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Guinness
Guinness
World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records and in previous United States
United States
editions as The Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London in August 1954. The book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2017 edition, it is now in its 62nd year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages. The international franchise has extended beyond print to include television series and museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness
Guinness
World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records; the organisation employs official record adjudicators authorised to verify the authenticity of the setting and breaking of records.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Evolution 3 Defining records

3.1 Ethical and safety issues 3.2 Difficulty in defining records

4 Verifying existing records 5 Museums 6 Television series 7 Gamer's edition 8 British pop music volume 9 Other media

9.1 Video games 9.2 Film

10 References 11 External links

History[edit] On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, then the managing director of the Guinness
Guinness
Breweries,[3] went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney
River Slaney
in County Wexford, Ireland. After missing a shot at a golden plover, he became involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse (it is the plover[4]). That evening at Castlebridge
Castlebridge
House, he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird.[5][6] Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records. He realised then that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful.[7] Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness
Guinness
employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, who had been running a fact-finding agency in London. The twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records in August 1954. A thousand copies were printed and given away.[8] After the founding of The Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, London, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas. The following year, it launched in the US, and sold 70,000 copies. Since then, Guinness
Guinness
World Records has become a household name and the global leader in world records. The book has gone on to become a record breaker in its own right; with sales of more than 100 million copies in 100 different countries and 37 languages, Guinness
Guinness
World Records is the world's best selling copyright book ever.[9]

Japanese competitive eater Takeru Kobayashi
Takeru Kobayashi
with two Guinness
Guinness
World Record certificates

The North Beach (Nazaré, Portugal) listed on the Guinness
Guinness
World Records for the biggest waves ever surfed.

Because the book became a surprise hit, many further editions were printed, eventually settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October, in time for Christmas. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory; on the TV series Record Breakers, based upon the book, they would take questions posed by children in the audience on various world records and were able to give the correct answer. Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
in 1975.[10] Following Ross' assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot. Guinness
Guinness
Superlatives (later Guinness
Guinness
World Records) Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness
Guinness
book in the US for decades. The group was owned by Guinness
Guinness
PLC and subsequently Diageo
Diageo
until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment. Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment
HIT Entertainment
in 2002. In 2006, Apax Partners
Apax Partners
purchased HiT and subsequently sold Guinness
Guinness
World Records in early 2008 to the Jim Pattison Group, the parent company of Ripley Entertainment, which is licensed to operate Guinness
Guinness
World Records' Attractions. With offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness
Guinness
World Records' global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Evolution[edit]

Lucky Diamond Rich
Lucky Diamond Rich
is "the world's most tattooed person", and has tattoos covering his entire body. He holds the Guinness
Guinness
world record as of 2006[update], being 100 percent tattooed.

Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting
Olympic weightlifting
to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV
Grand Theft Auto IV
or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in ten minutes, although eating and alcohol consumption entries are no longer accepted, possibly for fear of litigation. Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous plant, the shortest river (Roe River), the two longest-running dramas ( General Hospital
General Hospital
and Guiding Light) in the US, and the world's most successful salesman (Joe Girard), among others. Many records also relate to the youngest person who achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world, being Maurizio Giuliano.[11]

Clyde Beatty
Clyde Beatty
holds the record for mixing 40 lions and tigers in one cage with himself

Each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness database, as well as select new records; the criteria for inclusion having changed over the years. The ousting of Norris McWhirter
Norris McWhirter
from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo
Diageo
Plc to sell the Guinness
Guinness
World Records brand have shifted it from a text-oriented to an illustrated reference book ("style over substance"). The majority of world records are no longer listed in the book or on the website, and can only be determined by a written application to Guinness
Guinness
to 'break' the record. For those unable to wait the 4–6 weeks for a reply, Guinness
Guinness
will process a 'fast-track' application for £300 (US$450). The Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records is the world's most sold copyrighted book, earning it an entry within its own pages. A number of spin-off books and television series have also been produced. Guinness
Guinness
World Records bestowed the record of "Person with the most records" on Ashrita Furman
Ashrita Furman
of Queens, NY in April 2009. At that time, he held 100 records.[12] In 2005, Guinness
Guinness
designated 9 November as International Guinness World Records Day to encourage breaking of world records.[13] In 2006, an estimated 100,000 people participated in over 10 countries. Guinness
Guinness
reported 2,244 new records in 12 months, which was a 173% increase over the previous year.[13] In February 2008, NBC
NBC
aired The Top 100 Guinness
Guinness
World Records of All Time and Guinness
Guinness
World Records made the complete list available on their website.[14]

Defining records[edit]

Sultan Kösen
Sultan Kösen
(Turkey) is the tallest living person since 17 September 2009, as verified by Guinness
Guinness
World Records.

