GREEK NUMERALS, also known as IONIC, IONIAN, MILESIAN, or ALEXANDRIAN
NUMERALS, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the
CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Table * 4 Higher numbers * 5 Zero * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations '
The present system probably developed around
DESCRIPTION
This alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which
the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the
total. For example, 241 was represented as (200 + 40 + 1). (It was
not always the case that the numbers ran from highest to lowest: a
4th-century BC inscription at Athens placed the units to the left of
the tens. This practice continued in
Although the
In modern Greek , a number of other changes have been made. Instead
of extending an overbar over an entire number, the KERAIA
(κεραία, lit. "hornlike projection") is marked to its upper
right, a development of the short marks formerly used for single
numbers and fractions. The modern keraia is a symbol (ʹ) similar the
acute accent (´) but has its own
The declining use of ligatures in the 20th century also means that stigma is frequently written as the separate letters ΣΤʹ, although a single keraia is used for the group. The art of assigning Greek letters also being thought of as numerals and therefore giving words/names/phrases a numeric sum that has meaning through being connected to words/names/phrases of similar sum is called isopsephy (gematria ). TABLE ANCIENT BYZANTINE MODERN VALUE ANCIENT BYZANTINE MODERN VALUE ANCIENT BYZANTINE MODERN VALUE ANCIENT BYZANTINE MODERN VALUE α Αʹ 1 ι Ιʹ 10 ρ Ρʹ 100 ">β Βʹ 2 κ Κʹ 20 σ Σʹ 200 ͵β ͵Β 2000 γ Γʹ 3 λ Λʹ 30 τ Τʹ 300 ͵ ͵Γ 3000 δ Δʹ 4 μ Μʹ 40 υ Υʹ 400 ͵ ͵Δ 4000 ε Εʹ 5 ν Νʹ 50 φ Φʹ 500 ͵ε ͵Ε 5000 & ">ξ Ξʹ 60 χ Χʹ 600 ͵ & ͵ ͵ ">ζ Ζʹ 7 ο Οʹ 70 ψ Ψʹ 700 ͵ζ ͵Z 7000 η Ηʹ 8 π Πʹ 80 ω Ωʹ 800 ͵η ͵H 8000 θ Θʹ 9 & & Ϟʹ 90 & & & &
"> M {displaystyle {stackrel {rho kappa gamma
}{mathrm {M} }}} for 1,230,000 or M o
o {displaystyle {stackrel {mathrm {sampi} kappa beta gamma tau
mathrm {o} beta tau xi eta epsilon upsilon mathrm {o} zeta }{mathrm
{M} }}} ͵εωζ´ for extremely large numbers like
HIGHER NUMBERS In his text
ZERO Example of the early Greek symbol for zero (lower right corner) from a 2nd-century papyrus Hellenistic astronomers extended alphabetic
In Ptolemy\'s table of chords , the first fairly extensive trigonometric table, there were 360 rows, portions of which looked as follows: ' ` o {displaystyle {begin{array}{ccc}pi varepsilon varrho iota varphi varepsilon varrho varepsilon iota {tilde {omega }}nu &varepsilon {overset {text{'}}{nu }}vartheta varepsilon iota {tilde {omega }}nu &{overset {text{`}}{varepsilon }}xi eta kappa mathrm {o} sigma tau {tilde {omega }}nu \{begin{array}{l}hline pi delta angle '\pi varepsilon \pi varepsilon angle '\hline pi mathrm {stigma} \pi mathrm {stigma} angle '\pi zeta \hline end{array}}&{begin{array}{rrr}hline pi &mu alpha &gamma \pi alpha &delta &iota varepsilon \pi alpha &kappa zeta &kappa beta \hline pi alpha &nu &kappa delta \pi beta &iota gamma &iota vartheta \pi beta &lambda mathrm {stigma} &vartheta \hline end{array}}&{begin{array}{rrrr}hline circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &kappa varepsilon \circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &iota delta \circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &gamma \hline circ &circ &mu varepsilon &nu beta \circ &circ &mu varepsilon &mu \circ &circ &mu varepsilon width:51.526ex; height:26.176ex;" alt="{begin{array}{ccc}pi varepsilon varrho iota varphi varepsilon varrho varepsilon iota {tilde {omega }}nu &varepsilon {overset {text{}}{nu }}vartheta varepsilon iota {tilde {omega }}nu &{overset {text{`}}{varepsilon }}xi eta kappa mathrm {o} sigma tau {tilde {omega }}nu \{begin{array}{l}hline pi delta angle \pi varepsilon \pi varepsilon angle \hline pi mathrm {stigma} \pi mathrm {stigma} angle \pi zeta \hline end{array}}&{begin{array}{rrr}hline pi &mu alpha &gamma \pi alpha &delta &iota varepsilon \pi alpha &kappa zeta &kappa beta \hline pi alpha &nu &kappa delta \pi beta &iota gamma &iota vartheta \pi beta &lambda mathrm {stigma} &vartheta \hline end{array}}&{begin{array}{rrrr}hline circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &kappa varepsilon \circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &iota delta \circ &circ &mu mathrm {stigma} &gamma \hline circ &circ &mu varepsilon &nu beta \circ &circ &mu varepsilon &mu \circ &circ &mu varepsilon however, there was no ambiguity, as 70 could not appear in the fractional part of a number, and zero was usually omitted when it was the integer. Some of Ptolemy's true zeros appeared in the first line of each of
his eclipse tables, where they were a measure of the angular
separation between the center of the
SEE ALSO *
REFERENCES * ^ A B Samuel Verdan (20 Mar 2007). "Sys |