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The Hồng Bàng period (Vietnamese: thời kỳ Hồng Bàng),[2] also called the Hồng Bàng dynasty,[3] was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dương Vương
An Dương Vương
in 258 BC.[3] Vietnamese chronicles from the 15th century, namely the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư claim that the period began with Kinh Dương Vương as the first Hùng king
Hùng king
(Vietnamese: Hùng Vương), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period.[4] The Hùng king
Hùng king
was the absolute monarch of the country (then known as Xích Quỷ and later Văn Lang) and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. Archaeological record of such kings in the 3rd millennium BC is lacking. The history of the Hồng Bàng epoch occurred in a series of eighteen Hùng king
Hùng king
dynasties, divided by cultural periods. The Hùng king period was thriving along with the water-rice civilization in the Red River Delta, throughout most of the Bronze Age. Numerous wars were fought in the late stage of the period.[5]

Contents

1 Chronology

1.1 Origin of name

2 History

2.1 Predynastic stage 2.2 The first Hùng king
Hùng king
(c. 2879 BC) 2.3 Early Hồng Bàng (c. 2879 – c. 1913 BC) 2.4 Middle Hồng Bàng (c. 1912 – c. 1055 BC) 2.5 Late Hồng Bàng (c. 1054 – c. 258 BC) 2.6 Final moments (c. 258 BC) 2.7 Continued influence

3 Government and economy

3.1 Organization 3.2 Agriculture

4 Culture

4.1 Art

4.1.1 Pottery

5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic minorities

6 Technology

6.1 Bronze tools 6.2 Canals and dikes

7 Archeological remains 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Chronology[edit] The history of the Hồng Bàng period is split according to the ruling dynasty of each Hùng king. The dating of events is still a subject of research.[6] The conservative dates are not supported by any reliable absolute date for a span of about two and a half millennia.[6] The following is the list including the Bronze Age cultures:[7]

Early period (approximately 2879–2000 BC)

Càn line (Hùng Dynasty
Dynasty
I, c. 2879 – 2794 BC) Khảm line
Khảm line
( Dynasty
Dynasty
II, c. 2793 – 2525 BC) Cấn line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
III, c. 2524 – 2253 BC) Chấn line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
IV, c. 2254 – 1913 BC)

Phùng Nguyên Period (approximately 2000–1500 BC)[8]

Tốn line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
V, c. 1912 – 1713 BC) Ly line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
VI, c. 1712 – 1632 BC) Khôn line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
VII, c. 1631 – 1432 BC)

Đồng Đậu Period (approximately 1500–1100 BC)[8]

Đoài line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
VIII, c. 1431 – 1332 BC) Giáp line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
IX, c. 1331 – 1252 BC) Ất line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
X, c. 1251 – 1162 BC) Bính line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XI, c. 1161 – 1055 BC)

Gò Mun Period (approximately 1100–800 BC)[8]

Đinh line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XII, c. 1054 – 969 BC) Mậu line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XIII, c. 968 – 854 BC) Kỷ line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XIV, c. 853 – 755 BC)

Đông Sơn Period (approximately 800–258 BC)[8]

Canh line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XV, c. 754 – 661 BC) Tân line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XVI, c. 660 – 569 BC) Nhâm line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XVII, c. 568 – 409 BC) Qúy line ( Dynasty
Dynasty
XVIII, c. 408 – 258 BC)

Origin of name[edit] The Vietnamese name is the reading of Chinese characters "鴻龐" assigned to this dynasty in early Vietnamese-written histories in Chinese. The meaning is a mythical giant bird.[9] History[edit]

