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The MAGHREB (/ˈmæɡrɪb/ or /ˈmʌɡrəb/ ; literally "west, sunset"; Arabic : المغرب‎‎ _al-Maɣréb_; Berber : _Tamazɣa_, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ; previously known to Europeans
Europeans
as Barbary Coast or " Barbary
Barbary
States", derived from Berber ), or the GREATER MAGHREB (Arabic : المغرب الكبير ‎‎ _al-Maghrib al-Kabīr_), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa
North Africa
or NORTHWEST AFRICA, west of Egypt
Egypt
. The traditional definition as the region including the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plains of Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Libya
Libya
, was later superseded, especially following the 1989 formation of the Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union (اتحاد المغرب العربي), by the inclusion of Mauritania
Mauritania
and of the disputed territory of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(mostly controlled by Morocco). During the Al-Andalus era in Spain (711–1492), the Maghreb's inhabitants, Maghrebis , were known as " Moors
Moors
"; the Muslim
Muslim
areas of Spain
Spain
in those times were usually included in contemporary definitions of the Maghreb—hence the use of "Moorish" or "Moors" to describe the Muslim
Muslim
inhabitants of Spain
Spain
in Western sources.

From the twentieth century to the present, "al-Maghreb" (The Maghreb) is the (legal) Arabic name for the country of Morocco.

Before the establishment of modern nation states in the region during the mid-20th century, _Maghreb_ most commonly referred to a smaller area between the Atlas Mountains in the south and the Mediterranean Sea , often also including eastern Libya, but not modern Mauritania. As recently as the late 19th century it was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa
North Africa
in general, and to Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
in particular.

The region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia , which was followed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals
Vandals
, the equally brief re-establishment of a weak Roman rule by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyads , the Abbasids , and the Fatimids . The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravids , Almohads , Hammadids , Zirids , Marinids , Saadi and Wattasids (to name some of those among the most prominent) from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region as well.

Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya
Libya
established the Maghreb
Maghreb
Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market . It was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
as a superstate . The union included Western Sahara
Western Sahara
implicitly under Morocco's membership, putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria
Algeria
to a rest. However, this progress was short-lived, and the union is now frozen. Tensions between Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
over Western Sahara re-emerged strongly, reinforced by the unsolved borderline issue between the two countries. These two main conflicts have hindered progress on the union's joint goals and practically made it inactive as a whole. However, the instability in the region and growing cross-border security threats revived the calls for regional cooperation – foreign ministers of the Arab Maghreb Union declared a need for coordinated security policy in May 2015 during the 33rd session of the follow-up committee meeting, which brings back the hope of some form of cooperation.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 1.1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Antiquity * 2.3 Middle Ages * 2.4 Early modern history * 2.5 Modern history

* 3 Population

* 4 Religion

* 4.1 Maghrebi traders in Jewish history

* 5 Geography

* 5.1 Ecoregions * 5.2 Mediterranean Maghreb
Maghreb
* 5.3 Saharan Maghreb
Maghreb

* 6 Culture * 7 Genetics of the Maghreb
Maghreb
population

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Maghreb
Maghreb
countries by GDP (PPP)

* 9 Medieval regions * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links

NAME

Historical terms for the region or various portions of the Maghreb include Barbary
Barbary
, Berbery, _ Mauretania
Mauretania
_, _ Numidia _, _ Libya
Libya
_, and _ Africa
Africa
_ in classical antiquity .

ETYMOLOGY

The term _maghrib_ is a geographical term that the Muslim
Muslim
Arabs gave to the region extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the east up to the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
in the west. Muslim
Muslim
historians and geographers divided the region into three areas: _al-Maghrib al-Adna_ (the near Maghrib) which included the lands extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
up to Tarabulus (modern-day Tripoli
Tripoli
) in the west, _al-Maghrib al-Awsat_ (the middle Maghrib) which extended from Tripoli
Tripoli
to Bijaya ( Béjaïa ) and _al-Maghrib al-Aqsa_ (the far Maghrib) which extended from Tahart ( Tiaret ) to the Atlantic Ocean. They disagreed, however, over the start of the eastern boundary. Certain authors made it extend as far as the sea of Kulzum (the Red Sea
Red Sea
) and thus include in the Maghrib Egypt
Egypt
and the country of Barca . Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
does not accept this delimitation, because, he says, the inhabitants of the Maghreb
Maghreb
do not consider Egypt
Egypt
and Barca as forming part of their country. The latter commences only at the province of Tripoli
Tripoli
and encloses the districts of which the country of the Berbers was composed in former times. Later Maghribi writers limit themselves to reproducing with a few variations in detail, the information of Ibn Khaldun.

