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The GURJARA-PRATIHARA DYNASTY, also known as the PRATIHARA EMPIRE, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent , that ruled much of Northern India
India
from the mid-7th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj .

The Gurjara-Pratiharas were instrumental in containing Arab
Arab
armies moving east of the Indus River
Indus River
. Nagabhata I defeated the Arab
Arab
army under Junaid and Tamin during the Caliphate campaigns in India
India
. Under Nagabhata II , the Gurjara-Pratiharas became the most powerful dynasty in northern India. He was succeeded by his son Ramabhadra , who ruled briefly before being succeeded by his son, Mihira Bhoja . Under Bhoja and his successor Mahendrapala I , the Pratihara Empire
Empire
reached its peak of prosperity and power. By the time of Mahendrapala, the extent of its territory rivalled that of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
stretching from the border of Sindh
Sindh
in the west to Bengal
Bengal
in the east and from the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north to areas past the Narmada in the south. The expansion triggered a tripartite power struggle with the Rashtrakuta and Pala empires for control of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
. During this period, Imperial Pratihara took the title of Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta (Great King of Kings of India).

Gurjara- Pratihara are known for their sculptures, carved panels and open pavilion style temples. The greatest development of their style of temple building was at Khajuraho
Khajuraho
, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

The power of the Pratiharas was weakened by dynastic strife. It was further diminished as a result of a great raid led by the Rashtrakuta ruler Indra III who, in about 916, sacked Kannauj. Under a succession of rather obscure rulers, the Pratiharas never regained their former influence. Their feudatories became more and more powerful, one by one throwing off their allegiance until, by the end of the 10th century, the Pratiharas controlled little more than the Gangetic Doab
Doab
. Their last important king, Rajyapala, was driven from Kannauj by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and origin

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early rulers * 2.2 Conquest of Kannauj and further expansion * 2.3 Decline

* 3 Gurjara- Pratihara art * 4 Caliphate campaigns in India
India
* 5 Legacy

* 6 References

* 6.1 Bibliography

ETYMOLOGY AND ORIGIN

Nilgund inscription (866) of Amoghavarsha mentions that his father Govinda III subjugated the Gurjaras of Chitrakuta Main article: Origin of the Gurjara-Pratiharas

The origin of the dynasty and the meaning of the term "Gurjara" in its name is a topic of debate among historians. The rulers of this dynasty used the self-designation "Pratihara" for their clan, and never referred to themselves as Gurjaras. The Imperial Pratiharas could have emphasized their Kshatriya, instead of Gurjara, identity for political reasons. However, at local levels Pratiharas were not wary of projecting their tribal (Gurjara) identity. They claimed descent from the legendary hero Lakshmana
Lakshmana
, who is said to have acted as a pratihara ("door-keeper") for his brother Rama
Rama
. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri theorized that the ancestors of the Pratiharas served the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
, and the term "Pratihara" derives from the title of their office in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
court.

Multiple inscriptions of their neighbouring dynasties describe the Pratiharas as "Gurjara". The term "Gurjara-Pratihara" occurs only in the Rajor inscription of a feudatory ruler named Mathanadeva, who describes himself as a "Gurjara-Pratihara". Another Pratihara king named Hariraja is also mentioned as a "ferocious Gurjara" (garjjad gurjjara meghacanda) in the Kadwaha inscription. According to one school of thought, Gurjara was the name of the territory (see Gurjara-desha ) originally ruled by the Pratiharas; gradually, the term came to denote the people of this territory. An opposing theory is that Gurjara was the name of the tribe to which the dynasty belonged, and Pratihara was a clan of this tribe. Several historians consider Gurjaras to be the ancestors of the modern Gurjar or Gujjar tribe. The proponents of the tribal designation theory argue that the Rajor inscription mentions the phrase: "all the fields cultivated by the Gurjaras". Here, the term "Gurjara" obviously refers to a group of people rather than a region. The Pampa Bharata refers the Gurjara- Pratihara king Mahipala as a Gurjara king. Rama
Rama
Shankar Tripathi argues that here Gurjara can only refer to the king's ethnicity, and not territory, since the Pratiharas ruled a much larger area of which Gurjara-desha was only a small part. Critics of this theory, such as D. C. Ganguly, argue that the term "Gurjara" is used as a demonym in the phrase "cultivated by the Gurjaras". Several ancient sources including inscriptions clearly mention "Gurjara" as the name of a country. Shanta Rani Sharma notes that an inscription of Gallaka in 795 CE states that Nagabhata I , the founder of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty, conquered the "invincible Gurjaras," which makes it unlikely that the Pratiharas were themselves Gurjaras. However, she does concede that Imperial Pratiharas were indeed known as Gurjaras, on account of their nationality. She mentions two groups of people who were known as Gurjaras, and draws a line between them; i.e. Gurjaras who were an ethnic people and Gurjaras who were nationals of Gurjaradesa
Gurjaradesa
(Gurjara Country). According to her, Gujjars are the descendants of ethnic Gurjaras, and have nothing to do with imperial Pratiharas and Chalukyas who were also known as Gurjaras (due to their Gurjara nationality).

