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Guiyang (; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ) is the capital of
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and adminis ...

Guizhou
province of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...
. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the
Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau Using a wider definition, the Yunnan–Guizhou Highlands make up the light green area on the lower part of this map The Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau or Yungui Plateau () is a highland region located in southwest China. The region is primarily sprea ...
, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an
elevation The elevation of a geographic location (geography), location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational equipotential surfa ...

elevation
of about . It has an area of . At the 2018 estimation, its population was 4,881,900, out of whom 3,474,000 lived in the six urban districts. A city with humid subtropical climate, Guiyang is surrounded by mountains and forest. The area, inhabited since at least the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was men ...
, formally became the capital of the surrounding province in 1413, during the Yuan dynasty. The city is home to a large
MiaoMiao may refer to: * Miao people, linguistically and culturally related group of people, recognized as such by the government of the People's Republic of China * Miao script or Pollard script, writing system used for Miao languages * Miao (Unicode b ...
and
BouyeiBouyei can refer to: * Bouyei language *Bouyei people The Bouyei (also spelled ''Puyi'', ''Buyei'' and ''Buyi''; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; ; vi, người Bố Y), otherwise known as the Zhongjia, are an ethnic gro ...
ethnic minority population. Guiyang has a diversified economy, traditionally a center for aluminum production, phosphate mining, and
optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light waves (or photon The photon (Greek: φῶς, phōs, light) is a type of elementary particle. It is the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagne ...
manufacturing. Following reforms, the majority of the city's economic output in the services sector. Since 2015, it has seen targeted investments into
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software. Data with many fie ...
and quickly emerged as a local innovation hub. Guiyang is one of the top 500 science cities in the world by scientific research outputs, as tracked by the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
. The city is also home to
Guizhou University Guizhou University (; Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach Sta ...
, a national
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
under the
Project 211 Project 211 () was a project of National Key Universities and colleges A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Ter ...
and under the Double First Class Status in certain disciplines.


History

The valley approximating present-day Guiyang has been inhabited since the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was men ...
. Guiyang was a 7th-century military outpost under the Sui and Tang, when the area around it was known as Juzhou (). It grew into a city named Shunyuan () under the
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...
Yuan dynasty sometime between their 1279 southwestern campaigns and 1283. By the time
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and adminis ...

Guizhou
became a full province in 1413, its capital at Guiyang was also known as Guizhou. It became a prefectural seat under the
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Ming
and
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
. Guiyang grew rapidly during the development of the southwest that occurred after the
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
invasion of China during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
. It has also grown rapidly since
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in t ...

Deng Xiaoping
's economic reforms reached it in the 1990s.


Geography

The city's heart is around the Dashizi (), a "big cross", and Penshuichi (, literally "Fountain Pool"), a traffic intersection, in the center of which there was a large fountain until early 2010, when it was paved over for better traffic.


Climate

Guiyang has a four-season,
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric ph ...

monsoon
-influenced
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography, latitude is a g ...
( Köppen: ''Cwa''), tempered by its low latitude and high elevation. It has cool winters and moderate-temperature summers; the majority of the year's of precipitation occurs from May to July. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July, while the annual mean is . Rain is common throughout the year, with occasional flurries in winter. With monthly possible sunshine ranging from 12% in January to 41% in August, the city receives only 1150 hours of sunshine, making it one of China's least sunny major cities. Average monthly
relative humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor, the gaseous state of water, is generally invisible to the human eye. Humidity indicates the likelihood for precipitation (meteorology), precipitation, dew, or fog to be ...

relative humidity
is consistently above 75% throughout the year. The moderate temperature together with other factors including air quality, wind speed, etc. made Guiyang to be ranked No.2 in the "Top 10 Summer Capitals of China".


Administrative divisions

The entire Guiyang municipality currently consists of six districts, one county-level city and three counties. The districts are Nanming, Yunyan, Huaxi, Wudang, Baiyun and Guanshanhu. The county-city is
Qingzhen:''The term ''Qingzhen'' can also refer to Chinese Muslims Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' ...
and the counties are Kaiyang, Xifeng and Xiuwen. The Gui'an New District, a non-administrative economic project, is situated to the southwest of Guiyang. It crosses over into areas under the jurisdiction of the neighboring city of
Anshun Anshun () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipal ...

Anshun
.


