Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (German: [ˈkɪʁchɔf]; 12 March
1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed
to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy,
and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
He coined the term black-body radiation in 1862, and at least two
different sets of concepts are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him. The
1 Life and work 2 Kirchhoff's circuit laws 3 Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy 4 Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links
Life and work
Kirchhoff formulated his circuit laws, which are now ubiquitous in
electrical engineering, in 1845, while still a student. He completed
this study as a seminar exercise; it later became his doctoral
dissertation. In 1857 he calculated that an electric signal in a
resistanceless wire travels along the wire at the speed of
light. He proposed his law of thermal radiation in 1859, and
gave a proof in 1861. He was called to the
University of Heidelberg
Tombstone at Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof
Kirchhoff died in 1887, and was buried in the St Matthäus Kirchhof
Cemetery in Schöneberg,
Kirchhoff's circuit laws Further information: Kirchhoff's circuit laws Kirchhoff's first law is that the algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point (or node) is zero. The second law is that in a closed circuit, the directed sums of the voltages in a closed system is zero. Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy
Visual depiction of Kirchhof laws or spectroscopy
See also: History of spectroscopy
A solid, liquid, or dense gas excited to emit light will radiate at all wavelengths and thus produce a continuous spectrum. A low-density gas excited to emit light will do so at specific wavelengths and this produces an emission spectrum. (See also: emission spectrum) If light composing a continuous spectrum passes through a cool, low-density gas, the result will be an absorption spectrum.
Kirchhoff did not know about the existence of energy levels in atoms.
The existence of discrete spectral lines was later explained by the
Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry Kirchhoff showed in 1858 that, in thermochemistry, the variation of the heat of a chemical reaction is given by the difference in heat capacity between products and reactants: dΔH / dT = ΔCp. Integration of this equation permits the evaluation of the heat of reaction at one temperature from measurements at another temperature. See also
Kirchhoff equations Kirchhoff Institute of Physics Kirchhoff integral theorem Kirchhoff stress tensor Kirchhoff's diffraction formula Kirchhoff's theorem Kirchhoff–Love plate theory List of German inventors and discoverers Spectroscope
^ Hockey, Thomas (2009). "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012. ^ "Gustav Robert Kirchhoff - Dauerausstellung". Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics. Retrieved 18 Mar 2016. Am 16. August 1857 heiratete er Clara Richelot, die Tochter des Königsberger Mathematikers ... Frau Clara starb schon 1869. Im Dezember 1872 heiratete Kirchhoff Luise Brömmel. ^ Kirchoff, G. (1857). "On the motion of electricity in wires". Philosophical Magazine. 13: 393–412. ^ Graneau, P.; Assis, A.K.T. (1994). "Kirchhoff on the motion of electricity in conductors" (PDF). Apeiron. 1 (19): 19–25. ^ D. Miller, "Huygens’s wave propagation principle corrected", Opt. Lett. 16, 1370–1372 (1991) ^ "G.R. Kirchhoff (1824 - 1887)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 22 July 2015. ^ Laidler K.J. and Meiser J.H., "Physical Chemistry" (Benjamin/Cummings 1982), p.62 ^ Atkins P. and de Paula J., "Atkins' Physical Chemistry" (8th edn, W.H. Freeman 2006), p.56
Warburg, E. (1925). "Zur Erinnerung an Gustav Kirchhoff". Die
Naturwissenschaften. 13 (11): 205. Bibcode:1925NW.....13..205W.
Stepanov, B. I. (1977). "Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (on the ninetieth
anniversary of his death)". Journal of Applied Spectroscopy. 27 (3):
1099. Bibcode:1977JApSp..27.1099S. doi:10.1007/BF00625887.
Everest, A S (1969). "Kirchhoff-Gustav Robert 1824–1887". Physics
Education. 4 (6): 341. Bibcode:1969PhyEd...4..341E.
Kirchhoff, Gustav (1860). "Ueber die Fraunhoferschen Linien".
Monatsberichte der Königliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
zu Berlin: 662–665. ISBN 978-1-113-39933-5. HathiTrust
full text. Partial English translation available in Magie, William
Francis, A Source Book in
"Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Sketch of Gustav Robert Kirchhoff". Popular Science Monthly. 33. May 1888. "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
Quotations related to
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2587371 LCCN: n85225150 ISNI: 0000 0001 0863 1577 GND: 118723146 SUDOC: 084713879 BNF: cb12554746j (data) MGP: 46968 NLA: 36549509 NDL: 00518411 NKC: mzk2003202