Among those who believe that the term Gurjara was originally a tribal designation, there are disagreements over whether they were native Indians or foreigners. The proponents of the foreign origin theory point out that the Gurjara-Pratiharas suddenly emerged as a political power in north India
India
around 6th century CE, shortly after the Huna invasion of that region. Critics of the foreign origin theory argue that there is no conclusive evidence of their foreign origin: they were well-assimilated in the Indian culture. Moreover, if they invaded Indian through the north-west, it is inexplicable why would they choose to settle in the semi-arid area of present-day Rajasthan, rather than the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
.

According to the Agnivansha legend given in the later manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso
Prithviraj Raso
, the Pratiharas and three other Rajput
Rajput
dynasties originated from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu
Mount Abu
. Some colonial-era historians interpreted this myth to suggest a foreign origin for these dynasties. According to this theory, the foreigners were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. However, this legend is not found in the earliest available copies of Prithviraj Raso. It is based on a Paramara legend; the 16th century Rajput
Rajput
bards probably extended the original legend to include other dynasties including the Pratiharas, in order to foster Rajput unity against the Mughals .

HISTORY

The imperial Gurjara- Pratihara family that went on to rule Kannauj originally appears to have ruled Ujjayani in the Avanti region. The Jain text Harivaṃśa , which was completed in 783-84 CE, states that Vatsaraja was the king of Avanti. The 871 CE Sanjan copper-plate inscription of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler Amoghavarsha states that his ancestor Dantidurga (r. 735–756 CE) performed a religious ceremony at Ujjayani. At that time, the king of Gurjara-desha (Gurjara country) acted as his door-keeper (pratihara). The usage of the word pratihara seems to be a word play , suggesting that the Rashtrakuta king subdued the Gurjara- Pratihara king who ruling Avanti at that time.

EARLY RULERS

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Nagabhata I (730–756) extended his control east and south from Mandor, conquering Malwa
Malwa
as far as Gwalior
Gwalior
and the port of Bharuch in Gujarat. He established his capital at Avanti in Malwa, and checked the expansion of the Arabs , who had established themselves in Sind . In this battle (738 CE) Nagabhata led a confederacy of Gurjara-Pratiharas to defeat the Muslim
Muslim
Arabs who had till then been pressing on victorious through West Asia
West Asia
and Iran
Iran
. Nagabhata I was followed by two weak successors, who were in turn succeeded by Vatsraja (775–805). Varaha
Varaha
(the boar-headed Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar), on a Pratihara coin. 850–900 CE. British Museum
British Museum
.

CONQUEST OF KANNAUJ AND FURTHER EXPANSION

The metropolis of Kannauj had suffered a power vacuum following the death of Harsha
Harsha
without an heir, which resulted in the disintegration of the Empire of Harsha . This space was eventually filled by Yashovarman around a century later but his position was dependent upon an alliance with Lalitaditya Muktapida . When Muktapida undermined Yashovarman, a tri-partite struggle for control of the city developed, involving the Pratiharas, whose territory was at that time to the west and north, the Palas of Bengal
Bengal
in the east and the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
, whose base lay at the south in the Deccan
Deccan
. Vatsraja successfully challenged and defeated the Pala ruler Dharmapala
Dharmapala
and Dantidurga , the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
king, for control of Kannauj.