Economy

Guiyang is the economic and commercial hub of Guizhou Province. In 2017, GDP for the Guiyang region totaled 353.8 billion yuan, with per capita GDP of 74,493 yuan ($10,720); the local economy is growing at the approximate pace of 10% per year. The city is also a large center for retail and wholesale commercial activities with operations of major domestic and international general retailers such as
Wal-Mart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores from the United States The United States of Americ ...

Wal-Mart
,
Carrefour Carrefour () is a French multinational retail corporation headquartered in Massy, France. The eighth-largest retailer in the world by revenue, it operates a chain of hypermarkets, grocery store, groceries stores and convenience store, convenie ...

Carrefour
, RT-Mart,
Beijing Hualian
Beijing Hualian
,
Parkson Parkson Holdings Berhad (doing business as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular p ...

Parkson
, and Xingli Group () as well as consumer electronics and appliance sellers Gome and
SuningSuning may refer to: * Suning.com, a Chinese retailer, originally corner Jiangsu Road and Ninghai Road, co-founded by Zhang Jindong, was known as Suning Appliance Co., Ltd. and Suning Commerce Group Co., Ltd. * Suning Holdings Group Suning Holding ...
. Wholesale operations include large regional produce, furniture, and industrial and construction machinery depots. Wal-Mart's southwest China regional vegetable and produce distribution center is located in Guiyang. Foreign brands have penetrated Guiyang rapidly, including McDonald's, Burger King, H&M, and Starbucks. Most of the time, they are located near the various shopping centers. The largest shopping centers are Hunter city plaza (), Huaguoyuan Shopping Center (), and Nanguohuajing (). Hydro-electric power generators are located along the city's main rivers including the Wu River. By 2007, the city's hydro electric plants supplied over 70% of the city's electricity.
Coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata (Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half o ...
is mined in the locality of Guiyang and
Anshun Anshun () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipal ...

Anshun
, and there are large thermal generating plants at Guiyang and Duyun, supplying electricity for a portion of the city's industry. A large iron and steel plant came into production in Guiyang in 1960, supplying the local machinery-manufacturing industry. Guiyang has a sizable domestic pharmaceuticals industry, producing traditional Chinese as well as Western medicines. Guiyang has also completed the first stage of city-wide free WiFi. In 2016, Guiyang was named as the Best-Performing City in China by the Milken Institute owing to the city's "growth in jobs, wages, gross domestic product (GDP)." Guizhou Province saw the third-fastest growth among China's 31 regional districts in the first half of the year, growing by 10.5%. This growth is attributed to Guiyang's investments in computing and
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software. Data with many fie ...
. Due to tax incentives and state support, multinational corporations such as Foxconn, Microsoft, Huawei, Hyundai Motor Company, Hyundai Motor, Tencent, Qualcomm and Alibaba Group, Alibaba have opened offices in Guiyang.


Demographics

Guiyang is populated by 23 List of ethnic groups in China, different minorities, the most populous of which is the Miao people and Han Chinese, ethnic Han. , the total population of Guiyang municipality was 4.3 million, among which 2.9 million were urban residents.


Culture


Language

Besides ethnic minority languages such as Miao language, Miao and Bouyei language, Bouyei, the people of Guiyang speak a variety of Southwestern Mandarin. It differs from common Mandarin for the retroflex sounds it lacks. Compared to Mandarin which has five tones (four and a non-stressed tone), Guiyang's local language only has three tones. Many old characters from ancient China are still used within Guiyang's language, which sound like Korean or Japanese. For example, "" (to go) is pronounced as “kèi”, fourth tone, instead of the Mandarin pronunciation “qù” and 做(to do) is pronounced as “zo”, fourth tone,rather than the Mandarin pronunciation "zuo".


Cuisine

Provinces in China are known for the different specialities they offer, and Guiyang is most known for its spicy food as well as the following dishes: * Gaoba porridge (), a sweet dessert. * Fish in sour soup (), a Miao dish with roasted fish and various vegetables. * Huangba (), a sweet wrap made of rice that can be steamed or fried * Huaxi Vermicelli (), a dish that consists of beef vermicelli, that is frequently eaten as a breakfast in Guiyang. * Siwawa (), a dish that can be vegetarian or a mix of pork scraps and vegetables, where the ingredients are enclosed in rice wraps. * Bingfen, Ice jelly with sesame seeds and peanuts (), usually eaten in summer, with siwawa or barbecue * Intestines and blood noodles (), made up with pig's intestines and pig's blood. * Qingyan's pig's feet (), mostly found in the old town of Qingyan, pig's feet symbolize good luck.


