HOME
The Info List - Gulf Stream


--- Advertisement ---



The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland
Newfoundland
before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. The process of western intensification causes the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
to be a northward accelerating current off the east coast of North America. At about 40°0′N 30°0′W / 40.000°N 30.000°W / 40.000; -30.000, it splits in two, with the northern stream, the North Atlantic Drift, crossing to Northern Europe
Northern Europe
and the southern stream, the Canary Current, recirculating off West Africa. The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida
Florida
to Newfoundland, and the west coast of Europe. Although there has been recent debate, there is consensus that the climate of Western Europe
Western Europe
and Northern Europe
Northern Europe
is warmer than it would otherwise be due to the North Atlantic drift
North Atlantic drift
which is the northeastern section of the Gulf Stream. It is part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Its presence has led to the development of strong cyclones of all types, both within the atmosphere and within the ocean. The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
is also a significant potential source of renewable power generation.[citation needed] The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
may be slowing down as a result of climate change. The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
is typically 100 kilometres (62 mi) wide and 800 metres (2,600 ft) to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) deep. The current velocity is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed typically about 2.5 metres per second (5.6 mph).

Contents

1 History 2 Properties 3 Formation and behavior 4 Localized effects 5 Effect on cyclone formation 6 Possible renewable power source 7 In culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit]

Benjamin Franklin's map of the Gulf Stream

European discovery of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
dates to the 1512 expedition of Juan Ponce de León, after which it became widely used by Spanish ships sailing from the Caribbean
Caribbean
to Spain.[1] A summary of Ponce de León's voyage log, on April 22, 1513, noted, "A current such that, although they had great wind, they could not proceed forward, but backward and it seems that they were proceeding well; at the end it was known that the current was more powerful than the wind."[2] Its existence was also known to Peter Martyr d'Anghiera. Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns. In 1768, while in England, Franklin heard a curious complaint from the Colonial Board of Customs: Why did it take British packets several weeks longer to reach New York from England than it took an average American merchant ship to reach Newport, Rhode Island, despite the merchant ships leaving from London and having to sail down the River Thames
River Thames
and then the length of the English Channel before they sailed across the Atlantic, while the packets left from Falmouth in Cornwall?[3] Franklin asked Timothy Folger, his cousin twice removed (Nantucket Historical Society), a Nantucket Island
Nantucket Island
whaling captain, for an answer. Folger explained that merchant ships routinely crossed the then-unnamed Gulf Stream—identifying it by whale behavior, measurement of the water's temperature and the speed of bubbles on its surface, and changes in the water's color—while the mail packet captains ran against it.[3] Franklin worked with Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream and giving it the name by which it is still known today. He offered this information to Anthony Todd, secretary of the British Post Office, but it was ignored by British sea captains.[3] Franklin's Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
chart was published in 1770 in England, where it was mostly ignored.[4] Subsequent versions were printed in France in 1778 and the U.S. in 1786.[5] Properties[edit] The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
proper is a western-intensified current, driven largely by wind stress.[6] The North Atlantic Drift, in contrast, is largely thermohaline circulation–driven. In 1958 the oceanographer Henry Stommel
Henry Stommel
noted that "very little water from the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
is actually in the Stream".[7] By carrying warm water northeast across the Atlantic, it makes Western and especially Northern Europe
Northern Europe
warmer than it otherwise would be.[8] However, the extent of its contribution to the actual temperature differential between North America and Europe is a matter of dispute, as there is a recent minority opinion within the science community that this temperature difference (beyond that caused by contrasting maritime and continental climates) is mainly due to atmospheric waves created by the Rocky Mountains.[9] Formation and behavior[edit]

Evolution of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
to the west of Ireland continuing as the North Atlantic Current