Around 786, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler Dhruva (c. 780–793) crossed the Narmada River into Malwa, and from there tried to capture Kannauj. Vatsraja was defeated by the Dhruva Dharavarsha of the Rashtrakuta dynasty around 800. Vatsraja was succeeded by Nagabhata II (805–833), who was initially defeated by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler Govinda III (793–814), but later recovered Malwa
Malwa
from the Rashtrakutas, conquered Kannauj and the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
as far as Bihar
Bihar
from the Palas, and again checked the Muslims in the west. He rebuilt the great Shiva
Shiva
temple at Somnath
Somnath
in Gujarat, which had been demolished in an Arab
Arab
raid from Sindh
Sindh
. Kannauj became the center of the Gurjara- Pratihara state, which covered much of northern India during the peak of their power, c. 836–910.

Rambhadra (833-c. 836) briefly succeeded Nagabhata II. Mihira Bhoja (c. 836–886) expanded the Pratihara dominions west to the border of Sind, east to Bengal, and south to the Narmada. His son, Mahenderpal I (890–910), expanded further eastwards in Magadha
Magadha
, Bengal, and Assam .

DECLINE

Bhoj II (910–912) was overthrown by Mahipala I (912–944). Several feudatories of the empire took advantage of the temporary weakness of the Gurjara-Pratiharas to declare their independence, notably the Paramaras of Malwa, the Chandelas of Bundelkhand , the Kalachuris of Mahakoshal , the Tomaras
Tomaras
of Haryana , and the Chauhans of Rajputana
Rajputana
. The south Indian Emperor Indra III (c. 914–928) of the Rashtrakuta dynasty briefly captured Kannauj in 916, and although the Pratiharas regained the city, their position continued to weaken in the 10th century, partly as a result of the drain of simultaneously fighting off Turkic attacks from the west, the attacks from the Rashtrakuta dynasty from the south and the Pala advances in the east. The Gurjara-Pratiharas lost control of Rajasthan to their feudatories, and the Chandelas captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior
Gwalior
in central India
India
around 950. By the end of the 10th century the Gurjara-Pratihara domains had dwindled to a small state centered on Kannauj.

Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
captured Kannauj in 1018, and the Pratihara ruler Rajapala fled. He was subsequently captured and killed by the Chandela ruler Vidyadhara . The Chandela ruler then placed Rajapala's son Trilochanpala on the throne as a proxy. Jasapala, the last Gurjara- Pratihara ruler of Kannauj, died in 1036.

GURJARA-PRATIHARA ART

Vishnu
Vishnu
Trivikrama, an 11th-century Pratihara stone sculpture from Kashipur , Kept at the National Museum, New Delhi
National Museum, New Delhi
.

There are notable examples of architecture from the Gurjara-Pratihara era, including sculptures and carved panels. Their temples, constructed in an open pavilion style, were particularly impressive at Khajuraho
Khajuraho
.

CALIPHATE CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA

Main article: Caliphate campaigns in India
India

Junaid , the successor of Qasim , finally subdued the Hindu resistance within Sindh. Taking advantage of the conditions in Western India, which at that time was covered with several small states, Junaid led a large army into the region in early 738 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.

Indian inscriptions confirm this invasion but record the Arab
Arab
success only against the smaller states in Gujarat. They also record the defeat of the Arabs at two places. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was repulsed at Navsari by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
. The army that went east, after sacking several places, reached Avanti whose ruler Nagabhata (Gurjara-Pratihara) trounced the invaders and forced them to flee. After his victory Nagabhata took advantage of the disturbed conditions to acquire control over the numerous small states up to the border of Sindh.

Junaid probably died from the wounds inflicted in the battle with the Gurjara-Pratihara. His successor Tamin organized a fresh army and attempted to avenge Junaid’s defeat towards the close of the year 738 CE. But this time Nagabhata, with his Chauhan and Guhilot feudatories, met the Muslim
Muslim
army before it could leave the borders of Sindh. The battle resulted in the complete rout of the Arabs who fled broken into Sindh
Sindh
with the Gurjara- Pratihara close behind them.