History of Vietnam

2879–258 BC Hồng Bàng dynasty

2879–1913 BC • Early Hồng Bàng

1912–1055 BC • Mid Hồng Bàng

1054–258 BC • Late Hồng Bàng

257–179 BC Thục dynasty

207–111 BC Triệu dynasty

111 BC–40 AD 1st Chinese domination

40–43 Trưng Sisters

43–544 2nd Chinese domination

544–602 Early Lý dynasty

602–938 3rd Chinese domination

939–967 Ngô dynasty

968–980 Đinh dynasty

980–1009 Early Lê dynasty

1009–1225 Later Lý dynasty

1225–1400 Trần dynasty

1400–1407 Hồ dynasty

1407–1427 4th Chinese domination

1407–1413 • Later Trần dynasty

1428–1788 Later Lê dynasty

1527–1592 • Mạc dynasty

1545–1787 • Trịnh lords

1558–1777 • Nguyễn lords

1778–1802 Tây Sơn dynasty

1802–1945 Nguyễn dynasty

1858–1954 French Indochina

1945 Empire of Vietnam

From 1945 Republic

1945–1976 • North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam)

1955–1975 • South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam)

1975–1976 • Viet Cong-occupied South Vietnam

From 1976 Unification of Vietnam

Further subjects

Champa
Champa
dynasties (192–1832) Funan (68–550) Chenla
Chenla
(550–802) Historical capitals Prehistoric and ancient cultures List of monarchs Country's names Economic history Military history