At the present time, the term Maghrib is still used in opposition to Mashriq
Mashriq
in a sense near to that which it had in medieval times, but it also denotes simply Morocco
Morocco
when the full _al-Maghrib al-Aksa_ is abbreviated. Furthermore, the political union of the North African countries which certain politicians seek is called _al-Maghrib al-Kabir_ (the grand Maghrib) or _al-Maghrib al-Arabi_ (the Arab Maghrib). The Berber language speakers now call this region: _Tamazɣa_ or _Tamazgha_, which translates to: "Berbery" (land of the Berbers), a term that has been popularized by Berberism activists since the second half of the 20th century.

HISTORY

Maghreb
Maghreb
head ornament (Morocco) The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Kairouan
, founded by the Arab general Uqba Ibn Nafi (in 670), is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb
Maghreb
city of Kairouan
Kairouan
, Tunisia
Tunisia
.

PREHISTORY

Main article: Prehistoric North Africa
North Africa

Around 3,500 BC changes in the tilt of the Earth's orbit created a rapid desertification of the Sahara
Sahara
and formed a natural barrier that severely limited contact between the Maghreb
Maghreb
and sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
. The Maghreb
Maghreb
or western North Africa
North Africa
is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since from at least 10,000 BC.

ANTIQUITY

Main articles: North Africa
North Africa
during Antiquity and Ancient Carthage

Partially isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara
Sahara
desert, inhabitants of the northern parts of the Berber world have long had commercial and cultural ties to the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe and Western Asia
Western Asia
, going back at least to the Phoenicians in the 1st millennium BC (the Phoenician colony of Carthage
Carthage
having been founded, according to tradition, in what is now Tunisia
Tunisia
circa 800 BC).

Berber coast ports and cities were predominantly constructed by the Berbers. Later some Phoenicians and Carthaginians arrived for trade. The main Berber and Phoenician settlements centered in the Gulf of Tunis ( Carthage
Carthage
, Utica, Tunisia
Tunisia
) along the North African
North African
littoral between the Pillars of Hercules and the Libyan coast east of ancient Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
. They dominated the trade and intercourse of the Western Mediterranean for centuries. The Carthage
Carthage
defeat in the Punic Wars during 206 BC allowed Rome to establish the Province of Africa and control many of these ports and eventually control the entire Maghreb north of the Atlas Mountains. Rome was greatly helped by the defection of King Massinissa and Carthaginian's eastern Numidian Massylii client-allies. Some of the most mountainous regions such as the Moroccan Rif
Rif
remained outside Rome's control and the pressures put on the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by the invading forces of the Barbarian invasions (the Vandals
Vandals
and Spain
Spain
) in the 5th-century reduced Roman control and establishment of the Vandal Kingdom with its capital at Carthage
Carthage
in 430 AD. A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius that succeeded in destroying the Vandal kingdom; Byzantine rule lasted for 150 years. The Berbers contested outside-the-area control although after the 640s-700 AD period the Arabs controlled the entire region.

MIDDLE AGES

Main articles: Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate , Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate , Idrisid dynasty , Almoravid dynasty , Almohad Caliphate , Hafsid dynasty , Marinid dynasty , Ziyyanid dynasty
Ziyyanid dynasty
, and Wattasid dynasty

The Arabs reached the Maghreb
Maghreb
in early Umayyad
Umayyad
times. Islamic Berber kingdoms like the Almohads expansion and the spread of Islam contributed to the development of trans-Saharan trade . While restricted due to the cost and dangers, the trade was highly profitable. Commodities traded included such goods as salt, gold, ivory, and slaves . Arab control over the Maghreb
Maghreb
was quite weak. Various Islamic variations, such as the Ibadis and the Shia , were adopted by some Berbers, often leading to scorning of Caliphal control in favour of their own interpretation of Islam.