Play media

Cracking open a wheel of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese as a part of a 2013 world record by Whole Foods Market.[15]

For many records, Guinness
Guinness
World Records is the effective authority on the exact requirements for them and with whom records reside, the company providing adjudicators to events to determine the veracity of record attempts. The list of records which the Guinness
Guinness
World Records covers is not fixed; records may be added and also removed for various reasons. The public are invited to submit applications for records, which can be either the bettering of existing records or substantial achievements which could constitute a new record.[2] The company also provides corporate services for companies to "harness the power of record-breaking to deliver tangible success for their businesses."[16] Ethical and safety issues[edit]

Steven Petrosino drinking 1 litre of beer in 1.3 seconds in June 1977.[17][18] Petrosino set record times for 250 ml, 500 ml and 1.5 litres as well, but Guinness
Guinness
accepted only the record for one litre. They later dropped all beer and alcohol records from their compendium in 1991, and reinstated the records in 2008.

Guinness
Guinness
World Records states several types of records it will not accept for ethical reasons, such as those related to the killing or harming of animals.[19] Several world records that were once included in the book have been removed for ethical reasons, including concerns for the well being of potential record breakers. For example, following publication of a "heaviest fish" record, many fish owners overfed their pets beyond the bounds of what was healthy, and therefore such entries were removed.[20] The Guinness
Guinness
Book also dropped records within their "eating and drinking records" section of Human Achievements in 1991 over concerns that potential competitors could harm themselves and expose the publisher to potential litigation.[21] These changes included the removal of all spirit, wine, and beer drinking records, along with other unusual records for consuming such unlikely things as bicycles and trees.[21] Other records, such as sword swallowing and rally driving (on public roads), were closed from further entry as the current holders had performed beyond what are considered safe human tolerance levels. There have been instances of closed records being reopened. For example, the sword swallowing record was listed as closed in the 1990 Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records, but the Guinness
Guinness
World Records Primetime TV show, which started in 1998, accepted three sword swallowing challenges (and so did the 2007 edition of the Guinness World Records onwards). Similarly, the speed beer drinking records which were dropped from the book in 1991, reappeared 17 years later in the 2008 edition, but were moved from the "Human Achievements" section of the older book[22] to the "Modern Society" section of the newer edition.[23] As of 2011[update], it is required in the guidelines of all "large food" type records that the item be fully edible, and distributed to the public for consumption, to prevent food wastage.[2][dead link] Chain letters are also not allowed: " Guinness
Guinness
World Records does not accept any records relating to chain letters, sent by post or e-mail. If you receive a letter or an e-mail, which may promise to publish the names of all those who send it on, please destroy it, it is a hoax. No matter if it says that Guinness
Guinness
World Records and the postal service are involved, they are not."[2] Difficulty in defining records[edit] For some potential categories, Guinness
Guinness
World Records has declined to list some records that are too difficult or impossible to determine. For example, its website states: "We do not accept any claims for beauty as it is not objectively measurable."[19] On 10 December 2010, Guinness
Guinness
World Records stopped its new "dreadlock" category after investigation of its first and only female title holder, Asha Mandela, determining it was impossible to judge this record accurately.[24] Verifying existing records[edit] Guinness
Guinness
World Records website publishes selected records and is not supposed to be used for the record verification purposes, as it explains: "There are more than 40,000 current records in our database and we try our best to feature as many as possible online. We currently include over 15,000 records online which we update every week, so make sure to check the site regularly!". The book printed annually contains only 4000 records. The only way to verify a record is by contacting Guinness, expecting average response time of 2 weeks.[25] Museums[edit]

Guinness
Guinness
Museum in Hollywood

In 1976, a Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records museum opened in the Empire State Building. Speed shooter Bob Munden
Bob Munden
then went on tour promoting The Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records by performing his record fast draws with a standard weight single-action revolver from a western movie type holster. His fastest time for a draw was 0.02 seconds.[26] Among exhibits were life-size statues of the world's tallest man (Robert Wadlow) and world's largest earth worm, an X-ray photo of a sword swallower, repeated lightning strike victim Roy Sullivan's hat complete with lightning holes and a pair of gem-studded golf shoes on sale for $6500.[27] The museum closed in 1995.[28] In more recent years, the Guinness
Guinness
company has permitted the franchising of small museums with displays based on the book, all currently (as of 2010[update]) located in towns popular with tourists: Tokyo, Copenhagen, San Antonio. There were once Guinness
Guinness
World Records museums and exhibitions at the London Trocadero, Bangalore, San Francisco, Myrtle Beach, Orlando,[29] Atlantic City, New Jersey,[30] and Las Vegas, Nevada.[31] The Orlando museum, which closed in 2002, was branded The Guinness
Guinness
Records Experience;[29] the Hollywood, Niagara Falls, Copenhagen, and Gatlinburg, Tennessee
Gatlinburg, Tennessee
museums also previously featured this branding.[31] Television series[edit] Guinness
Guinness
World Records has commissioned various television series documenting world record breaking attempts, including:

