhou University is located in
Qiongshan District .
Haikou College of Economics
Haikou College of Economics , located by Guoxing Road, with a new
campus in Guilinyang.
Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences is located
across the road from
Hainan Medical College.
Hainan Middle School is considered one of the most prestigious
middle schools in Hainan. Its main gate is located a few metres from
the east gate of
Hainan Normal University.
* Main transportation hubs in Haikou:
Haikou Port New Seaport
Haikou Railway Station
Haikou Xiuying Port
Haikou New Port
Haikou South Station (main bus station)
Haikou East Railway Station
Haikou Meilan International Airport
Haikou has an extensive urban bus service. Standard fare is 1 yuan,
with no bus pass, ticket, or transfer system in place. Urban minibuses
operated prior to 2009, but have since been phased-out. Taxi
automobiles and electric motorbikes operate throughout the city.
During 2009–2010, petrol-fueled motorbike taxis were banned and
seized by police at numerous checkpoints within the city.
Haikou has experienced a substantial increase in cars since the early
2000s. Traffic on main streets, once light, is now similar to other
major cities, with rush hour problems that have prompted the city to
expand several main roads and build a new elevated road from the west
end of Guoxing Road to new developments west of Holiday Beach.
Many main roads in the city have a side lane, separated by a median,
for two-wheeled vehicles.
Physical barriers were installed on many of the main two-way streets
throughout the city in order to separate opposing lanes. These were
installed for safety reasons to prevent pedestrians from crossing the
streets at locations other than intersections.
Roundabouts are not prevalent in Haikou, being used mainly on Hai Xiu
road, and a few other locations.
Traffic cameras are used at many main intersections in the city, with
tickets being issued by post for traffic light infractions.
There is one tunnel in the city, the
Qiaozhong Road Tunnel
Qiaozhong Road Tunnel .
Haikou Public Bicycle System station.
Haikou Public Bicycle System has about 20,000 bicycles. A
pre-paid swipe card system is used to gain access to them. Starting on
January 24, 2017 privately run app -based "dockless" shared bikes came
into service. By April, there were about 40,000 of these types of
bikes available. Ofo , Mobike , and "Quick to" all cost 2 RMB per
hour. Ofo and "Quick to" bikes have tires with tubes, meaning many are
left around the city with flat tires. The
Haikou Public Bicycle System
has installed a number of new, more modern bikes with tires that
cannot be punctured. Part of Mobike's fleet also uses these types of
Haikou is served by
Haikou Meilan International Airport (IATA: HAK,
ICAO: ZJHK), which is located 25 km (16 mi) from the city.
In January 2011,
Haikou was selected to be the first test site for an
experiment allowing private helicopter flight in China.
Three main highways connect
Haikou to other parts of Hainan, running
east, west, and south through the middle of the province. The Haiwen
expressway connects the city with
Wenchang to the southeast.
Haikou East Railway Station
A railway links
Haikou to the mainland. A ferry service transports
the railway cars, along with other motor vehicles across the strait.
Hainan East Ring Railway links
Sanya . There are 15
stations in between, either in operation or still under construction.
Trains are designed to travel at 250 km/h (155 mph). Travel time from
Sanya is approximately 1 hour and 22 minutes. The main
Haikou East Railway Station
(东环铁路海口东站) located near the southern end of Long Quan
An announcement was made in December 2010, that another high-speed
railway will be built along the west coast of
Hainan connecting with
Hainan Eastern Ring Railway.
Haikou Xiuying Port
Haikou has four seaports for passenger and cargo service.
Port , formerly known as the Inner Harbour, is located on the southern
side of the mouth of the
Haidian River . Approximately 7 km (4 mi)
Haikou New Port is
Haikou Xiuying Port . This port is
considerably larger, and is the main distribution centre for cargo
entering Hainan. It is also a major port for immigration onto Hainan
Island. Around 20 km (12 mi) west of downtown
Haikou are South Port
Haikou Port New Seaport .
ARTS AND CULTURE
Haikou City Stadium
Several large public buildings now occupy Guoxing Road, the new area
for arts and culture. These include the
Hainan Provincial Museum , the
Hainan Provincial Library , and the
Hainan Centre for the Performing
Arts . These are all located near to one another on the south side of
the road, west of
Haikou College of Economics
Haikou College of Economics ,
At the west side of Evergreen Park is the
Haikou Great Hall of the
People , a concert hall, and
Hainan Exhibition ">
A view south from Bin Hai road
Haikou Century Bridge connecting
Haidian Island over the Haidian
Hainan Provincial Library
Hainan Provincial Museum
A view east from Evergreen Park area
The customs building
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAIKOU .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for HAIKOU .
Haikou Government (in simplified Chinese)
* Detailed information about Haikou
Haikou Free Trade Zone
Haikou Free Trade Zone map
* Map of