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The GULF OF BOTHNIA (Finnish : Pohjanlahti; Swedish : Bottniska viken, i.e. Bottenviken + Bottenhavet ) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is situated between Finland
Finland
's west coast and Sweden 's east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
, between the Sea of Åland and the Archipelago Sea
Archipelago Sea
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Extent * 2.2 Geophysical data

* 3 Geological history * 4 History * 5 Economy * 6 Rivers * 7 Cities * 8 References

NAME

Bothnia is a latinization . The Swedish name "Bottenviken" was originally just "Botn(en)" with BOTN being Old Norse
Old Norse
for "gulf" or "bay"; which is also the meaning of the second element "vik".

The name botn was applied to the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
as Helsingjabotn in Old Norse
Old Norse
, after Hälsingland , which at the time referred to the coastland west of the gulf. Later, botten was applied to the regions Västerbotten on the western side and Österbotten the eastern side ("East Bottom" and "West Bottom"). The Finnish name of Österbotten, Pohjanmaa, or "Pohja"-land, gives a hint as to the meaning in both languages: the meaning of pohja includes both "bottom" and "north." Pohja (bottom) is the base word for north, pohjoinen, with an adjectival suffix added.

Botn/botten is cognate with the English word bottom, and it might be part of a general north European distinction of lowlands, as opposed to highlands, such as the Netherlandic region, Samogitia (Lithuanian ), and Sambia (Russia ).

A second possibility is that botten follows an alternative Scandinavian connotation of 'furthermost'. Thus, the Gulf of Bothnia would be the farthest extent of the Ocean.

Julius Pokorny gives the extended Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
root as *bhudh-m(e)n with a *bhudh-no- variant, from which the Latin fundus, as in fundament, is derived. The original meaning of English north, from Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
*ner- "under", indicates an original sense of "lowlands" for "bottomlands". On the other hand, by "north" the classical authors usually meant "outermost", as the northern lands were outermost to them.

The origin of the word is indeed very ancient, belonging to a period before the world discoveries by the Portuguese. Until then, north was not seen as the magnetic top of the world, East being the normal orientation of a map .

Also, in Saami, the cardinal directions were named according to the different parts of the typical tent used by this nomadic people. The door of the tent was traditionally pointed South, in the most sunny direction, and the bottom of the tent would be aligned with the North. Thus the origin of the word 'pohja' in its use as "north". Deriving as well from this logic is the affinity in the Finnish language
Finnish language
of the words 'eteinen', meaning "entrance room/hall" and 'etelä', "South". According to Lönnrot , north was viewed as the bottom direction because the lowest point of the sun's path is there.

GEOGRAPHY

EXTENT

The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the southern limit of the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
as follows:

From Simpnäsklubb (59°54'N) in Sweden, to Flötjan, Lagskær , Fæstörne , Kökars örn, and Vænö-Kalkskær to the SW point of Hangöudde (Hangö Head, 59°49'N) in Finland, thus including the Aland islands and adjacent shoals and channels in the Gulf of Bothnia.

GEOPHYSICAL DATA

June 2006 view of the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
in Finland.

The gulf is 725 km (450 mi) long, 80–240 km (50-150 mi) wide and has an average depth of 60 m (200 ft, 33 fathoms ). The maximum depth is 295 m (965 ft, 161 fathoms). The surface area is 117,000 km² (45,200 sq mi). The northernmost point is situated in Töre in the Bothnian Bay
Bothnian Bay
. its coordinates are 65° 54'07" N 22° 39'00 E.

The depth and surface area of the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
are constantly decreasing, as the land is rising after it had been pressed down by the continental ice during last ice age. The rise is 80 cm every hundred years.

Into the gulf flow a number of rivers from both sides; consequently, a salinity gradient exists from north to south. In the south the water is the normal brackish water of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, but in the north, in the Bothnian Bay
Bothnian Bay
, the salinity is so low, from 0.4% near Kvarken to 0.2% in the northernmost part , that many freshwater fish such as the pike, whitefish and perch thrive in it.