Country Name Network Broadcast Host(s)

 Australia Australia's Guinness
Guinness
World Records Seven Network 2005 Grant Denyer Shelley Craft

Australia
Australia
Smashes Guinness
Guinness
World Records 2010 James Kerley

 Bulgaria Световните рекорди Гинес bTV 2006–2007 Krasimir Vankov

 China The Night of Guinness
Guinness
in China CCTV 2006– Wang Xuechun Zhu Xun Lin Hai

 France L'émission des records (1999–2002) L'été des records (2001) TF1 1999–2002 Vincent Perrot

L'été de tous les records (2003–2005) 50 ans, 50 records (2004) France
France
3 2003–2005 Pierre Sled

La nuit des records France
France
2 2006 Olivier Minne Adriana Karembeu

Le monde des records W9 2008–2010 Alexandre Devoise Karine Ferri

Les trésors du livre des records Gulli 2015 Fauve Hautot Willy Rovelli

 Germany Guinness
Guinness
World Records - Die größten Weltrekorde RTL Television 2004–2008 Oliver Welke
Oliver Welke
(2004) Oliver Geissen (2005–2008)

 India Guinness
Guinness
World Records – Ab India
India
Todega Colors TV 2011 Preity Zinta Shabbir Ahluwalia

 Italy Lo show dei record Canale 5 2006 (pilot) 2008–2012 2015 Barbara d'Urso
Barbara d'Urso
(1–2) Paola Perego (3) Gerry Scotti
Gerry Scotti
(4, 6) Teo Mammucari
Teo Mammucari
(5)

 New Zealand NZ Smashes Guinness
Guinness
World Records TV2 2009 Marc Ellis

 Philippines Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records Philippine Edition ABC 2004 Cookie Calabig

 Poland Światowe Rekordy Guinnessa Polsat 2009–2011 Maciej Dowbor

 Portugal Guinness
Guinness
World Records Portugal SIC 2014 Rita Andrade João Ricardo

 Spain El show de los récords Antena 3 2001–2002 Mar Saura Manu Carreño Mónica Martínez

Guinness
Guinness
World Records Telecinco 2009 Carmen Alcayde Luis Alfonso Muñoz

 Sweden Guinness
Guinness
rekord-TV TV3 1999–2000 Mårten Andersson
Mårten Andersson
(1999) Linda Nyberg (1999) Harald Treutiger
Harald Treutiger
(2000) Suzanne Sjögren
Suzanne Sjögren
(2000)

 United Kingdom Record Breakers BBC1 1972–2001 Roy Castle (1972–1993) Norris McWhirter
Norris McWhirter
(1972–85) Ross McWhirter (1972–75)

Guinness
Guinness
World Records (UK) ITV 1999–2001 Ian Wright Kate Charman

Ultimate Guinness
Guinness
World Records Challenge 2004 Jamie Rickers

Guinness
Guinness
World Records Smashed Sky1 2008–2009 Steve Jones Konnie Huq

Totally Bonkers Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records ITV2 2012–2015 Matt Edmondson

Officially Amazing CBBC 2013– Ben Shires

 United States The Guinness
Guinness
Game Syndicated 1979–1980 Bob Hilton Don Galloway

Guinness
Guinness
World Records Primetime Fox 1998–2001 Cris Collinsworth Mark Thompson

Guinness
Guinness
World Records Unleashed / Gone Wild truTV 2013–2014 Dan Cortese

Specials:

Guinness
Guinness
World Records: 50 Years, 50 Records - on ITV (UK), 11 September 2004

With the popularity of reality television, Guinness
Guinness
World Records began to market itself as the originator of the television genre, with slogans such as we wrote the book on Reality TV.

Suresh Joachim
Suresh Joachim
Arulanantham is a Tamil Canadian film actor and producer and multiple- Guinness
Guinness
World Record holder who has broken over 50 world records set in several countries in attempts to benefit the underprivileged children around the world. Some world record attempts are more unusual than others: he is pictured here minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton.