The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the Indus River
Indus River
, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Hindus. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently, the Arabs constructed the city of Mansurah on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh. Thus began the reign of the imperial Gurjara-Pratiharas.

In the Gwalior
Gwalior
inscription, it is recorded that Gurjara-Pratihara emperor Nagabhata "crushed the large army of the powerful Mlechcha king." This large army consisted of cavalry, infantry, siege artillery, and probably a force of camels. Since Tamin was a new governor he had a force of Syrian cavalry from Damascus
Damascus
, local Arab contingents, converted Hindus of Sindh, and foreign mercenaries like the Turkics . All together the invading army may have had anywhere between 10–15,000 cavalry, 5000 infantry, and 2000 camels.

The Arab
Arab
chronicler Sulaiman describes the army of the Pratiharas as it stood in 851 CE, "The ruler of Gurjars maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India
India
there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous."

LEGACY

Historians of India, since the days of Elphinstone , have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim
Muslim
invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. The Arabs possibly only stationed small invasions independent of the Caliph. Arguments of doubtful validity have often been put forward to explain this unique phenomenon. Currently it is believed that it was the power of the Gurjara- Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Muslims beyond the confines of Sindh, their first conquest for nearly three hundred years. In the light of later events this might be regarded as the "Chief contribution of the Gurjara Pratiharas to the history of India".

REFERENCES

* ^ Avari 2007 , pp. 204–205: Madhyadesha became the ambition of two particular clans among a tribal people in Rajasthan, known as Gurjara and Pratihara. They were both part of a larger federation of tribes, some of which later came to be known as the Rajputs * ^ Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind: Early Medieval India
India
and the Expansion of Islam, 7th–11th Centuries. Leiden: BRILL. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8 . * ^ Avari 2007 , p. 303. * ^ A B Sircar 1971 , p. 146. * ^ A B Partha Mitter, Indian art, Oxford University Press, 2001 pp.66 * ^ Sanjay Sharma 2006 , p. 188. * ^ Sanjay Sharma 2006 , p. 190. * ^ Tripathi 1959 , p. 223. * ^ Puri 1957 , p. 7. * ^ Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (1953). History of India. S. Viswanathan. p. 194. * ^ Puri 1957 , p. 9-13. * ^ Sanjay Sharma 2006 , p. 189. * ^ Majumdar 1981 , pp. 612-613. * ^ Puri 1957 , p. 1-18. * ^ A B Tripathi 1959 , p. 222. * ^ Ganguly 1935 , p. 167. * ^ Ganguly 1935 , pp. 167-168. * ^ Ganguly 1935 , p. 168. * ^ Puri 1986 , pp. 9-10. * ^ Mishra 1954 , pp. 50-51. * ^ A B Shanta Rani Sharma 2012 , p. 8. * ^ Shanta Rani Sharma 2012 , p. 7. * ^ Puri 1957 , p. 1-2. * ^ Puri 1957 , p. 2. * ^ Puri 1957 , pp. 4-6. * ^ Yadava 1982 , p. 35. * ^ Singh 1964 , pp. 17-18. * ^ Puri 1986 , p. 34-35. * ^ Mishra 1966 , p. 18. * ^ Puri 1957 , pp. 10-11. * ^ Tripathi 1959 , p. 226-227. * ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (2003). A Comprehensive History of Ancient India. Sterling Publishers. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4 . * ^ Kulke, Hermann ; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004) . A History of India
India
(4th ed.). Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0 . * ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jejākabhukti. Abhinav. p. 72. ISBN 9788170170464 . * ^ Mitra, Sisirkumar (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajurāho. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9788120819979 . * ^ Kala, Jayantika (1988). Epic scenes in Indian plastic art. Abhinav Publications. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-7017-228-4 . * ^ A B Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 207. ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Avari, Burjor (2007). India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian-Subcontinent from 7000 BC to AD 1200. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-08850-0 . * Sircar, Dineschandra (1971). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120806900 . * Ganguly, D. C. (1935), Narendra Nath Law, ed., "Origin of the Pratihara Dynasty", The Indian Historical Quarterly, Caxton, XI: 167–168 * Majumdar, R. C. (1981), "The Gurjara-Pratiharas", in R. S. Sharma and K. K. Dasgupta, A Comprehensive history of India: A.D. 985-1206, 3 (Part 1), Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House, ISBN 978-81-7007-121-1 * Mishra, V. B. (1954), "Who were the Gurjara-Pratīhāras?", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 35 (¼): 42–53, JSTOR 41784918