v t e

Predynastic stage[edit] Main article: Prehistoric Vietnam Vietnam, a country situated along the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, has had a long and turbulent history.[10] The Vietnamese people represent a fusion of races, languages, and cultures, the elements of which are still being sorted out by ethnologists, linguists, and archaeologists.[11] The Vietnamese language provides some clues to the cultural mixture of the Vietnamese people.[11] The area now known as Vietnam
Vietnam
has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, with some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province reportedly dating back around half a million years ago.[11] The prehistoric people had lived continuously in local caves since around 6000 BC, until more advanced material cultures developed.[12] Some caves are known to have been the home of many generations of early humans.[13] As northern Vietnam
Vietnam
was a place with mountains, forests, and rivers, the number of tribes grew between 5000 and 3000 BC.[14] Prior to the beginning of the Hồng Bàng period, the land was settled by autonomous villages. Vietnamese predynastic society was anarchic and did not have any management mechanism. They lived together in groups as tribes. Archaeologists have found many images on the wall of caves which showed the daily living of ancient people. The first Hùng king
Hùng king
(c. 2879 BC)[edit] During a few thousands years in the Late Stone Age, the inhabitant populations grew and spread to every part of Vietnam. Most ancient peoples were living near the Hồng (Red), Cả and Mã rivers. The Vietnamese tribes were the primary tribes at this time.[14] Their territory included modern meridional territories of China
China
to the banks of the Hồng River in the northern territory of Vietnam. Centuries of developing a civilization and economy based on the cultivation of irrigated rice encouraged the development of tribal states and communal settlements A significant political event occurred when Lộc Tục came into power. He consolidated the other tribes and succeeded in grouping all the vassal states (or autonomous communities) within his territory into a unified nation in approximately 2879 BC. Lộc Tục proclaimed himself Kinh Dương Vương and called his newly born nation Xích Quỷ. Lộc Tục inaugurated the earliest monarchical regime as well as the first ruling family by heirdom in Vietnam's history. He is regarded as the ancestor of the Hùng kings, as the founding father of Vietnam, and as a Vietnamese cultural hero who is credited with teaching his people how to cultivate rice. Early Hồng Bàng (c. 2879 – c. 1913 BC)[edit] As rule was passed to the Hùng king's male heirs, Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded by his son Lạc Long Quân, who founded the second dynasty of Hùng kings in c. 2793 BC. Starting from the third Hùng dynasty since c. 2524 BC, the kingdom was renamed Văn Lang, and the capital was set up at Phong Châu
Phong Châu
(in modern Việt Trì, Phú Thọ) at the juncture of three rivers where the Red River Delta begins from the foot of the mountains. The evidence that the Vietnamese knew how to calculate the lunar calendar by carving on stones dates back to 2200–2000 BC. Parallel lines were carved on the stone tools as a counting instrument involving the lunar calendar.[12] The process of making silk has had been known by the Vietnamese since 2000 BC.[15] Middle Hồng Bàng (c. 1912 – c. 1055 BC)[edit] By 1500 BC, the coastal residents developed a sophisticated agricultural society.[16] Late Hồng Bàng (c. 1054 – c. 258 BC)[edit] The tidal irrigation of rice fields through an elaborate system of canals and dikes started by the sixth century BC. The Hùng ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty
Dynasty
led the armies to conquer what is modern-day Nghệ An and Hà Tĩnh Provinces.[7] A rival people, the proto-Cham people based in modern-day Quảng Bình Province, resisted and a clash between the two sides was inevitable.[7] The Hùng forces defeated the proto-Chams, annexing the land.[7] The Hồng Bàng epoch ended in the middle of the third century BC on the advent of the military leader Thục Phán's conquest of Văn Lang, dethroning the last Hùng king. Final moments (c. 258 BC)[edit] Main articles: Hùng Duệ Vương, Cao Lỗ, and An Dương Vương Thục Phán
Thục Phán
(An Dương Vương), the ruler of the neighboring upland Âu Việt tribes, overthrew the last Hùng king
Hùng king
in c. 258 BC. After conquering Văn Lang, Thục Phán
Thục Phán
united the Lạc Việt
Lạc Việt
tribes with the Âu Việt ones to form a new kingdom of Âu Lạc, building his capital and citadel, Cổ Loa Citadel
Cổ Loa Citadel
in Hanoi's Dong Anh district.[17] Continued influence[edit] The Lạc lords maintained their feudal influence long after demise of the Hồng Bàng era. These feudal lords faded into history only after the defeat of the Trưng Sisters