A river of sea water, called the Atlantic North Equatorial Current, flows westward off the coast of Central Africa. When this current interacts with the northeastern coast of South America, the current forks into two branches. One passes into the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, while a second, the Antilles Current, flows north and east of the West Indies.[10] These two branches rejoin north of the Straits of Florida. The trade winds blow westward in the tropics,[11] and the westerlies blow eastward at mid-latitudes.[12] This wind pattern applies a stress to the subtropical ocean surface with negative curl across the north Atlantic Ocean.[13] The resulting Sverdrup transport
Sverdrup transport
is equatorward.[14] Because of conservation of potential vorticity caused by the northward-moving winds on the subtropical ridge's western periphery and the increased relative vorticity of northward moving water, transport is balanced by a narrow, accelerating poleward current, which flows along the western boundary of the ocean basin, outweighing the effects of friction with the western boundary current known as the Labrador current.[15] The conservation of potential vorticity also causes bends along the Gulf Stream, which occasionally break off due to a shift in the Gulf Stream's position, forming separate warm and cold eddies.[16] This overall process, known as western intensification, causes currents on the western boundary of an ocean basin, such as the Gulf Stream, to be stronger than those on the eastern boundary.[17] As a consequence, the resulting Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
is a strong ocean current. It transports water at a rate of 30 million cubic meters per second (30 sverdrups) through the Florida
Florida
Straits. As it passes south of Newfoundland, this rate increases to 150 million cubic metres per second.[18] The volume of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
dwarfs all rivers that empty into the Atlantic combined, which barely total 0.6 million cubic metres per second. It is weaker, however, than the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.[19] Given the strength and proximity of the Gulf Stream, beaches along the East Coast of the United States may be more vulnerable to large sea-level anomalies, which significantly impact rates of coastal erosion.[20] The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
is typically 100 kilometres (62 mi) wide and 800 metres (2,600 ft) to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) deep. The current velocity is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed typically about 2.5 metres per second (5.6 mph).[21] As it travels north, the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
undergoes evaporative cooling. The cooling is wind-driven: Wind moving over the water causes evaporation, cooling the water and increasing its salinity and density. When sea ice forms, salts are left out of the ice, a process known as brine exclusion.[22] These two processes produce water that is denser and colder (or, more precisely, water that is still liquid at a lower temperature). In the North Atlantic Ocean, the water becomes so dense that it begins to sink down through less salty and less dense water. (The convective action is not unlike that of a lava lamp.) This downdraft of cold, dense water becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.[23] Very little seaweed lies within the current, although seaweed lies in clusters to its east.[24] Localized effects[edit] See also: Climate of Florida The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
is influential on the climate of the Florida peninsula. The portion off the Florida
Florida
coast, referred to as the Florida
Florida
current, maintains an average water temperature at or above 24 °C (75 °F) during the winter.[25] East winds moving over this warm water move warm air from over the Gulf Stream inland,[26] helping to keep temperatures milder across the state than elsewhere across the Southeast during the winter. Also, the Gulf Stream's proximity to Nantucket, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
adds to its biodiversity, as it is the northern limit for southern varieties of plant life, and the southern limit for northern plant species, Nantucket
Nantucket
being warmer during winter than the mainland.[27] The North Atlantic Current
North Atlantic Current
of the Gulf Stream, along with similar warm air currents, helps keep Ireland and the western coast of Great Britain a couple of degrees warmer than the east.[28] However, the difference is most dramatic in the western coastal islands of Scotland.[29] A noticeable effect of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and the strong westerly winds (driven by the warm water of the Gulf Stream) on Europe occurs along the Norwegian coast.[8] Northern parts of Norway
Norway
lie close to the Arctic
Arctic
zone, most of which is covered with ice and snow in winter. However, almost all of Norway's coast remains free of ice and snow throughout the year.[30] Weather systems warmed by the Gulf Stream drift into Northern Europe, also warming the climate behind the Scandinavian mountains. Effect on cyclone formation[edit]

Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
intensifying along the axis of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
in 2012.

