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The MAGHREB or the BERBER WORLD or BARBARY or BERBERY (Arabic : المغرب‎ al-Maɣréb; Berber : TAMAZɣA or TAMAZGHA, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ) is a major region of northern Africa
Africa
that consists of five main countries: Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya and Mauritania
Mauritania
. As of 2017, the region has a population of about 100 million people.

This region geographically includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta
Ceuta
(both controlled by Spain
Spain
and claimed by Morocco).

In historical English and European literature, the region was known as the Barbary Coast or the Barbary
Barbary
States, derived from " Berbers " . Sometimes it was referred to as the LAND OF THE ATLAS, derived from the Atlas Mountains . In some current Arabic media and literature it's referred to as the "Greater Maghreb" (Arabic : المغرب الكبير‎, al-Maghrib al-Kabīr). In current Berber language media and literature, the region is known as "Tamazgha" or "Tamazɣa" which correspond to the English words "Barbary" and "Berbery".

The region is usually defined as much or most of northern Africa including a large chunk of Africa's Sahara Desert
Sahara Desert
, excluding Egypt
Egypt
. The traditional definition of the region that restricted it to the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plains of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, was expanded by the inclusion of Mauritania
Mauritania
and of the disputed territory of Western Sahara.

During the Al-Andalus era in Spain
Spain
(711–1492), the Maghreb's inhabitants, the Muslim Berbers or Maghrebis , were known as " Moors ". Morocco
Morocco
also transliterates into Arabic as "al-Maghreb" (The Maghreb).

Before the establishment of modern nation states in the region during the 20th century, Maghreb most commonly referred to a smaller area between the Atlas Mountains in the south and the Mediterranean Sea . It often also included eastern Libya, but not modern Mauritania. As recently as the late 19th century it was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa
Africa
in general, and to Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
in particular.

The region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia , which was followed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals , the equally brief re-establishment of a weak Roman rule by the Byzantine Empire , the rule of the Islamic Caliphates
Caliphates
under the Umayyads , the Abbasids , and the Fatimids . The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravids , Almohads , Hammadids , Zirids , Marinids , Saadi and Wattasids (to name some of those among the most prominent) from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region as well.

Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya
Libya
established the Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market . It was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate . The union included Western Sahara
Western Sahara
implicitly under Morocco's membership, putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria
Algeria
to a rest. However, this progress was short-lived, and the union is now frozen. Tensions between Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
over Western Sahara re-emerged strongly, reinforced by the unsolved borderline issue between the two countries. These two main conflicts have hindered progress on the union's joint goals and practically made it inactive as a whole. However, the instability in the region and growing cross-border security threats revived the calls for regional cooperation – foreign ministers of the Arab Maghreb Union declared a need for coordinated security policy in May 2015 during the 33rd session of the follow-up committee meeting, which brings back the hope of some form of cooperation.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Antiquity * 2.3 Middle Ages * 2.4 Early modern history * 2.5 Modern history

* 3 Population

* 4 Religion

* 4.1 Maghrebi traders in Jewish history

* 5 Geography

* 5.1 Ecoregions * 5.2 Mediterranean Maghreb * 5.3 Saharan Maghreb

* 6 Culture * 7 Genetics of the Maghreb population

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Maghreb countries by GDP (PPP)

* 9 Medieval regions * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

In classical antiquity , the Maghreb or portions of the region was known by various toponyms, including Barbary
Barbary
, Berbery, Mauretania , Numidia , Libya
Libya
, Africa
Africa
, and the Land of the Atlas .

The toponym maghrib is a geographical term that the Muslim Arabs gave to the region extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the east up to the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
in the west. Muslim historians and geographers divided the region into three areas: al-Maghrib al-Adna (the near Maghrib) which included the lands extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
up to Tarabulus (modern-day Tripoli
Tripoli
) in the west; al-Maghrib al-Awsat (the middle Maghrib) which extended from Tripoli
Tripoli
to Bijaya ( Béjaïa
Béjaïa
); and al-Maghrib al-Aqsa (the far Maghrib) which extended from Tahart ( Tiaret
Tiaret
) to the Atlantic Ocean. They disagreed, however, over the start of the eastern boundary. Certain authors made it extend as far as the sea of Kulzum (the Red Sea
Red Sea
) and thus include in the Maghrib Egypt
Egypt
and the country of Barca . Ibn Khaldun does not accept this delimitation, because, he says, the inhabitants of the Maghreb do not consider Egypt
Egypt
and Barca as forming part of their country. The latter commences only at the province of Tripoli
Tripoli
and encloses the districts of which the country of the Berbers was composed in former times. Later Maghribi writers limit themselves to reproducing with a few variations in detail, the information of Ibn Khaldun.