Trưng Sisters
in mid 1st-century AD. Government and economy[edit] Organization[edit] The first Hùng King established the first Vietnamese state in response to the needs of co-operation in constructing hydraulic systems and in struggles against their enemies. This was a very primitive form of a sovereign state with the Hùng king
Hùng king
on top and under him a court consisted of advisors - the lạc hầu.[18] The country was composed of fifteen bộ "regions", each ruled by a lạc tướng;[18] usually the lạc tướng was a member of the Hùng kings' family. Bộ comprised the agricultural hamlets and villages based on a matriarchal clan relationship and headed by a bộ chính, usually a male tribal elder.[18] The eastern border of the country was the Pacific Ocean. Originally, the northern border stretched to the southern part of present-day Hunan, and the southern border stretched to the Cả River, including parts of modern Guangxi, Guangdong
Guangdong
and Northern Vietnam.[18] Faced with China's southward expansions, beginning in the early first millennium BC, Văn Lang
Văn Lang
gradually lost its northern territory; and by around 500 BC, its northern border was equivalent to that of the modern Vietnam
Vietnam
state.[7] However, simultaneously, the Hùng kings sought to expand Văn Lang's borders southward. During the last (Eighteenth) dynasty of Hùng kings, the southern border extended to northern parts of modern-day Quảng Bình Province.[7] Agriculture[edit] The economy was based mainly on rice paddy cultivation, and also included handicrafts, hunting and gathering, husbandry and fishing. Especially, the skill of bronze casting was at a high level. The most famous relics are Đông Sơn Bronze Drums
Đông Sơn Bronze Drums
on which are depicted houses, clothing, customs, habits, and cultural activities of the Hùng era. The Hùng Vươngs ruled Văn Lang
Văn Lang
in feudal fashion with the aid of the Lạc Tướng, who controlled the communal settlements around each irrigated area, organized construction and maintenance of the dikes, and regulated the supply of water. Besides cultivating rice, the people of Văn Lang
Văn Lang
grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens, and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo-working were highly developed crafts, as were basketry, leather-working, and the weaving of hemp, jute, and silk. Both transport and communication were provided by dugout canoes, which plied the network of rivers and canals. Culture[edit] Art[edit] Pottery[edit] The period between the end of the third millennium and the middle of the first millennium BC produced increasingly sophisticated pottery of the pre-Dong Son cultures of northern Viet Nam and the pre-Sa Huỳnh cultures of southern Vietnam. This period saw the appearance of wheel-made pottery, although the use of the paddle and anvil remained significant in manufacture.[19] Vessel surfaces are usually smooth, often polished, and red slipping is common. Cord-marking is present in all cultures and forms a fairly high percentage of sherdage. Complex incised decoration also developed with rich ornamental designs, and it is on the basis of incised decoration that Vietnamese archaeologists distinguish the different cultures and phases one from another. The pottery from the successive cultural developments in the Red River Valley is the most well known. Vietnamese archaeologists here discern three pre-Dong Son cultures: Phùng Nguyên, Đồng Đậu, and Gò Mun. The pottery of these three cultures, despite the use of different decorative styles, has features that suggest a continuity of cultural development in the Red River Valley. In the Ma River
Ma River
Valley in Thanh Hóa Province, Vietnamese archaeologists also recognize three pre-Dong Son periods of cultural development: Con Chan Tien, Dong Khoi (Bai Man) and Quy Chu. In the areas stretching from the Red to the Cả River valleys, all the local cultures eventually developed into the Đông Sơn culture, which expanded over an area much larger than that of any previous culture and Vietnamese archaeologists believe that it had multiple regional sources. For instance, while Đông Sơn bronzes are much the same in different regions of northern Viet Nam, the regional characters of the pottery are fairly marked. On the whole, Đông Sơn pottery has a high firing temperature and is varied in form, but decorative patterns are much reduced in comparison with preceding periods, and consist mainly of impressions from cord-wrapped or carved paddles. Incised decoration is virtually absent. Demographics[edit] Ethnic minorities[edit] Contemporary Vietnamese historians have established the existence of various ethnic minorities now living in the highlands of North and Central Vietnam
Vietnam
during the early phase of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty.[20] Technology[edit] Bronze tools[edit] Further information: Đông Sơn culture