The warm water and temperature contrast along the edge of the Gulf Stream often increase the intensity of cyclones, tropical or otherwise. Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
generation normally requires water temperatures in excess of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F).[31] Tropical cyclone formation is common over the Gulf Stream, especially in the month of July. Storms travel westward through the Caribbean
Caribbean
and then either move in a northward direction and curve toward the eastern coast of the United States or stay on a north-westward track and enter the Gulf of Mexico.[32] Such storms have the potential to create strong winds and extensive damage to the United States' Southeast Coastal Areas. Strong extratropical cyclones have been shown to deepen significantly along a shallow frontal zone, forced by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
itself during the cold season.[33] Subtropical cyclones also tend to generate near the Gulf Stream. 75 percent of such systems documented between 1951 and 2000 formed near this warm water current, with two annual peaks of activity occurring during the months of May and October.[34] Cyclones within the ocean form under the Gulf Stream, extending as deep as 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) beneath the ocean's surface.[35] Possible renewable power source[edit] The theoretical maximum energy dissipation from Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
by turbines is in the range of 20-60 GW.[36] One suggestion, which could theoretically supply power comparable to several nuclear power plants, would deploy a field of underwater turbines placed 300 meters (980 ft) under the center of the core of the Gulf Stream.[37] Ocean
Ocean
thermal energy could also be harnessed to produce electricity using the temperature difference between cold deep water and warm surface water.[38] In culture[edit]

Some of the RMS Titanic's victims, whose bodies were buoyed by lifebelts but were never found by rescue or recovery ships sent to find them, are surmised to have been carried away in the Gulf Stream.[39][40][41]

See also[edit]

Arctic
Arctic
dipole anomaly Boundary current Humboldt Current Latitude of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
north wall index North Atlantic oscillation Shutdown of thermohaline circulation

References[edit]