As of 2017 the term Maghrib is still used in opposition to Mashriq in a sense near to that which it had in medieval times, but it also denotes simply Morocco
Morocco
when the full al-Maghrib al-Aksa is abbreviated. Furthermore, the political union of the North African countries which certain politicians seek is called al-Maghrib al-Kabir (the grand Maghrib) or al-Maghrib al-Arabi (the Arab Maghrib). The Berber-lanuage speakers now call this region Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, which translates to: "Berbery" (land of the Berbers), a term that has been popularized by Berberism
Berberism
activists since the second half of the 20th century.

HISTORY

Maghreb head ornament (Morocco) The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Kairouan
, founded by the Arab general Uqba Ibn Nafi (in 670), is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb city of Kairouan
Kairouan
, Tunisia
Tunisia
.

PREHISTORY

Main article: Prehistoric North Africa

Around 3,500 BC changes in the tilt of the Earth's orbit created a rapid desertification of the Sahara
Sahara
and formed a natural barrier that severely limited contact between the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
. The Maghreb or western North Africa
Africa
is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since from at least 10,000 BC.

ANTIQUITY

Main articles: North Africa during Antiquity and Ancient Carthage

Partially isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara
Sahara
desert, inhabitants of the northern parts of the Berber world have long had commercial and cultural ties to the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe and Western Asia , going back at least to the Phoenicians in the 1st millennium BC (the Phoenician colony of Carthage
Carthage
having been founded, according to tradition, in what is now Tunisia
Tunisia
circa 800 BC).

Berber coast ports and cities were predominantly constructed by the Berbers. Later some Phoenicians and Carthaginians arrived for trade. The main Berber and Phoenician settlements centered in the Gulf of Tunis ( Carthage
Carthage
, Utica, Tunisia
Tunisia
) along the North African littoral between the Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules
and the Libyan coast east of ancient Cyrenaica . They dominated the trade and intercourse of the Western Mediterranean for centuries. The Carthage
Carthage
defeat in the Punic Wars during 206 BC allowed Rome to establish the Province of Africa and control many of these ports and eventually control the entire Maghreb north of the Atlas Mountains. Rome was greatly helped by the defection of King Massinissa
Massinissa
and Carthaginian's eastern Numidian Massylii client-allies. Some of the most mountainous regions such as the Moroccan Rif
Rif
remained outside Rome's control and the pressures put on the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by the invading forces of the Barbarian invasions (the Vandals and Spain
Spain
) in the 5th-century reduced Roman control and establishment of the Vandal Kingdom with its capital at Carthage
Carthage
in 430 AD. A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius that succeeded in destroying the Vandal kingdom; Byzantine rule lasted for 150 years. The Berbers contested outside-the-area control although after the 640s-700 AD period the Arabs controlled the entire region.

MIDDLE AGES

Main articles: Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate , Abbasid Caliphate , Idrisid dynasty , Almoravid
Almoravid
dynasty , Almohad
Almohad
Caliphate , Hafsid dynasty , Marinid dynasty , Ziyyanid dynasty
Ziyyanid dynasty
, and Wattasid
Wattasid
dynasty

The Arabs reached the Maghreb in early Umayyad
Umayyad
times. Islamic Berber kingdoms like the Almohads expansion and the spread of Islam contributed to the development of trans-Saharan trade . While restricted due to the cost and dangers, the trade was highly profitable. Commodities traded included such goods as salt, gold, ivory, and slaves . Arab control over the Maghreb was quite weak. Various Islamic variations, such as the Ibadis and the Shia , were adopted by some Berbers, often leading to scorning of Caliphal control in favour of their own interpretation of Islam.