The Arabic language
Arabic language
and dialects spread slowly without eliminating Berber, as a result of the invasion of the Banu Hilal Arabs, unleashed by the Fatimids in punishment for their Zirid former Berber clients who defected and abandoned Shiism in the 12th century. Throughout this period, the Berber world most often was divided into three states roughly corresponding to modern Morocco, western Algeria, and eastern Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. The region was occasionally briefly unified, as under the Almohad Berber empire, and briefly under the Marinids .

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

Main articles: Barbary Coast , Saadi dynasty , Alaouite dynasty , Ottoman Algeria
Algeria
, Ottoman Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Ottoman Tripolitania 1707 map of northwest Africa
Africa
by Guillaume Delisle , including the Maghreb
Maghreb

After the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
loosely controlled the area east of Morocco.

MODERN HISTORY

Further information: Spanish Morocco
Morocco
, Spanish Sahara
Sahara
, French protectorate of Morocco
Morocco
, French Algeria
Algeria
, French Protectorate of Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Italian Libya
Libya
Further information: North African Campaign (World War I) , North African Campaign , and Western Desert Campaign Further information: Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War , Algerian War of Independence , History of Algeria
Algeria
since 1962 , History of modern Tunisia
Tunisia
, Kingdom of Libya
Libya
, and Libya
Libya
under Gaddafi

After the 19th century, areas of the Maghreb
Maghreb
were colonized by France , Spain
Spain
and later Italy
Italy
.

Today, more than two and a half million Maghrebi immigrants live in France, many from Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco. In addition, there are 3 million French of Maghrebi origin (in 1999) (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
or Tunisia). Another estimation gives a number of six million.

POPULATION

Main article: Maghrebis Algiers
Algiers
, Algeria
Algeria
Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco
Morocco

The Maghreb
Maghreb
population was 1/8th of France
France
in 1800, 1/4th in 1900 and par in 2000. The Maghreb
Maghreb
is home to 1% of the global population as of 2010. Maghrebi people include Algerians, Libyans, Mauritanians, Moroccans
Moroccans
and Tunisians. Maghrebis are largely composed of Berber and Arab descent with significantly smaller European and Sub-Saharan African elements.

Various other influences are also prominent throughout the Maghreb. In northern coastal towns, in particular, several waves of European immigrants influenced the population in the Medieval era. Most notable were the moriscos and muladies , that is, the indigenous Spaniards (Moors) who forcibly converted to Catholicism and later to be expelled, together with ethnic Arab and Berber Muslims, from the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Reconquista
Reconquista
. Other European contributions included French, Italians, and others captured by the corsairs .

Historically, the Maghreb
Maghreb
was home to significant Jewish communities called Maghrebim
Maghrebim
who predated the 7th-century introduction and conversion of the region to Islam. These were later augmented by Jews from Spain
Spain
who, fleeing the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Inquisition, established a presence in North Africa, chiefly in the urban trading centers. Many Jews from Spain
Spain
emigrated to North America
North America
in the early 19th century or to France
France
and Israel later in the 20th century.

Another significant group are Turks who came over with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. A large Turkish descended population exists, particularly in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria.

Sub-Saharan Africans joined the population mix during centuries of trans-Saharan trade . Traders and slaves went to the Maghreb
Maghreb
from the Sahel
Sahel
region. On the Saharan southern edge of the Maghreb
Maghreb
are small communities of black populations, sometimes called Haratine , who are apparently descended from black populations who inhabited the Sahara during its last wet period and then migrated north.

In Algeria
Algeria
especially, a large European minority, the "pied noirs ", immigrated and settled under French colonial rule in late 19th century. The overwhelming majority of these, however, left Algeria during and following the war for independence.

RELIGION

The mausoleum of Madghacen .

The original religions of the peoples of the Maghreb
Maghreb
seem to have been based and related with fertility cults of a strong matriarchal pantheon , given the social and linguistic structures of the Amazigh cultures antedating all Egyptian and eastern, Asian, northern Mediterranean, and European influences.