^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 194. ISBN 0-393-06259-7.  ^ Wilkinson, Jerry. "History of the Gulf Stream". Keys Historeum. Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ a b c Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. pp.221–222. ^ Isserman, Maurice (2002). "Ben Franklin and the Gulf Stream" (PDF). Study of place. TERC. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ Anon. "1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations'". Ocean
Ocean
Explorer: Readings for ocean explorers. NOAA
NOAA
Office of Ocean Exploration and Research. Archived from the original on 18 December 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ Wunsch, Carl (November 8, 2002). "What Is the Thermohaline Circulation?". Science. 298 (5596): 1179–1181. doi:10.1126/science.1079329. PMID 12424356.  (see also Rahmstorf.) ^ Henry Stommel. (1958). The Gulf Stream: A Physical and Dynamical Description. Berkeley: University of California
University of California
Press. p.22 ^ a b Barbie Bischof; Arthur J. Mariano; Edward H. Ryan (2003). "The North Atlantic Drift Current". The National Oceanographic Partnership Program. Retrieved 2008-09-10.  ^ Seager, Richard (July–August 2006). "The Source of Europe's Mild Climate". American Scientist Online. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ Elizabeth Rowe; Arthur J. Mariano; Edward H. Ryan. "The Antilles Current". Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). "trade winds". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2008-09-08.  ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). Westerlies. Archived 2010-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2009-04-15. ^ Matthias Tomczak and J. Stuart Godfrey (2001). Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. Matthias Tomczak, pp. 42. ISBN 81-7035-306-8. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. ^ Earthguide (2007). Lesson 6: Unraveling the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
Puzzle - On a Warm Current Running North. University of California
University of California
at San Diego. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. ^ Angela Colling (2001). Ocean
Ocean
Circulation. Butterworth-Heinemann, p. 96. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. ^ Maurice L. Schwartz (2005). Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, p. 1037. ISBN 978-1-4020-1903-6. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. ^ National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (2009). Investigating the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
Archived 2010-05-03 at the Wayback Machine.. North Carolina State University. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. ^ Joanna Gyory; Arthur J. Mariano; Edward H. Ryan. "The Gulf Stream". Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Ryan Smith; Melicie Desflots; Sean White; Arthur J. Mariano; Edward H. Ryan. "The Antarctic CP Current". Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Theuerkauf, Ethan J., et al. " Sea level
Sea level
anomalies exacerbate beach erosion". Geophysical Research Letters 41.14 (2014): 5139–5147. ^ Phillips, Pamela. "The Gulf Stream". USNA/Johns Hopkins. Retrieved 2007-08-02.  ^ Russel, Randy. "Thermohaline Ocean
Ocean
Circulation". University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Behl, R. " Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
water masses". California State University Long Beach. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Edward and George William Blunt (1857). The American Coast Pilot. Edward and George William Blunt. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Geoff Samuels (2008). " Caribbean
Caribbean
Mean SSTs and Winds". Cooperative Institute For Marine and Atmospheric Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-16.  ^ National Climatic Data Center. Climatic Wind Data for the United States. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. Archived June 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sarah Oktay. "Description of Nantucket
Nantucket
Island". University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boston. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ Professor Hennessy (1858). Report of the Annual Meeting: On the Influence of the Gulf-stream on the Climate of Ireland. Richard Taylor and William Francis. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  ^ "Satellites Record Weakening North Atlantic Current
North Atlantic Current
Impact". NASA. Retrieved 2008-09-10.  ^ Erik A. Rasmussen; John Turner (2003). Polar Lows. Cambridge University Press. p. 68.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: How do tropical cyclones form?". NOAA. Retrieved 2006-07-26.  ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2018.  ^ S. Businger, T. M. Graziano, M. L. Kaplan, and R. A. Rozumalski. Cold-air cyclogenesis along the Gulf-Stream front: investigation of diabatic impacts on cyclone development, frontal structure, and track. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. ^ David M. Roth. P 1.43 A FIFTY YEAR HISTORY OF SUBTROPICAL CYCLONES. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. ^ D. K. Savidge and J. M. Bane. Cyclogenesis in the deep ocean beneath the Gulf Stream. 1. Description. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. ^ Ocean
Ocean
Current Energy Assessment for the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
Xiufeng Yang*, Kevin A. Haas, Hermann M. Fritz [1] Retrieved 2014-05-26 ^ The Institute for Environmental Research & Eductation. Tidal.pdf Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2010-07-28. ^ Jeremy Elton Jacquot. Gulf Stream's Tidal Energy Could Provide Up to a Third of Florida's Power. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. ^ "Recovering the Dead". titanic-titanic.com.  ^ Walter Lord. The Night Lives On.  ^ Ticehurst, Brian J. (March 31, 2007). "CLASSified in Death : Recovering the Titanic's dead". Encyclopedia Titanica. 

Further reading[edit]

Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (German, Transported amount of power) Hátún; Sandø, AB; Drange, H; Hansen, B; Valdimarsson, H; et al. (September 16, 2005). "Influence of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre on the Thermohaline Circulation". Science. 309 (5742): 1841–1844. Bibcode:2005Sci...309.1841H. doi:10.1126/science.1114777. PMID 16166513. Archived from the original on 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-08-02.  (Increased temperature and salinity in the Nordic Seas.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gulf stream.

Ocean
Ocean
Motion—Description of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
as a western boundary current

v t e

Ocean
Ocean
currents and gyres

Currents

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

East Greenland North Icelandic Norwegian Transpolar Drift Stream

Atlantic Ocean

Angola Antilles Azores Baffin Island Benguela Brazil Canary Cape Horn Caribbean East Greenland East Iceland Falkland Florida Guinea Gulf Stream Irminger Labrador Lomonosov Loop North Atlantic North Brazil North Equatorial Norwegian Portugal Slope Jet South Atlantic South Equatorial West Greenland West Spitsbergen