Image on the Ngoc Lu bronze drum's surface

By about 1200 BC., the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Mã River and Red River plains led to the development of the Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Đông Sơn sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology. Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Đông Sơn sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening. Canals and dikes[edit] An important advancement occurred by the 6th century BC: the irrigation of rice fields (lac dien) through an elaborate system of canals and dikes.[citation needed] This type of sophisticated farming system would come to define Vietnamese society. It required tight-knit village communities to collectively manage their irrigation systems. These systems in turn produced crop yields that could sustain much higher population densities than competing methods of food production.[21] Archeological remains[edit] Due to the limit of written records, verifiable historical information on the history of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty
Dynasty
largely comes from archaeological evidence – vestiges such as the Hùng kings' Temple in Phú Thọ, the agricultural implements made of stone discovered in Sơn Tây, Vĩnh Yên, Bắc Giang
Bắc Giang
– as well as a considerable number of legends. Notes[edit]

^ Colonial Diasporas & Traditional Vietnamese Society ^ Dror, p. 33 & 254 "Hồng Bàng period" ^ a b Pelley, p. 151 ^ Tucker, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War ^ Tăng Dực Đào, p. 7 ^ a b Vuong Quan Hoang and Tran Tri Dung, p. 64 ^ a b c d e f Tracing the origin of ethnic and ancestor land during the Hùng King Age. ^ a b c d Ngô Văn Thạo, p. 823-824 ^ Nhất Hạnh Master Tang Hôi: First Zen Teacher in Vietnam
Vietnam
and China
China
- 2001 Page 1 "At that time the civilization of northern Vietnam was known as Van Lang (van means beautiful, and lang means kind and healing, like a good doctor). The ruling house of Van Lang was called Hong Bang, which means a kind of huge bird." ^ Vietnam
Vietnam
- History and Culture ^ a b c Mission Atlas Project - VIETNAM - Basic Facts ^ a b Ancient calendar unearthed. Retrieved 2014-01-05. ^ 6,000-year-old tombs unearthed in northeast Vietnam. Retrieved 2014-01-19. ^ a b Lamb, p. 52 ^ According to the Book of Han: "In a year, they have two rice crops and eight silk crops". ^ Vietnam
Vietnam
- History Archived 2013-11-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ray, Nick; et al. (2010), "Co Loa Citadel", Vietnam, Lonely Planet, p. 123, ISBN 9781742203898 . ^ a b c d Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục, Vol. 1 ^ Hoang and Bui 1980 ^ Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh, p. 99 ^ eHistory, Ohio State University. Guilmartin, John. “America and Vietnam: The Fifteen Year War.” 1991. New York: Military Press.

References[edit]

Bayard, D. T. 1977. Phu Wiang pottery and the prehistory of Northeastern Thailand. MQRSEA 3:57-102. Dror, Olga (2007). Cult, Culture, and Authority: Princess Liẽu Hạnh in Vietnamese. Heekeren, H. R. van. 1972. The Stone Age
Stone Age
of Indonesia. The Hague: Nijhoff. Hoang Xuan Chinh and Bui Van Tien 1980. The Dongson Culture and Cultural Centers in the Metal Age in Vietnam Lamb, David. Vietnam, Now: A Reporter Returns. PublicAffairs, 2008. Lévy, P. 1943. Recherches préhistoriques dans la région de Mlu Prei. PEFEO 30. Mourer, R. 1977. Laang Spean and the prehistory of Cambodia. MQRSEA 3:29-56. Ngô Văn Thạo (2005). Sổ tay báo cáo viên năm 2005. Hà Nội: Ban tư tưởng - văn hóa trung ương, Trung tâm thông tin công tác tư tưởng, 2005. 495 p. : col. ill. ; 21 cm. Peacock, B. A. V. 1959. A short description of Malayan prehistoric pottery. AP 3 (2): 121-156. Pelley, Patricia M. Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002. Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh (1991), Lịch sử Việt Nam, volume 1. Sieveking, G. de G. 1954. Excavations at Gua Cha, Kelantan, 1954 (Part 1). FMJ I and II:75-138. Solheim II, W. G.

1959. Further notes on the Kalanay pottery complex in the Philippines. AP 3 (2): 157-166. 1964. The Archaeology of Central Philippines: A Study Chiefly of the Iron Age
Iron Age
and its Relationships. Manila: Monograph of the National Institute of Science and Technology No. 10. 1968. The Batungan Cave sites, Masbate, Philippines, in Anthropology at the Eight Pacific Science Congress: 21-62, ed. W. G. Solheim II. Honolulu: Asian and Pacific Archaeology Series No. 2, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii. 1970a. Prehistoric archaeology in eastern Mainland Southeast Asia
Mainland Southeast Asia
and the Philippines. AP 13:47-58. 1970b. Northern Thailand, Southeast Asia, and world prehistory. AP 13:145-162.

Tăng Dực Đào (1994). On the struggle for democracy in Vietnam. Tucker, Spencer C. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War (hardback edition). Vuong Quan Hoang and Tran Tri Dung. Vietnam
Vietnam
Entrepreneurial Cultures, The IUP J. Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. VI, No. 3&4, 2009. Zinoman, Peter (2001). The Colonial Bastille: A History of Imprisonment in Vietnam, 1862-1940. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520224124.

External links[edit]

"Đồ đồng cổ Đông Sơn" [Đông Sơn ancient bronze tools] (in Vietnamese).  "Ánh sáng mới trên một quá khứ lãng quên" [New Light on a Forgotten Past] (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. 

Preceded by New creation Dynasty
Dynasty
of Vietnam c. 2879 – 258 BC Succeeded 

.