* Puri, Baij Nath (1957), The history of the Gurjara-Pratihāras, Munshiram Manoharlal

* Puri, Baij Nath (1986) , The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal

* Sharma, Sanjay (2006), "Negotiating Identity and Status Legitimation and Patronage under the Gurjara-Pratīhāras of Kanauj", Studies in History, 22 (22): 181–220, doi :10.1177/025764300602200202 * Sharma, Shanta Rani (2012), "Exploding the Myth of the Gūjara Identity of the Imperial Pratihāras", Indian Historical Review, 39 (1): 1–10, doi :10.1177/0376983612449525 * Singh, R. B. (1964), History of the Chāhamānas, N. Kishore * Tripathi, Rama
Rama
Shankar (1959). History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0478-4 . * Yadava, Ganga Prasad (1982), Dhanapāla and His Times: A Socio-cultural Study Based Upon His Works, Concept

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GURJARA-PRATIHARA .

* v * t * e

Gurjara- Pratihara dynasty

* Nagabhata I (730–760) * Kakustha and Devaraja (760–780) * Vatsaraja (780–800) * Nagabhata II (800–833) * Ramabhadra (833–836) * Mihira Bhoja or Bhoja I (836–885) * Mahendrapala I (885–910) * Bhoja II (910–913) * Mahipala I (913–944) * Mahendrapala II (944–948) * Devapala (948–954) * Vinayakapala (954–955) * Mahipala II (955–956) * Vijayapala II (956–960) * Rajapala (960–1018) * Trilochanapala (1018–1027) * Yasahpala (1024–1036)

* v * t * e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and

cultural period Northwestern India
India

( Punjab
Punjab
- Sapta Sindhu ) Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Central India Southern India
India

Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru - Panchala ) Northern India
India

(Central Gangetic Plain) Northeastern India
India

(Northeast India
India
)

IRON AGE

CULTURE LATE VEDIC PERIOD LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Brahmin ideology)

Painted Grey Ware culture LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)

Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
PRE-HISTORY

6TH CENTURY BC Gandhara Kuru - Panchala Magadha
Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

CULTURE PERSIAN-GREEK INFLUENCES "SECOND URBANISATION "

Rise of Shramana movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika - Yoga
Yoga
PRE-HISTORY

5TH CENTURY BC (Persian rule )

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

4TH CENTURY BC (Greek conquests )

Nanda empire Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE

CULTURE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM PRE-HISTORY SANGAM PERIOD (300 BC – 200 AD)

3RD CENTURY BC MAURYA EMPIRE Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

CULTURE PRECLASSICAL HINDUISM - "HINDU SYNTHESIS" (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD) Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
Sangam period
Sangam period

(continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

2ND CENTURY BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire

Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

1ST CENTURY BC

1ST CENTURY AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kuninda Kingdom
Kuninda Kingdom

2ND CENTURY Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire

3RD CENTURY Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE "GOLDEN AGE OF HINDUISM"(ca. AD 320-650) Puranas
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism

4TH CENTURY Kidarites
Kidarites
GUPTA EMPIRE

Varman dynasty Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty

5TH CENTURY Hephthalite Empire
Empire
Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina

6TH CENTURY Nezak Huns
Nezak Huns

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka
Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Badami Chalukyas

Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE LATE-CLASSICAL HINDUISM (ca. AD 650-1100) Advaita Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

7TH CENTURY Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

8TH CENTURY Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

9TH CENTURY

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas
Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10TH CENTURY Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas

Medieval Cholas
Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

REFERENCES

* ^ Samuel * ^ Samuel * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 * ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

SOURCES

* Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press * Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge * Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press * Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univer

.