Indian Ocean

Agulhas Agulhas Return East Madagascar Equatorial Counter Indian Monsoon Indonesian Throughflow Leeuwin Madagascar Mozambique North Madagascar Somali South Australian South Equatorial West Australian

Pacific Ocean

Alaska Aleutian California Cromwell Davidson East Australian East Korea Warm Equatorial Counter Humboldt Indonesian Throughflow Kamchatka Kuroshio Mindanao North Equatorial North Korea Cold North Pacific Oyashio South Equatorial Tasman Front

Southern Ocean

Antarctic Circumpolar Tasman Outflow

Gyres

Major gyres

Indian Ocean
Ocean
Gyre North Atlantic Gyre South Atlantic Gyre North Pacific Gyre South Pacific Gyre

Other gyres

Beaufort Gyre Ross Gyre Weddell Gyre

Related

Atmospheric circulation Boundary current Coriolis force Ekman transport Marine debris Marine garbage patches

Great Pacific Indian Ocean North Atlantic South Pacific

Thermohaline circulation

v t e

Physical oceanography

Waves

Airy wave theory Ballantine scale Benjamin–Feir instability Boussinesq approximation Breaking wave Clapotis Cnoidal wave Cross sea Dispersion Edge wave Equatorial waves Fetch Gravity wave Green's law Infragravity wave Internal wave Iribarren number Kelvin wave Kinematic wave Longshore drift Luke's variational principle Mild-slope equation Radiation stress Rogue wave Rossby wave Rossby-gravity waves Sea state Seiche Significant wave height Soliton Stokes boundary layer Stokes drift Stokes wave Swell Trochoidal wave Tsunami

megatsunami

Undertow Ursell number Wave action Wave base Wave height Wave power Wave radar Wave setup Wave shoaling Wave turbulence Wave–current interaction Waves and shallow water

one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations shallow water equations

Wind wave

model

Circulation

Atmospheric circulation Baroclinity Boundary current Coriolis force Coriolis–Stokes force Craik–Leibovich vortex force Downwelling Eddy Ekman layer Ekman spiral Ekman transport El Niño–Southern Oscillation General circulation model Geostrophic current Global Ocean
Ocean
Data Analysis Project Gulf Stream Halothermal circulation Humboldt Current Hydrothermal circulation Langmuir circulation Longshore drift Loop Current Modular Ocean
Ocean
Model Ocean
Ocean
dynamics Ocean
Ocean
gyre Princeton ocean model Rip current Subsurface currents Sverdrup balance Thermohaline circulation

shutdown

Upwelling Whirlpool World Ocean
Ocean
Circulation Experiment

Tides

Amphidromic point Earth tide Head of tide Internal tide Lunitidal interval Perigean spring tide Rip tide Rule of twelfths Slack water Tidal bore Tidal force Tidal power Tidal race Tidal range Tidal resonance Tide
Tide
gauge Tideline

Landforms

Abyssal fan Abyssal plain Atoll Bathymetric chart Coastal geography Cold seep Continental margin Continental rise Continental shelf Contourite Guyot Hydrography Oceanic basin Oceanic plateau Oceanic trench Passive margin Seabed Seamount Submarine canyon Submarine volcano

Plate tectonics

Convergent boundary Divergent boundary Fracture zone Hydrothermal vent Marine geology Mid-ocean ridge Mohorovičić discontinuity Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis Oceanic crust Outer trench swell Ridge push Seafloor spreading Slab pull Slab suction Slab window Subduction Transform fault Volcanic arc

Ocean
Ocean
zones

Benthic Deep ocean water Deep sea Littoral Mesopelagic Oceanic Pelagic Photic Surf Swash

Sea level

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Future sea level Global Sea Level Observing System North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System Sea-level curve Sea level
Sea level
rise World Geodetic System

Acoustics

Deep scattering layer Hydroacoustics Ocean
Ocean
acoustic tomography Sofar bomb SOFAR channel Underwater acoustics