Being nearly fresh, the gulf is frozen over five months every year. The icing of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
begins and ends in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. Traffic restrictions for ice breaker assistance are typically in force for all the gulf from late January to late April and for the northernmost ports from the middle of December to the middle of May.

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY

Further information: Geology of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea

For the geological history of the entire region, refer to the Baltic Sea .

HISTORY

Some historians suggest that the adventurer Ottar was referring to the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
when he spoke of the Kven Sea in the 9th century. It is also possible that Claudius Clavus 's usage of the term Mare Gotticus in the 15th century refers to the Gulf of Bothnia.

ECONOMY

The land surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
is heavily forested. Trees are logged, then transported to the coast for milling. The gulf is also important for oil transport to the coastal cities and ore transport to steel mills, for instance in Raahe.

In terms of tonnage in international traffic, the largest ports on the Finnish side are Rauma, Kokkola and Tornio. The main ports of the Swedish side are in Luleå, Skellefteå, Umeå, Sundsvall, Gävle
Gävle
and Hargshamn. In Luleå, iron ore pellets are exported and coal is imported. Gävle
Gävle
is Sweden's third-largest container port. It also ships forest products and oil. In the Gulf of Bothnia, ice breakers assist the ports needed in average half a year, when the Gulf of Finland, the season is only three months.

There is some fishery, mainly Baltic herring , for domestic needs. A persistent problem has been pollution, because the sea is enclosed by a large drainage basin and is poorly connected to fresher waters from the Atlantic. Mercury and PCB levels have been relatively high, although the Finnish Food Safety Authority considers the herring edible. Although the levels exceed the limits, the fatty acids have health benefits that offset this risk.

RIVERS

* Kemijoki * Kokemäenjoki * Oulujoki * Dalälven * Ljusnan * Ljungan * Indalsälven * Ångerman River * Ume River
Ume River
* Skellefte River
Skellefte River
* Pite River * Lule River * Kalix River * Torne River

CITIES

* Oulu
Oulu
* Pori * Rauma * Vaasa
Vaasa
* Luleå * Umeå
Umeå
* Härnösand
Härnösand
* Sundsvall
Sundsvall
* Gävle
Gävle
* Jakobstad

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GULF OF BOTHNIA .

* ^ Svensk etymologisk ordbok / (in Swedish) * ^ "suomen kielisten ilmansuuntien etymologia". Kysy.fi. 26 July 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2016. * ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010. * ^ " Töre båthamn". hamnar i Kalix (in Swedish). bottenviken.se. Retrieved 1 December 2015. * ^ A B "About the Bay of Bothnia". Bottenvikens Skargård. Retrieved 1 December 2015. * ^ http://www.ku.lt/nemo/bot_lag_desc.html Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Perämeren erityispiirteitä * ^ Typical restrictions to navigation 1994/95-2003/04 (pdf) Archived 1 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Table 4. Statistics on international shipping 2014" (PDF). Statistics from the Finnish Transport Agency. Retrieved 1 December 2015. * ^ Havsplanering p. 92 (in Swedish) * ^ "Climate change creates new prerequisites for shipping". Climate Guide. SYKE, Aalto University, YTK & Finnish Met. Institute. Retrieved 1 December 2015.

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea
Beaufort Sea
* Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea
East Siberian Sea
* Greenland Sea
Greenland Sea
* Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
* Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea
Wandel Sea
* White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea
Archipelago Sea
* Argentine Sea
Argentine Sea
* Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
* Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea
Bothnian Sea
* Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
* Celtic Sea * English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea
Greenland Sea
* Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland
Finland
* Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea * James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea
Labrador Sea
* Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Norwegian Sea
* Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
* Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea
Flores Sea
* Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea
Java Sea
* Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
* Banda Sea * Bering Sea
Bering Sea
* Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
* Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea
East China Sea
* Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
* Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea
Sibuyan Sea
* Solomon Sea
Solomon Sea
* South China Sea
South China Sea
* Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea
Bellingshausen Sea
* Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea
Somov Sea
* Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Salton Sea
Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

Coordinates : 63°N 20°E / 63°N 20°E / 63; 20

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 248985499 * GND :

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