GUDBRANDSDALEN (English: Gudbrand
Valley ) is a valley and
traditional district in the Norwegian county of
Oppland . The valley
is oriented in a north-westerly direction from
Lillehammer and the
Mjøsa , extending 230 kilometers (140 mi) toward
The river of
Gudbrandsdalslågen (Lågen) flows through the valley,
Lesjaskogsvatnet and ending at Mjøsa. The Otta river
flowing through Otta valley is a major tributary to Lågen. The
valleys of the tributary rivers such as Otta and Gausa (Gausdal) are
usually regarded as part of Gudbrandsdalen. The total area of the
valley is calculated from the areas of the related municipalities .
Glomma river and
Østerdalen , Lågen and the Gudbrand
Valley forms Norway's largest drainage system covering major parts of
East Norway. The Gudbrand
Valley is home to
Dovre Line and the E6 road
, and is the main land transport corridor through South Norway, from
Oslo and central eastern lowlands to
Møre og Romsdal
Møre og Romsdal .
The valley is divided into three parts: Norddalen (the municipalities
Skjåk , Lom ,
Sel ), Midtdalen (the
Ringebu ), and Sørdalen
(the municipalities of
Lillehammer ). The valley
has two district courts, north and south . Until 2016 the valley was
also a police district.
The main character in
Henrik Ibsen 's play
Peer Gynt was inspired by
a real or legendary person living in the valley in the 18th or 17th
century. Ibsen travelled through the valley in 1862 and collected
local stories, legends and poems.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 3 Geology
* 4 History
* 4.1 Legendary history
* 4.2 Older history
* 4.3 Modern history
* 5 Towns
* 6 Mountain areas close to the valley
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Depiction of King Olaf II speaking to peasants at the thing ,
Halfdan Egedius , 1899.
Gudbrandsdalen means 'the valley/dale of Gudbrand'. Gudbrand
Old Norse Guðbrandr) is an old male name compounded of guð, 'god'
and brandr, 'sword'. Dale-Gudbrand was the name of the first ruler of
the valley, who settled in
Valley includes the most arid area in Norway. At
average annual precipitation is only 278 mm. Gudbrand
Valley sits in
the rain shadow of the mountains West (including
Jotunheimen ), North
and East of the valley. The valley is less incised than the valleys
of western Norway. Mosaic farmland created by draining the
shallow lake at
Lesja east of the church . A 1799 hand drawn
map of the valley. The previous lake at
In July 1789 the
Storofsen flood disaster occurred and
Gudbrandsdalslågen overflooded. This is the largest flood recorded in
Norway and the valley was particularly affected. 61 people perished.
About 3000 houses were totally damaged and some thousand livestock
drowned. All bridges disappeared. Lågen rose up to 7 meters above
its normal level and covered most of the valley floor. A number of
farmers abandoned their damaged farms and settled in Målselv , Troms
county. The second largest flood occurred in the summer of 1995 and
again the valley floor was largely covered by water. After Storofsen
the valley floor upstream from
Sel church changed into bogs and
shallow lakes because stone and gravel changed the flow of Lågen.
From around 1910 drainage efforts left some 500 hectar dry farmland on
what is still known as the
Sel bogs. The toxic cicuta virosa thrived
on those bogs before they were drained and are known in Norwegian as
Sel turnip ). The valley floor in
Dombås and Lora) were originally covered by a shallow lake. Drainage
efforts from 1860 abolished the lake and left some 1000 hectar
farmland. The central part of the valley is covered by the Losna
lake, some 50–60 meters deep.
The valley of
Gudbrandsdalen is of considerable antiquity considering
the overall development of the relief of Norway. The valley runs
across the height axis of the southern
Scandinavian Mountains —a
characteristic that could be indicating that the valley formed before
the tectonic uplift of
Norway . The valley is one of several valleys
Norway that existed already as part of the ancient Paleic
relief but had at the time gentler slopes.
Gudbrandsdalen formed and
developed originally as a valley of fluvial origin. Only millions of
year later was the valley re-shaped by glaciers during the Quaternary
epoch . As the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet melted and retreated during
the end of the last ice age a large but ephemeral ice-dammed lake
formed in the valley.
Valley was shaped by the recent ice age and rivers from
the present glacial areas in
Dovre . Bones and teeth
from mammoths and musk oxen , living in the area at that time, are
found in the valley. Several traces of hunters from the
Stone Age are
found in the valley (and in the mountain areas around). There is a
rock carving of elks in the northern part of Lillehammer.
The Battle of Kringen, depicted by Georg Nielsen Strømdal
Raum the Old was the father of Dale-Gudbrand, and he settled in
Hundorp . The Gudbrand
Valley is mentioned extensively in the
Heimskringla (Chronicle of the Kings of Norway) by
Snorri Sturluson .