Gamer's edition[edit] Not to be confused with Guinness
Guinness
World Records: The Video Game. In 2008, Guinness
Guinness
World Records released its gamer's edition in association with Twin Galaxies. The Gamer's Edition contains 258 pages, over 1236 video game related world records and four interviews including one with Twin Galaxies
Twin Galaxies
founder Walter Day. The most recent edition is the Guinness
Guinness
World Records Gamer's Edition, 2018, which was released August 29, 2017. British pop music volume[edit] Main article: British Hit Singles & Albums The Guinness
Guinness
Book of British Hit Singles & Albums was published from 2003 to 2006, based on two earlier, separate HiT publications, British Hit Singles and British Hit Albums, which began in 1977. It was effectively replaced (in singles part) by the Virgin Book of British Hit Singles from 2007 onward. Other media[edit] Video games[edit] A video game, Guinness
Guinness
World Records: The Video Game, was developed by TT Fusion
TT Fusion
and released for Nintendo DS, Wii
Wii
and iOS in November 2008. Film[edit] In 2012, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
announced the development of a live-action film version of Guinness
Guinness
World Records with Daniel Chun as scriptwriter. The film version will apparently use the heroic achievements of record holders as the basis for a narrative that should have global appeal.[32] References[edit]

^ "Corporate". Guinness
Guinness
World Records. Archived from the original on 19 March 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions". Guinness
Guinness
World Records. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ "The History of the Book". Guinness
Guinness
Record Book Collecting. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ Fionn Davenport (2010). Ireland. Lonely Planet. p. 193. ISBN 9781742203508.  ^ "Early history of Guinness
Guinness
World Records". 2005. p. 2. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.  ^ Cavendish, Richard (August 2005). "Publication of the Guinness
Guinness
Book of Records: 27 August 1955". History Today. 55.  ^ Guinness
Guinness
World Records 2005. Guinness; 50th Anniversary edition. 2004. p. 6. ISBN 1892051222.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
Book History 1950 - Present". spyhunter007.com.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Records Corporate - Home". guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015.  ^ "Record Breakers' McWhirter dies". BBC News. 20 April 2004. Retrieved 9 June 2014.  ^ Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records (UK ed.). 2006. p. 126.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Records honors one man's historic milestone – 100 Records Broken! – Guinness
Guinness
World Records Blog post". community.guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.  ^ a b "Records Shatter Across the Globe in Honor of Guinness
Guinness
World Records Day 2006". Retrieved 29 April 2007.  ^ Guinness
Guinness
World Records Live: Top 100. Guinness
Guinness
World Records. Retrieved on 6 November 2008. ^ "Whey to go: Whole Foods Market® cracks Parmigiano Reggiano Guinness
Guinness
World Records® Title". Yahoo Finance. 22 April 2013. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Records Corportate". Guinness
Guinness
World Records. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Beer Record". 11 June 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2010.  ^ "Video clip". Retrieved 29 April 2007.  ^ a b "IS YOUR PROPOSAL A POTENTIAL GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS™ ACHIEVEMENT?". " Guinness
Guinness
World Records". Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ Fish World Records[dead link]. Fish-World. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. ^ a b Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records. 1990. p. 464.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Record Book Entry". Guinness
Guinness
World Beer Record. 11 June 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
World Record Book Entry 2008". Guinness
Guinness
World Beer Record. 11 June 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ "Longest Dreadlock
Dreadlock
Record – Rested – Guinness
Guinness
World Records Blog post – Home of the Longest, Shortest, Fastest, Tallest facts and feats". Community.guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Guinness
Guinness
World Records. Retrieved 14 December 2016.  ^ " Bob Munden
Bob Munden
• Six-Gun Magic Custom Gunsmithing - Bob & Becky Munden - Six-Gun Magic Gunwork". bobmunden.com.  ^ In Praise of Facts, by John Leonard, the introduction to the New York Times Desk Reference ^ "Travel & Outdoors - The Good, The Bad, The Ugly: A 1995 Travel Retrospective - Seattle Times Newspaper". nwsource.com.  ^ a b Brown, Robert H. "The Guinness
Guinness
World Records Experience: one of Florida's Lost Tourist Attractions". Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ Ripley Entertainment, Inc. " Guinness
Guinness
World Records Experience locations". Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ a b Ripley Entertainment, Inc. (20 November 2002). " Guinness
Guinness
World Records Experience locations". Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 20 November 2002. Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
Book of World Records could be next big brand name to hit cinemas". Guardian. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

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