* 1 Genealogy and early life * 2 King of Gwynedd and Powys (1039–1055) * 3 King of Wales 1055–1063 * 4 Death and aftermath * 5 Family * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links
GENEALOGY AND EARLY LIFE
Gruffydd was the son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll , who had been able to rule both Gwynedd and Powys . On Llywelyn's death in 1023, a member of the Aberffraw dynasty , Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig , became ruler of Gwynedd and began his rise to power in Powys.
KING OF GWYNEDD AND POWYS (1039–1055)
In 1039, King Iago of Gwynedd was killed (supposedly by his own men) and his son Cynan , who may have been as young as four, was forced into exile in Dublin . Gruffydd, who had already recovered Powys , expanded into the vacuum. Soon after gaining power, he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing Edwin, brother of the Leofric, Earl of Mercia . He then attacked Dyfed , which his father had ruled but was now under Hywel ab Edwin . Gruffydd defeated Hywel in the Battle of Pencader (1041) and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of the south, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded returning to the mouth of the River Tywi with a Danish fleet to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd, however, defeated and killed him in a closely fought engagement.
Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
KING OF WALES 1055–1063
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent , along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056, he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury . Now recognized as King of Wales , he claimed sovereignty over the whole of the country – a claim which was recognised by the English. Historian John Davies stated that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor."
DEATH AND AFTERMATH
Gruffydd reached an agreement with
Edward the Confessor
Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though
she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was
divided again into the traditional kingdoms.
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his
brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the
rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at
Battle of Hastings
Gruffydd married Ealdgyth , daughter of Earl Ælfgar of Mercia. Gruffydd had at least three children, two sons called Maredudd and Idwal who both died at the Battle of Mechain in 1069, and a daughter called Nest verch Gruffydd who married Osbern FitzRichard of Richard\'s Castle , with a daughter Nest who married Bernard de Neufmarché . Nest verch Gruffydd also was married to Trahaearn ap Caradog before Osbern. They had seven children.
* ^ John Edward Lloyd (1911), A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.) * ^ Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 100. ISBN 0-14-014581-8 . * ^ Davies, J A History of Wales p. 101; Compare Remfry, P.M., Annales Cambriae..., 68 and notes
* John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green font-size:90%; margin:2em">BORN: ca. 1010 DIED: 5 August 1063
KING OF POWYS 1039–1063
Preceded by Gruffydd ap Rhydderch KING OF MORGANNWG 1055–1063
KING OF DEHEUBARTH 1