Historic records of religion in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region show its gradual inclusion in the Classical World, with coastal colonies established first by Phoenicians, some Greeks, and later extensive conquest and colonization by the Romans. By the 2nd century of the common era, the area had become a center of Phoenician-speaking Christianity, where bishops spoke and wrote in Punic, and even Emperor Septimius Severus was noted by his local accent. Roman settlers and Romanized populations converted to Christianity. The region produced figures such as Christian Church writer Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 202); and Christian Church martyrs or leading figures such as Perpetua
Perpetua
and Felicity (martyrs, c. 200 CE); St. Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage
Carthage
(+ 258); St. Monica ; her son the philosopher St. Augustine
St. Augustine
, Bishop of Hippo I (+ 430) (1); and St. Julia of Carthage
Carthage
(5th century).

The domination of Christianity ended when Arab invasions brought Islam
Islam
in 647. Carthage
Carthage
fell in 698 and the remainder of the region followed in subsequent decades. Gradual Islamization proceeded, although surviving letters showed correspondence from regional Christians
Christians
to Rome up until the 12th century. Christianity was still a living faith. Although there were a fair number of conversions after the conquest Muslims did not become a majority until some time late in the 9th century and became vast majority during the 10th (Staying Roman, Jonathan Conant, pp. 362–368, 2012). Christian bishoprics and dioceses continued to be active, with relations continuing with Rome. As late as Pope Benedict VII (974-983) reign, a new Archbishop of Carthage
Carthage
was consecrated. Evidence of Christianity in the region then faded through the 10th century. However, by the end of the 11th century only two bishops were left in Carthage
Carthage
and Hippo Regius. Pope Gregory VII, 1073–85, consecrated a new bishop for Hippo. Christianty seems to have suffered several shocks that lead to its demise. First many upper-class urban-swelling Latin-speaking Christians
Christians
left for Europe
Europe
after the Muslim
Muslim
conquest. The second were large scale conversions to Islam
Islam
in the 9th century. Many Christians of a much reduced community left in the mid-11th century. Finally the small remnant were evacuated to Sicily in the 12th by the Normans. The Latin-African language lingered on a while longer.

From the end of the 7th century the region's peoples began their total conversion to Islam
Islam
which took more than 400 years. There is a small but thriving Jewish community, as well as a small Christian community. Most Muslims follow the Sunni
Sunni
Maliki school. Small Ibadi communities remain in some areas. A strong tradition of venerating marabouts and saints' tombs is found throughout regions inhabited by Berbers. Any map of the region demonstrates the tradition by the proliferation of " Sidi
Sidi
"s, showing places named after the marabouts. Like some other religious traditions, this has substantially decreased over the 20th century. A network of zaouias traditionally helped proliferate basic literacy and knowledge of Islam
Islam
in rural regions. Christian family from Kabylia .

There are communities of Christians
Christians
mostly Roman Catholics and Protestant
Protestant
in Algeria
Algeria
(100,000-380,000), Mauritania
Mauritania
, (6,500) Morocco
Morocco
(~380,000), Libya
Libya
(170,000) and Tunisia
Tunisia
(25,000). Most of the Roman Catholics in Greater Maghreb
Maghreb
are of French , Spanish, and Italian descent who immigrated during the colonial era, while some are foreign missionaries or immigrant worker. There is also a Christian communities of Berber or Arab descent in Greater Maghreb
Maghreb
countries, mostly converted during the modern era or under and after French colonialism . Prior to independence, Algeria
Algeria
was home to 1.4 million Pied-Noir (mostly Catholic
Catholic
), and Morocco
Morocco
was home to half a million Europeans
Europeans
, and Tunisia
Tunisia
was home to 255,000 Europeans
Europeans
, and Libya was home to 145,000 Europeans
Europeans
. In religion, most of _pieds-noirs _ in Maghreb
Maghreb
are Roman Catholic
Catholic
Christians
Christians
. Due to the exodus of the _pieds-noirs _ in the 1960s there are more North African
North African
Christians
Christians
of Berber or Arab descent live in France
France
than in Greater Maghreb.