The account of King Olaf 's (A.D. 1015-1021) conversion of
Christianity is popularly recognized. In 1206, the
heir to the
Norwegian throne ,
Håkon Håkonsson , was saved by
birkebeiners with a ski-run from
Lillehammer to Rena .
Black Plague halved the population in Gudbrandsdal from 1349 to
1350. This resulted in a temporary improvement for the lower classes
as crofters became scarce and the poor were able to rent the better
farms in the bottom lands.
During the Reformation in 1537, the Church of
Norway was subordinated
to the lendmenn or sheriffs. Church property was appropriated by the
Crown and the King became the biggest landowner in the Gudbrand
Battle of Kringen
Battle of Kringen took place in 1612, near Otta,
and the local "Gudbrandsdøls" defeated a Scottish mercenary army. The
legends of this battle live on to this day, including the story of how
the peasant girl
Prillar-Guri lured the Scots into an ambush by
playing the traditional ram's horn. German Ju-52 shot down at
Dombås, April 1940
In 1670 to 1725, most of the royal property was sold off to pay for
war debts, first to established property holders, but increasingly to
peasant proprietors. A freeholders' era began and a new "upper class"
of land holders was formed. Storofsa happened in 1789, and is the
greatest flood recorded in the Gudbrand Valley; several farms were
devastated, and many people died.
In 1827, the city of
Lillehammer is established. The paddle steamer
Hovedbanen (the first railroad in Norway)
connected the Gudbrand
Valley to Christiania in 1856. The
Hamar-Selbanen railway was completed to
Tretten in 1894.
Hamar-Selbanen changed its name to the
Dovre Line 1921, and the new
main railway between
Trondheim , was completed through the
Gudbrand Valley. The outdoor museum of
Maihaugen , exhibiting old
houses from all parts of the Gudbrand Valley, opened at
There was severe fighting in the valley at
Tretten and Kvam , as well
as in Dombås , during
World War II
World War II . The
Battle of Dombås was an
attempt to stop the German advance . British troops engaged German
troops in land battles for the first time in World War 2 after many
Phoney War .
1994 Winter Olympics were celebrated at
MOUNTAIN AREAS CLOSE TO THE VALLEY
Dole Gudbrandsdal )
* ^ Jenkins, J Geraint. 1972. The Use of Artifacts and Folk Art in
the Folk Museum. In: Richard M. Dorson (ed.), Folklore and Folklife:
An Introduction, pp. 497–516. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
* ^ Hesse, David. 2014. Warrior Dreams: Playing Scotsmen in
Mainland Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press, p. 147.
* ^ Art of California. 1990. Saint Helena, CA: Greg Saffell
Communications. p. 59.
* ^ A B https://snl.no/Gudbrandsdalen
* ^ Meyer, Michael. 1974. Ibsen: A Biography. Abridged edition.
Pelican Biographies ser. Harmondsworth: Penguin . ISBN 0-14-021772-X .
* ^ Østvedt, Einar (1967). Med
Henrik Ibsen i fjellheimen. Skien:
Oluf Rasmussens forlag.
* ^ "dialekter i Gudbrandsdalen". snl.no. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
* ^ "Gudbrandsdalen". snl.no. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
* ^ "Norges våteste og tørreste steder". NRK (in Norwegian).
2013-07-11. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
* ^ A B Østmoe, Arne (1985). Stor-ofsen 1789. Værsystemet som
førte til den største flomkatastrofen i Norge (in Norwegian). Ski:
Oversiktsregisteret. ISBN 8273790010 .
* ^ A B C Bonow, Johan Mauritz; Lidmar-Bergström, Karna ;
Näslund, Jens-Ove (2007). "Palaeosurfaces and major valleys in the
area of Kjølen Mountains, southern
Norway – a concequence of uplift
and climatic change".
Norwegian Journal of Geography . 57: 83–101.
* ^ A B C Andersen, Bård (1996). Flomsikring i 200 år. : Norges
vassdrags- og energiverk . ISBN 8241002637 .
* ^ A B Mardal, Marius A. "Storofsen". In Godal, Anne Marit . Store
norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Norsk nettleksikon. Retrieved 20
* ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna ; Ollier, C.D. ; Sulebak, J.R. (2000).
"Landforms and uplift history of southern Norway". Global and
Planetary Change . 24: 211–231.
* ^ Garnes, K.; Bergersten, O.F. (1980). "Wastage features of the
inland ice sheet in central South Norway". Boreas . 9: 251–269.
* ^ Dirk Levsen: Mikrogeschichte als Besatzungsgeschichte. Der
deutsche Feldzug durch das Guldbrandsdal und das Romsdal im Frühjahr
1940. Historiographie und museale Präsentation. In Robert Bohn,
(Hrsg.): Die deutsche Herrschaft in den "germanischen" Ländern
1940–1945 (= Historische Mitteilungen der Ranke-Gesellschaft,
Beiheft 26). Steiner, Stuttgart 1997 ISBN 3-515-07099-0 . S. 113f.
* Information about the Gudbrand Valley