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Guitarrero Cave
Cave
is located in the Callejón de Huaylas
Callejón de Huaylas
valley in Yungay Province, in the Ancash region
Ancash region
of Peru. The cave stands 50 m (160 ft) above Rio Santa
Rio Santa
and 2,580 m (8,460 ft) meters above sea level.[1]

Contents

1 Archeological findings

1.1 Cultigens

2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

Archeological findings[edit] Guitarrero Cave
Cave
has evidence of human use around 8,000 BCE and possibly as early as 10,560 BCE.[2] A human's mandible and teeth found in the cave have been carbon dated to 10,610 BCE.[1] Above all that, there were a series of Archaic period campfires, dated between 8,500 and 7,000 BCE.[2] Wood, bone, antler and fiber cordage were among the artifacts that were recovered from the level, as well as willow leaf, tanged, lanceolate, and concave base Ichuna/Arcata projectile points. A single grinding slab and a bone flesher were also recovered from this part of the area.[2] Levels were included in the Early and Middle Horizon occupations, cist tombs, and wall paintings between about the 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. In the 1960s, archeologists discovered artifacts in an extraordinary state of preservation at the site. Remarkably, textiles, wood and leather tools, and basketry have been preserved intact. Some of the evidence of early domesticated beans Phaseolus, chili, corn and other cultivars have been argued for Guitarrero.[2] Fiberwork found in the cave dates back over ten-thousand years – the earliest found in South America. The cave held utilitarian containers made by twisting, looping, and knotting plant fibers.[3] The people of Guitarrero Cave
Cave
are possible ancestors of the Chavín culture.[1] Cultigens[edit] Some of the earliest cultivated plants in South America have been found in the cave. They include:

Ají pepper
Ají pepper
(Capsicum baccatum): first appears at Guitarrero cave in 8,500 BCE Oca (Oxalis tuberosa): first appears 8,500–7,500 BCE Aji (Capsicum chinense): first appears 8,000–7,500 BCE Common bean
Common bean
( Phaseolus
Phaseolus
vulgaris): first appears 8,000–7,500 BCE Pallar bean
Pallar bean
( Phaseolus
Phaseolus
lunatus): first appears 8,000–7,5000 BCE Lúcuma
Lúcuma
(Lucuma bifera): first appears 8,000–5,500 BCE Ulluku (Ullucus tuberosus): first appears 6,000 BCE at the cave es:Tres Ventanas in Peru,[4] and next at Guitarrero cave 5,500 BCE. Zapallo
Zapallo
( Cucurbita
Cucurbita
sp.): first appears 7,000 BCE Maize
Maize
or corn (Zea mays): possibly first traces but not conclusively identified from 6,200 BCE. Maize
Maize
has been identified in the Ayacucho Region of south central Peru
Peru
as early as 4,400 and 3,100 BCE.[1]

See also[edit]

Andean preceramic

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Weber, George. "Guitarrero cave (Ancash, Peru)." Possible Relatives in the Americas. 11 July 2007 (retrieved 23 Feb 2010) ^ a b c d Lynch, Thomas F.; Gillespie, R.; Gowlett, John A. J.; Hedges, R. E. M. (1985). "Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru". Science. 229 (4716): 864–7. doi:10.1126/science.229.4716.864. PMID 17777927.  ^ Stone-Miller, 17 ^ ENGEL, F. 1970. La grotte du Megatherium et les ecologies du Haut-Pliocene peruvien. Semiotica, 1, 413-436.

References[edit]

Stone-Miller, Rebecca. Art of the Andes: from Chavín
Chavín
to Inca. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002. ISBN 978-0-500-20363-7.