Tourism

Being the capital of Guizhou, a very old and traditional province of China, Guiyang is shaped by its history, and still possesses many historical sites that attract many tourists: * The Jiaxiu Pavilion (): The Jiaxiu Pavilion is located in the southern tip of the Guiyang Nanming River, which is the city's emblem and its symbol. It was built during the Ming Dynasty and has more than 400 years of history. * Qingyan Ancient Town (): Qingyan, Qingyan Ancient Town is located in the southern tip of Guiyang. It was originally built in the year 1378, during the Ming Dynasty. It is known its beautiful Chinese ancient architecture. * Xifeng Concentration Camp (): Xifeng Concentration Camp was the largest, highest-level prison of all the prisons set up by the Military commission of the KMT government during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, and it was added by the state council to the list of major historical and cultural sites under state protection, in 1988. * Confucian Center (): the Confucian center is a non-public and educational organization affiliated with the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. The Confucius Institute promotes and teaches Chinese culture and language around the world. The Confucian Temple, in the center of Qufu city, was built in 478 BC. *Xifeng Hot Spring (): Xifeng Hot Spring is located in the northeast of Xifeng County. The hot spring is surrounded by many mountains, upon which rich slopes grow a profusion of pines, firs, bamboos and other plants. This beautiful place has offered its advantages for sanatoriums, hospitals and villas. * Qianling Park (): Qianling Park, in the northwest part of Guiyang, takes its name from Mount Qianling, which is known as southern Guizhou's most majestic mountain. The park is covered with thick vegetation and old trees, with more than 1,500 types of flowers and trees, and at least 1,000 types of Medicinal herbs. The Hongfu Temple, built toward the end of the Ming dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, is one of Guizhou's most famous temples. *Huaxi National Wetland Park (): Guiyang Huaxi national urban wetland Park is located in the north of downtown Guiyang's Huaxi district. It is one of the only urban Wetlands in the country. On the environmental aspect, it belongs to a subtropical humid climate of the plateau karst hilly region, based on Karst landform characteristics of the urban wetland park, its unique geographical location and geological structure form a rich variety of landscapes resources.


Nightlife

* Pubs and bars Most of the young people in Guiyang go out in the evening, after 10 pm. Their major activity is to go to bars, where they often indulge in drinking. The most dynamic street in Guiyang is Qianling Donglu (), unironically called "Drinking Street," for the diversity and great numbers of pubs and bars that occupy it. In the province where Moutai comes from, an internationally well-known liquor, drinking tends to be a tradition. In Guiyang, beers are poured in small cups, and games – with dice or cards - are often necessary in order to drink. * Night markets When the night comes, street food flourishes everywhere in Guiyang, with its barbecue, grills and roasts. On Shaanxi Lu (), one can find mutton chops, baked snail, roast chicken. On Bo'ai Lu () mutton patties, beef pounder, glutinous rice, noodle rice, combine western and eastern food. On Xiaoshizi (), the crispy fried duck. * Night gaming traditions At night, the elderly usually prefer to indulge in outdoor games, games that are often quite ancient: Mahjong: a game made of bamboo, bone or plastics, each mahjong set consisting 136 tiles (about 3000 years old). Spinning top: A game mostly played by old men in public squares, that consists in whipping, with a cable, a kind of spinning top. Square dancing: middle aged and elderly people dance in the square to relax or exercise.


Transport

Transportation in Guiyang consists of an extensive network of roads, railways, river and air transport as well as public transportation system with bus system and many taxis.


Air

Guiyang is one of the important air transport hubs in Southwest China. Guiyang's main airport is the Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport (KWE) opened on May 28, 1997. It is located in east of Guiyang, away from the city center. The airport is connected to national and international destinations, such as Hong Kong, Taipei, Seoul (Charter), Phuket Province, Phuket (Charter), Singapore (Charter), Bangkok, Taichung and Taitung City, Taitung (Charter), Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu. In 2017, the airport handled over 18 million passengers; this is a three-fold increase in passenger traffic from 2010.


Metro

Guiyang Metro began construction in 2011. Line 1 began operation in December 2017. Line 2 began operation in April 2021.