Recently, the Protestant
Protestant
community of Berber or Arab descent has experienced significant growth, and conversions to Christianity, especially to Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
, is common in Algeria
Algeria
, especially in the Kabylie
Kabylie
, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria
Algeria
. The number of the Moroccans
Moroccans
who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 40,000 -150,000. International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian Muslims who convert to Christianity . A 2015 study estimate some 1,500 believers in Christ from a Muslim
Muslim
background living in the Libya.

MAGHREBI TRADERS IN JEWISH HISTORY

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad
Baghdad
became increasingly hostile to Jews, some Jewish traders emigrated to the Maghreb, especially Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia. Over the following two or three centuries, such Jewish traders became known as the Maghribis, a distinctive social group who traveled throughout the Mediterranean world. They passed this identification on from father to son. Their tight-knit pan- Maghreb
Maghreb
community had the ability to use social sanctions as a credible alternative to legal recourse, which was weak at the time anyway. This unique institutional alternative permitted the Maghribis to very successfully participate in Mediterranean trade.

GEOGRAPHY

ECOREGIONS

The Maghreb
Maghreb
is divided into a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
region in the north, and the arid Sahara
Sahara
in the south. The Maghreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature, and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and animals. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several distinct ecoregions in the Maghreb.

MEDITERRANEAN MAGHREB

Dwarf fan palm , grown in Maghreb
Maghreb
countries

The portions of the Maghreb
Maghreb
between the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, along with coastal Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in Libya, are home to Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub . These ecoregions share many species of plants and animals with other portions of Mediterranean Basin . The southern extent of the Mediterranean Maghreb
Maghreb
corresponds with the 100 mm isohyet , or the southern range of the European Olive
Olive
_(Olea europea)_ and Esparto Grass _(Stipa tenacissima)_.

* Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands (Spain), Western Sahara) * Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) * Mediterranean woodlands and forests (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) * Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Spain) * Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe (Morocco)

SAHARAN MAGHREB

The Sahara
Sahara
extends across northern Africa
Africa
from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the Red Sea. Its central part is hyper-arid and supports little plant or animal life, but the northern portion of the desert receives occasional winter rains, while the strip along the Atlantic coast receives moisture from marine fog, which nourishes a greater variety of plants and animals. The northern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet, which is also the northern range of the date palm _(Phoenix dactylifera)_.

* North Saharan steppe and woodlands : This ecoregion lies along the northern edge of the Sahara, next to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregions of the Mediterranean Maghreb
Maghreb
and Cyrenaica. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
proper to the south. It covers 1,675,300 square km (646,800 square miles) in Algeria
Algeria
, Egypt
Egypt
, Libya
Libya
, Mauritania, Morocco
Morocco
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Western Sahara. * Atlantic coastal desert : The Atlantic coastal desert occupies a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, where fog generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens , succulents , and shrubs. It covers 39,900 square kilometres (15,400 sq mi) in Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. * Sahara
Sahara
desert : This ecoregion covers the hyper-arid central portion of the Sahara
Sahara
where rainfall is minimal and sporadic. Vegetation is rare, and this ecoregion consists mostly of sand dunes _(erg )_, stone plateaus _(hamada )_, gravel plains _(reg )_, dry valleys _(wadi )_, and salt flats. It covers 4,639,900 square km (1,791,500 square miles) of Algeria, Chad
Chad
, Egypt, Libya, Mali
Mali
, Mauritania, Niger
Niger
, and Sudan
Sudan
. * Saharan halophytics : Seasonally flooded saline depressions in the Maghreb
Maghreb
are home to halophytic , or salt-adapted, plant communities. The Saharan halophytics cover 54,000 square km (20,800 square miles), including Tunisian salt lakes of central Tunisia, Chott Melghir
Chott Melghir
in Algeria, and other areas of Egypt, Algeria, Mauritania, and Western Sahara.

CULTURE

Traditional Maghrebi cuisine Further information: Moroccan cuisine Further information: Algerian cuisine Further information: Tunisian cuisine Further information: Egyptian cuisine

The countries of the Maghreb
Maghreb
share many cultural traditions. Among these is a culinary tradition that Habib Bourguiba defined as Western Arab, where couscous is the staple food, as opposed to Eastern Arab where white rice is the staple food. In terms of food, similarities beyond the starches are found throughout the Arab world.