Satellites

Jason-1 Jason-2 ( Ocean
Ocean
Surface Topography Mission) Jason-3

Related

Argo Benthic lander Color of water DSV Alvin Marginal sea Marine energy Marine pollution Mooring National Oceanographic Data Center Ocean Ocean
Ocean
exploration Ocean
Ocean
observations Ocean
Ocean
reanalysis Ocean
Ocean
surface topography Ocean
Ocean
thermal energy conversion Oceanography Pelagic sediment Sea surface microlayer Sea surface temperature Seawater Science On a Sphere Thermocline Underwater glider Water column World Ocean
Ocean
Atlas

Category Commons

v t e

Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790 President of Pennsylvania (1785–1788), Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding of the United States

Join, or Die
Join, or Die
(1754 political cartoon) Albany Plan
Albany Plan
of Union

Albany Congress

Hutchinson Letters Affair Committee of Secret Correspondence Committee of Five Declaration of Independence Model Treaty

Franco-American alliance Treaty of Amity and Commerce Treaty of Alliance

Staten Island Peace Conference Treaty of Paris, 1783 Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly Postmaster General Founding Fathers

Inventions, other events

Franklin's electrostatic machine Bifocals Franklin stove Glass armonica Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
exploration, naming, and chart Lightning rod Kite experiment Pay it forward Associators

111th Infantry Regiment

Junto club American Philosophical Society Library Company of Philadelphia Pennsylvania Hospital Academy and College of Philadelphia

University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia Contributionship Union Fire Company Early American currency Fugio Cent United States Postal Service President, Pennsylvania Abolition Society Master, Les Neuf Sœurs Other social contributions and studies Gravesite

Writings

Silence Dogood
Silence Dogood
letters (1722) A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) The Busy-Body
The Busy-Body
letters (1729) Pennsylvania Gazette
Pennsylvania Gazette
(1729–1790) Poor Richard's Almanack
Poor Richard's Almanack
(1732–1758) The Drinker's Dictionary (1737) "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) Experiments and Observations on Electricity
Experiments and Observations on Electricity
(1751) Birch letters (1755) The Way to Wealth
The Way to Wealth
(1758) Pennsylvania Chronicle
Pennsylvania Chronicle
(1767) Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784) The Morals of Chess (1786) An Address to the Public (1789) A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1771–90, pub. 1791) Bagatelles and Satires
Bagatelles and Satires
(pub. 1845) Franklin as a journalist

Legacy

Franklin Court Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
House Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Institute of Technology Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
National Memorial Franklin Institute Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Medal Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
statue, Washington D.C. In popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) Ben Franklin in Paris
Ben Franklin in Paris
(1964 musical play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1974 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(2002 documentary series) John Adams (2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries) Sons of Ben (supporters group for the Philadelphia Union soccer club

Refunding Certificate Franklin half dollar One-hundred dollar bill Washington-Franklin stamps

other stamps

Cities, counties, schools named for Franklin Franklin Field State of Franklin Ships named USS Franklin Ben Franklin effect

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment The New-England Courant The American Museum magazine American Revolution

patriots

Syng inkstand

Family

Deborah Read
Deborah Read
(wife) Sarah Franklin Bache
Sarah Franklin Bache
(daughter) Francis Franklin (son) William Franklin
William Franklin
(son) Richard Bache Jr. (grandson) Benjamin F. Bache (grandson) Louis F. Bache (grandson) William Franklin
William Franklin
(grandson) Andrew Harwood (great-grandson) Alexander Bache (great-grandson) Josiah Franklin (father) Jane Mecom (sister) James Franklin (brother) Mary Morrell Folger (grandmother) Peter Folger (grandfather) Richard Bache
Richard Bache
(son-in-law) Ann Smith Franklin (sister-in-law)

Authority control

GND: 40215

.