Railway

Guiyang is a railway hub in southwest China. The Guizhou–Guangxi Railway (built in 1959, modified 2009), the Chuanqian Railway, Sichuan–Guizhou Railway (completed 1965), the Shanghai–Kunming Railway, Guiyang–Kunming Railway (completed 1970), and the Shanghai–Kunming Railway, Hunan–Guizhou Railway (completed 1975) intersect at Guiyang Railway Station. This main southern railway station was rebuilt in 2008. Since 2008, the city has seen rapid development of high-speed rail. The Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway and Chongqing–Guiyang high-speed railway began operations in quick succession. The explosion of high-speed rail development has dramatically decreased travel times to nearly all first-tier Chinese cities, including Beijing (8 hours), Shanghai (9 hours), Guangzhou (4.5 hours), Chengdu (4 hours) and Chongqing (~2 hours). The high speed railway lines provide rapid freight service from two rail yards, and passenger service from Guiyang North railway station, in the city's Guanshanhu District.


Expressway

The city is located at the junction of four major segments of the national highway grid: the Gui–Huang, Gui–Zun, Gui–Bi, and Gui–Xin Expressways. The Gui-Huang Expressway (G60) links Guiyang with the cities and tourist areas of central and western Guizhou including
Anshun Anshun () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipal ...

Anshun
, Guanling, and the Huangguoshu Waterfall. The expressway continues west to Yunnan Province as the Gui-Kun Expressway and terminates at Yunnan's capital city of Kunming. G75 Lanzhou–Haikou Expressway runs north to Zunyi and is the most heavily travelled major highway in Guiyang. In Zunyi, the expressway becomes the Zunyi-Chongqing Expressway and runs a further north to Chongqing. G76 Xiamen–Chengdu Expressway links Guiyang with the regional cities of Bijie City, Bijie and Dafang County, Dafang in northwest Guizhou province, southeastern Sichuan province, and the Sichuan cities of Luzhou, Neijiang, and Chengdu—Sichuan's provincial capital. The Gui–Bi Expressway begins at an interchange with the Gui–Zun Expressway in the city's Xiuwen County approximately north of the city center, before terminating at the city of Bijie. In the city of Dafang, approximately east of Bijie, the Gui–Bi Expressway connects with the new Sichuan–Guizhou Expressway, a modern highway providing access to Luzhou and central Sichuan. The Gui–Xin Expressway begins at the junction of the Guiyang Outer Ring Road (G75, G60.01) and the Tang Ba Guan Road, approximately southeast of the city center. The Gui–Xin Expressway (G60, G75) runs east and southeast through the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (G76), passing through Guilin, before entering Guangdong, and terminating at Guangzhou. Approximately east of Guiyang in the regional city of Kaili City, Kaili, the Hunan-Guizhou Expressway (G56, G60) links with the Gui–Xin Expressway providing high-speed vehicular access to and from Guiyang to the eastern Guizhou city of Tongren City, Tongren before continuing through Hunan to the major cities of Huaihua, Changde, and Changsha. The China National Highway 210 also runs through Guiyang via Xifeng and Longli. In 2009 Guiyang added a modern orbital expressway to its highway network. The Guiyang Outer Ring Road (Guiyang Orbital Highway) opened in December 2009 and is a six- to eight-lane divided high-speed expressway that provides efficient links to and from large employment centers in the Jinyang New District, Baiyun District, Guiyang, Baiyun District, Huaxi District, the Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport, the major multi-lane national highways, and the city's main roadways, allowing vehicular traffic to circumnavigate the heavy traffic of the city's inner city areas.


Education

The city has a university, a teacher-training college, a medical school, and 224 primary and middle schools. *
Guizhou University Guizhou University (; Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach Sta ...
*Guizhou Normal University *Guizhou Medical University *Guizhou University of Finance and Economics *Guizhou Nationalities University *Guizhou Institute of Technology * *Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine *


Religion

On October 15, 1696, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Kweichow. This was suppressed in 1715 and restored in 1846. In 1924 it was renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Guiyang, and in 1946 it was promoted to its current status as the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guiyang.


Gallery

File:Guizhou Financial City District.jpg, Guizhou Financial City District File:南明区.jpg, Nanming district


See also

* List of twin towns and sister cities in China


References


External links

*
Guiyang Government website

Guiyang Government website

Photos of Guiyang
{{Authority control Guiyang, 1283 establishments in Asia 13th-century establishments in China Cities in Guizhou Provincial capitals in China Prefecture-level divisions of Guizhou National Forest Cities in China