GENETICS OF THE MAGHREB POPULATION

The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Maghreb
Maghreb
population seems to be mainly modulated by geography, The Y-DNA Haplogroups E1b1b and J make up the vast majority of the genetic markers of the populations of the Maghreb. Haplogroup E1b1b is the most widespread among Maghrebi groups, especially the downstream lineage of E1b1b1b1a , which is typical of the indigenous Berbers of North-West Africa. Haplogroup J is more indicative of Middle East
Middle East
origins, and has its highest distribution among populations in Arabia and the Levant. Due to the distribution of E-M81 (E1b1b1b1a), which has reached its highest documented levels in the world at 95-100% in some populations of the Maghreb, it has often been termed the "Berber marker" in the scientific literature. The second most common marker, Haplogroup J especially J1 which is typically Middle Eastern and originates in the Arabian peninsula can reach frequencies of up to 35% in the region. Its highest density is founded in the Arabian Peninsula . Haplogroup R1 , which is a Eurasian marker has also been observed in the Maghreb, though with lower frequency. The Y-DNA Haplogroups shown above are observed in both Arabs and Berber-speakers.

The Maghreb
Maghreb
Y chromosome pool (including both Arab and Berber populations) may be summarized for most of the populations as follows where only two haplogroups E1b1b and J comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes:

HAPLOGROUP N A B C DE E1A E1B1A E1B1B1 E1B1B1A E1B1B1A1 E1B1B1A1B E1B1B1A2 E1B1B1A3 E1B1B1A4 E1B1B1B E1B1B1C F G H I J1 J2 K L N O P, R Q R1A1 R1B R1B1A R1B1B R2 T

MARKER

M33 M2 M35 M78 V12 V32 V13 V22 V65 M81 M34 M89 M201 M69

M343 V88 M269

M70

Sahara/Mauritania 189 - 0.53 - - 5.29 6.88 - - - - - - - 55.56 11.11 - - - - 13.23 - - - - - - - - - 6.88 0.53 - -

Morocco 760 0.26 0.66 - - 2.76 3.29 4.21 0.79 0.26 - 0.26 1.84 3.68 67.37 0.66 0.26 0.66 - 0.13 6.32 1.32 0.53 - - - 0.26 - - - 0.92 3.55 - -

Algeria 156 - - - - 0.64 5.13 0.64 1.92 0.64 - 0.64 1.28 1.92 44.23 1.28 3.85 - - - 21.79 4.49 0.64 - - - - 0.64 0.64 - 2.56 7.04 - -

Tunisia 601 - 0.17 - - 0.5 0.67 1.66 - - - - 3 3.16 62.73 1.16 2.66 0.17 - 0.17 16.64 2.83 0.33 - - - 0.33 - 0.5 - 1.83 0.33 - 1.16

Libya - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

ECONOMY

MAGHREB COUNTRIES BY GDP (PPP)

LIST BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2013) LIST BY THE WORLD BANK (2013) LIST BY THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK (2013)

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

44 Algeria
Algeria
285,541

58 Morocco
Morocco
179,240

70 Tunisia
Tunisia
108,430

81 Libya
Libya
70,386

148 Mauritania
Mauritania
8,241

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

34 Algeria
Algeria
421,626

55 Morocco
Morocco
241,757

70 Libya
Libya
132,695

75 Tunisia
Tunisia
120,755

143 Mauritania
Mauritania
11,835

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

45 Algeria
Algeria
284,700

58 Morocco
Morocco
180,000

68 Tunisia
Tunisia
108,400

81 Libya
Libya
73,600

151 Mauritania
Mauritania
8,204

MEDIEVAL REGIONS

* Ifriqiya (currently Tunisia
Tunisia
, East Algeria
Algeria
and West Libya
Libya
) * Djerid
Djerid
* Sous
Sous
* M\'zab * Draa Valley * Hodna * Rif
Rif
* Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Awsat (Central Maghreb
Maghreb
- currently Northern Algeria) * Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Aqsa (Western Maghreb
Maghreb
- currently Morocco) * Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Adna (Eastern Maghreb
Maghreb
- currently Libya
Libya
and Tunisia) * Tamesna * Tripolitania