v t e

Archaeological sites in Peru

Acaray Amaru Marka Wasi Arhuaturo Asana Asiru Phat'jata Aspero Awila Qhincha Mach'ay Awkin Punta Awkillu Waqra Awkimarka (Apurímac) Awkimarka (Huánuco) Awqa Punta Aya Muqu Ayamachay Ayawayq'u Azángaro Baths of Boza Bandurria Buena Vista Cahuachi Cajamarquilla Cao Viejo Carajía Caral Caves of Sumbay Cerro Baúl Cerro Pátapo Cerro Trinidad Chacamarca Chan Chan Chanquillo Chauchilla Cemetery Chavín
Chavín
de Huantar Chawaytiri Chichakuri Chipaw Marka Choquepuquio Choquequirao Chuqik'iraw Pukyu Churajón Chuya Ch'iqullu Cochabamba Colcampata Cota Coca Coricancha Cumbe Mayo El Brujo El Cañoncillo El Ingenio El Paraíso Garagay Gran Pajatén Gran Vilaya Guitarrero Cave Hatun Mach'ay Hatun Misapata Hatun Rumiyoc Hatun Uchku Hatun Usnu Hatunmarka Honcopampa Huaca de la Luna Huaca del Dragón Huaca del Sol Huaca Huallamarca Huaca Prieta Huaca Pucllana Huaca San Marcos Huaca Santa Ana Huacramarca Huamanmarca, La Convención Huamboy Huánuco Pampa Huari Huayna Picchu Huayrapongo Huiñao Incahuasi, Lima Inka Mach'ay Inka Raqay, Apurímac Inka Raqay, Ayacucho Inka Tampu, Cajamarca Inka Tampu, Huayopata Inka Tampu, Vilcabamba Inka Tunuwiri Inka Uyu Inka Wasi, Ayacucho Inka Wasi, Huancavelica Inkapintay Inkill Tampu Inti Punku Inti Watana, Ayacucho Inti Watana, Calca Inti Watana, Urubamba Intikancha Intini Uyu Pata Intipa Ñawin Intiyuq K'uchu Iskuqucha Isog Jinkiori Jisk'a Iru Muqu Kanamarka Kanichi Kenko Killa Mach'ay Killa Rumi Killarumiyuq Kiswar Kotosh Kuelap Kukuli Kuntur Wasi Kunturmarka, Ayacucho Kunturmarka, Pasco Kuntur Qaqa Kuntuyuq Kusichaka valley Kutimpu Khichuqaqa Khuchi Mach'ay K'allapayuq Urqu K'ipakhara Laguna de las Momias Lauricocha Caves Layzón Llamachayuq Llamachayuq Qaqa Llamayuq Llamuqa Llaqta Qulluy, Acoria Llaqta Qulluy, Conayca Llaqta Qulluy, Tayacaja Llaqta Qulluy, Vilca Llaqtan Llaqtapata Machu Picchu Machu Pirqa Machu Pitumarka Machu Q'inti Machu Qullqa Mameria Maray Qalla Marayniyuq Marcahuamachuco Markahirka Markansaya Markapukyu Marpa Mawk'allaqta, Castilla Mawk'allaqta, Espinar Mawk'allaqta, La Unión Mawk'allaqta, Melgar Mawk'allaqta, Paruro Mawk'allaqta, Sandia Mawk'ataray Mayqu Amaya Mazur Miculla Millka Miraflores Mirq'imarka Miyu Pampa Moray Mulinuyuq Mullu Q'awa Mulluq'u Muyu Muyu Muyu Urqu Muyuq Marka Nazca Lines Nina Kiru Ninamarca Ñawpallaqta, Huanca Sancos Ñawpallaqta, Fajardo Ñawpallaqta, Lucanas Ñusta Hispana Ollantaytambo Pacatnamu Pachacamac Pachatusan Paiján Pañamarca Paracas Candelabra Paraccra Patallaqta Phiruru Pikillaqta Pikimach'ay Pilluchu Pinkuylluna Pirca Pirca, La Libertad Pirca Pirca, Lima Pirhuaylla Pirwayuq Písac Puka Pukara Puka Tampu Puka Urqu Pukara, Coporaque Pukara, Fajardo Pukara, Puno Pukara, Vilcas Huamán Pukarani Pumamarka, San Sebastián Pumamarka, Urubamba Pumaq Hirka Pumawasi Punkuri Puqin Kancha Puruchuco Purunllacta, Cheto Purunllacta, Soloco Pusharo Pusuquy Pata Phuyupatamarka Qaqapatan Qenko Qillqatani Quchapata Qillqa Qillqay Mach'ay Quiaca Qullqapampa Qulu Qulu Qunchamarka Qunchupata Quri Winchus Qurimarka, Apurímac Qurimarka, Cusco Quriwayrachina, Anta Quriwayrachina, Ayacucho Quriwayrachina, La Convención Quyllur Q'arachupa Qasa Pata Qhapaq Kancha Q'illaywasin Raqch'i Revash Rumicolca Rumiwasi Runayuq Runkuraqay Saksaywaman Sara Sara Sayacmarca Sayhuite Sechín Sillustani Sipán Sóndor Susupillu Tambo Totem Tambomachay Tampu Mach'ay, Huancavelica Tampukancha Tanqa Tanqa Tantarica Taqrachullu Tarahuasi Tarmatambo Templo del Zorro The Toads of Wiraqucha Tikra Tinyaq Tipón Titiqaqa Toquepala Caves Toro Muerto Trinchera Túcume Tunanmarca Tunay Q'asa Tupu Inka T'akaq T'uqu T'uquyuq Uchkus Inkañan Urpish Uskallaqta Usnu, Ayacucho Usnu, Huánuco Usnu Muqu Usqunta Uyu Uyu Venado cautivo Ventanillas de Otuzco Ventarron Vilcabamba Vilcashuamán Viracochapampa Vitcos Wallpayunka Waman Pirqa Wamanilla Wamanmarka, Chumbivilcas Wamanmarka, Lima Wanakawri, Cusco Wanakawri, Huánuco Wanqaran Waqlamarka Waqra Pukara Waqutu Warahirka Waraqayuq Waraqu Urqu Warawtampu Wari Willka Waruq Wat'a, Cusco Wat'a, Huánuco Wayna Q'inti Wayna Tawqaray Wichama Wichqana Wich'un Wila Wilani Wilca Willkaraqay Willkawayin Wiñay Wayna Wiraqucha Pirqa Yanaca Yanaqi - Qillqamarka Yaynu Yuraq Mach'ay