SEE ALSO

* Africa
Africa
portal * Francophonie portal

* Arab Maghreb Union * Barbary Coast * Berber people * History of Algeria
Algeria
* History of Libya
Libya
* History of Mauritania
Mauritania
* History of Morocco
Morocco
* History of Tunisia
Tunisia
* History of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
* Maghreb French * Maghreb toponymy * Maghrebi script * Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
* Mashriq
Mashriq
* Moors
Moors
* Mughrabi (other) * Plazas de soberanía * Tamazgha

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Maghreb: definition of Maghreb
Maghreb
in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)". * ^ " Barbary
Barbary
Wars, 1801–1805 and 1815–1816". Retrieved 2014-06-04. * ^ "Antique Maps of North Africa". Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2014-06-04. * ^ "The Moors
Moors
were simply Maghrebis, inhabitants of the maghreb, the western part of the Islamic world, that extends from Spain
Spain
to Tunisia, and represents a homogeneous cultural entity", Titus Burckhardt , "Moorish culture in Spain". Suhail Academy. 1997, p.7 * ^ Elisee Reclus , _Africa_, edited by A. H. Keane , B. A., Vol. II, North-West Africa, Appleton and company, 1880, New York, p.95 * ^ "L\'Union du Maghreb
Maghreb
arabe". Retrieved 2010-05-17. * ^ "Maghreb". _The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05_. Retrieved 2007-07-11. * ^ North Africa
North Africa
Post (2015) " Maghreb
Maghreb
Countries Urged to Devise Common Security Strategy, Integration Project Remains Deadlocked" http://northafricapost.com/7594-maghreb-countries-urged-to-devise-common-security-strategy-integration-project-remains-deadlocked.html * ^ Idris El Hareir; Ravane Mbaye (2011). _The Spread of Islam Throughout the World_. UNESCO. pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2 .

* ^ _A_ _B_ Jan-Olaf Blichfeldt (1985). _Early Mahdism: Politics and Religion in the Formative Period of Islam_. Brill Archive. pp. 1183–1184. GGKEY:T7DEYT42F5R. * ^ Hassan Sayed Suliman (1987). _The Nationalist Movements in the Maghrib: A Comparative Approach_. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. p. 8. ISBN 978-91-7106-266-6 . * ^ "Tamazgha, North African
North African
Berbers". Retrieved 2010-02-09. ; McDougall, James (2006-07-31). _History and the culture of nationalism in Algeria, By James McDougall (Page: 189)_. ISBN 978-0-521-84373-7 . Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ Titus Burckhardt, _Art of Islam, Language and Meaning: Commemorative Edition_, World Wisdom, Inc, 2009, page 128 * ^ Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks, Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/07/990712080500.htm * ^ Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0810864908 * ^ An Estimation of the Foreign-Origin Populations of France, Michèle Tribalat * ^ "Estimé à six millions d'individus, l'histoire de leur enracinement, processus toujours en devenir, suscite la mise en avant de nombreuses problématiques...", « Être Maghrébins en France
France
» in _Les Cahiers de l’Orient_, n° 71, troisième trimestre 2003 * ^ Brunel, Claire, _ Maghreb
Maghreb
regional and global integration: a dream to be fulfilled_, Peterson Institute, 2008, p.1 * ^ Davis, Robert. "British Slaves on the Barbary
Barbary
Coast". _ BBC
BBC
_. Retrieved 5 November 2009. * ^ " France
France
and Maghreb
Maghreb
- An enhanced partnership with the Maghreb (March 20, 2007)". _French ministry of Foreign and European Affairs_. Retrieved 2007-07-11. * ^ * ^ Insoll, T. (2003) "The Archaeology of Islam
Islam
in Sub-Saharan Africa", Cambridge World Archaeology, http://content.schweitzer-ne.de/static/content/catalog/newbooks/978/052/165/9780521651714/9780521651714_Excerpt_001.pdf * ^ Deeb, Mary Jane. "Religious minorities" _ Algeria
Algeria
(Country Study)_. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Helen Chapan Metz, ed. December 1993. _This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * ^ Kjeilen, Tore. "Algeria". _LookLex Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ The World Factbook
The World Factbook
- Morocco * ^ Fr Andrew Phillips. "The Last Christians
Christians
Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2013. * ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 * ^ Rising numbers of Christians
Christians
in Islamic countries could pose threat to social order Archived 2016-03-20 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). _ Europe
Europe
since 1945: an encyclopedia_. New York: Garland. p. 398. ISBN 0-8153-4057-5 . * ^ De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) _Migration and development co-operation._. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9 . * ^ Angus Maddison (20 September 2007). _Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD:Essays in Macro-Economic History: Essays in Macro-Economic History_. OUP Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1 . Retrieved 26 January 2013. * ^ *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, _Christianity in Kabylie_, Radio France
France
Internationale, 7 mai 2001 * ^ Lucien Oulahbib, _Le monde arabe existe-t-il ?_, page 12, 2005, Editions de Paris, Paris. * ^ Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011) * ^ _A_ _B_ International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). _This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ Cite error: Invalid tag; name "report" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ). * ^ Believers in Christ from a Muslim
Muslim
Background: A Global Census * ^ House-Churches\' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco
Morocco
Are Praying in Secret * ^ Morocco: No more hiding for Christians * ^ Osservatorio Internazionale: "La tentazione di Cristo" Archived 2014-09-05 at Archive.is April 2010 * ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim
Muslim
Background: A Global Census". _IJRR_. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015. * ^ Avner Greif (June 1993). "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders\' Coalition" (PDF). American Economic Association in its journal _American Economic Review _. Retrieved 2007-07-11. . See also Greif's "Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders" in the Journal of Economic History Vol. XLIX, No. 4 (Dec. 1989) pp.857-882 * ^ Dallman, Peter R. (1998) _Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates_. California Native Plant Society/University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-20809-9 * ^ _A_ _B_ Wickens, Gerald E. (1998) _Ecophysiology of Economic Plants in Arid
Arid
and Semi- Arid
Arid
Lands_. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-540-52171-6 * ^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ "Atlantic coastal desert". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ " Sahara
Sahara
desert". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ "Saharan halophytics". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ combined (Semino et al. 2004 30%) & (Arredi et al. 2004 32%) * ^ * ^ Alshamali F, Pereira L, Budowle B, Poloni ES, Currat M (2009). "Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula revealed by Y-STR diversity". _Hum. Hered_. 68 (1): 45–54. PMID 19339785 . doi :10.1159/000210448 . * ^ _A_ _B_ *Alshamali et al. 2009 81% (84/104) *Malouf et al. 2008: 70% (28/40) *Cadenas et al. 2008:45/62 = 72.6% J1-M267 * ^ Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample * ^ Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, et al. (April 2001). "High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between Northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula" . _The American Journal of Human Genetics_. 68 (4): 1019–29. ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 1275654  _. PMID 11254456 . doi :10.1086/319521 . * ^ Nebel A, Landau-Tasseron E, Filon D, et al. (June 2002). "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant
Levant
and North Africa" . The American Journal of Human Genetics_. 70 (6): 1594–6. ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 379148  _. PMID 11992266 . doi :10.1086/340669 . * ^ Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, et al. (May 2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe
Europe
and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area" . The American Journal of Human Genetics_. 74 (5): 1023–34. ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 1181965  _. PMID 15069642 . doi :10.1086/386295 . * ^ Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, et al. (August 2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa" . The American Journal of Human Genetics_. 75 (2): 338–345. ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 1216069  _. PMID 15202071 . doi :10.1086/423147 . * ^ Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, et al. (May 2004). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa" . The American Journal of Human Genetics_. 74 (5): 1014–22. ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 1181964  _. PMID 15042509 . doi :10.1086/386294 . * ^ Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine_. 122 (3): 251–5. ISSN 0937-9827 . PMID 17909833 . doi :10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5 . * ^ Onofri V, Alessandrini F, Turchi C, et al. (August 2008). "Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia
Tunisia
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North African
Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for MAGHREB _.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAGHREB _.

*

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