v t e

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Prehistoric cave sites, rock shelters and cave paintings

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Cave
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Europe

Armenia

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Drachenhöhle Gudenus Lurgrotte Salzofen Tischofer

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Other World Heritage Sites Chauvet

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Germany

Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura
Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura
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Hungary

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Čertova pec Domica Jasovská

Slovenia

Betal Divje Babe Pekel Potok

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Cave
Cave
of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave
Cave
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Spain
World Heritage Site Altamira Caves in Cantabria

Chufín Covalanas La Garma Hornos de la Peña Monte Castillo

El Castillo Las Chimeneas Las Monedas La Pasiega

El Pendo

Tito Bustillo Altxerri Santimamiñe

Rock art
Rock art
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Other World Heritage Sites Atapuerca Siega Verde

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Switzerland

Wildkirchli

United Kingdom

Aveline's Hole Bontnewydd Cathole Coygan Creswell Crags Gough's Heathery Burn High Pasture Kendrick's Kents Long Hole Oldbury Portbraddon Red Lady of Paviland Sand Thor's

Asia

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East Timor

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Minatogawa Pinza-Abu Shiraho Saonetabaru Yamashita

Jordan

Iraq
Iraq
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Antelias Jeita Kaukaba Ksar Akil Ras Baalbek I Ras El Kelb Nachcharini

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Niah

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Callao Kalanay Minori Lapuz Lapuz Tabon

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Batadombalena Belilena Fa Hien Hunugalagala

Thailand

Spirit Tham Lod

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Hercules Ifri n'Amr or Moussa Ifri Oudadane Jebel Irhoud Kelif el Boroud Taforalt

Mozambique

Ngalue

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Apollo 11 The White Lady

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Rop

Somalia

Dhambalin Laas Geel

South Africa

Cradle of Humankind, World Heritage Site Cooper's Drimolen Gladysvale Gondolin Haasgat Kromdraai Makapansgat Malapa Motsetsi Plovers Lake Rising Star Sterkfontein Swartkrans

Other caves Blombos Border Boomplaas Byneskranskop Cango Diepkloof Elands Bay Howieson's Poort Klasies River Melkhoutboom Nelson Bay Pinnacle Point Sibudu Wonderwerk

Tanzania

Kondoa Irangi Luxmanda Mumba

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Kalemba Mumbwa

North and South America

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Brazil

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Canada

Bluefish Charlie Lake

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Pomier

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Long Mile

Mexico

Chan Hol Coxcatlan Dzibilchaltún Las Flechas Frightful Guilá Naquitz Oxtotitlán Sac Actun

Peru

Chivateros Guitarrero Pikimachay Qillqatani Toquepala T'uqu T'uquyuq

Suriname

Werehpai

United States

Arnold Research Baker Bonfire Bull Thistle Burnet Cherry Creek Colorado Millennial Danger Daugherty's Durango Dust Dutchess Quarry Fort Rock Franktown Gatecliff Graham Hidden Hidden Valley Hogup Humboldt La Grange Last Supper Levi LoDaisKa Lovelock Mammoth Mantle's Marmes Martz Meadowcroft Modoc Mummy On Your Knees Paisley Pendejo Pictograph Rockhouse Cliffs Russell Sandia Shoup Sisyphus Stanfield-Worley Tainter Tomaquag Trail Creek Trinchera Ventana Wilson Butte

Oceania

Australia

Abrakurrie Acheron Ballawinne Beeton Shelter Beginner's Luck Blanche Bradshaws Bone Burrup Cave
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