The Arabic language
Arabic language
and dialects spread slowly without eliminating Berber, as a result of the invasion of the Banu Hilal Arabs, unleashed by the Fatimids in punishment for their Zirid
Zirid
former Berber clients who defected and abandoned Shiism
Shiism
in the 12th century. Throughout this period, the Berber world most often was divided into three states roughly corresponding to modern Morocco, western Algeria, and eastern Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. The region was occasionally briefly unified, as under the Almohad
Almohad
Berber empire, and briefly under the Marinids .

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

Main articles: Barbary Coast , Saadi dynasty , Alaouite dynasty , Ottoman Algeria
Algeria
, Ottoman Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Ottoman Tripolitania
Ottoman Tripolitania
1707 map of northwest Africa
Africa
by Guillaume Delisle
Guillaume Delisle
, including the Maghreb

After the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
loosely controlled the area east of Morocco.

MODERN HISTORY

Further information: Spanish Morocco
Morocco
, Spanish Sahara
Sahara
, French protectorate of Morocco
Morocco
, French Algeria
Algeria
, French Protectorate of Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Italian Libya
Libya
Further information: North African Campaign (World War I) , North African Campaign , and Western Desert Campaign Further information: Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War , Algerian War of Independence , History of Algeria
Algeria
since 1962 , History of modern Tunisia
Tunisia
, Kingdom of Libya
Libya
, and Libya
Libya
under Gaddafi

After the 19th century, areas of the Maghreb were colonized by France , Spain
Spain
and later Italy
Italy
.

Today, more than two and a half million Maghrebi immigrants live in France, many from Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco. In addition, there are 3 million French of Maghrebi origin (in 1999) (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
or Tunisia). Another estimation gives a number of six million.

POPULATION

Main article: Maghrebis Algiers
Algiers
, Algeria
Algeria
Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco
Morocco

The Maghreb is primarily inhabited by peoples of Berber ancestral origin. Berbers are autochthonous to Algeria
Algeria
(80%), Libya
Libya
(>60%), Morocco
Morocco
(80%), and Tunisia
Tunisia
(>60%). French, Arab, West African and Jewish populations also inhabit the region.

The Maghreb population was 1/8th of France
France
in 1800, 1/4th in 1900 and par in 2000. The Maghreb is home to 1% of the global population as of 2010.

Various other influences are also prominent throughout the Maghreb. In northern coastal towns, in particular, several waves of European immigrants influenced the population in the Medieval era. Most notable were the moriscos and muladies , that is, the indigenous Spaniards (Moors) who forcibly converted to Catholicism and later to be expelled, together with ethnic Arab and Berber Muslims, from the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Reconquista . Other European contributions included French, Italians, and others captured by the corsairs .

Historically, the Maghreb was home to significant Jewish communities called Maghrebim who predated the 7th-century introduction and conversion of the region to Islam. These were later augmented by Jews from Spain
Spain
who, fleeing the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Inquisition, established a presence in North Africa, chiefly in the urban trading centers. Many Jews from Spain
Spain
emigrated to North America
North America
in the early 19th century or to France
France
and Israel later in the 20th century.

Another significant group are Turks who came over with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. A large Turkish descended population exists, particularly in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria.

Sub-Saharan Africans joined the population mix during centuries of trans-Saharan trade . Traders and slaves went to the Maghreb from the Sahel
Sahel
region. On the Saharan southern edge of the Maghreb are small communities of black populations, sometimes called Haratine , who are apparently descended from black populations who inhabited the Sahara during its last wet period and then migrated north.

In Algeria
Algeria
especially, a large European minority, the "pied noirs ", immigrated and settled under French colonial rule in late 19th century. The overwhelming majority of these, however, left Algeria during and following the war for independence.

RELIGION

The mausoleum of Madghacen .

The original religions of the peoples of the Maghreb seem to have been based and related with fertility cults of a strong matriarchal pantheon , given the social and linguistic structures of the Amazigh cultures antedating all Egyptian and eastern, Asian, northern Mediterranean, and European influences.

Historic records of religion in the Maghreb region show its gradual inclusion in the Classical World, with coastal colonies established first by Phoenicians, some Greeks, and later extensive conquest and colonization by the Romans. By the 2nd century of the common era, the area had become a center of Phoenician-speaking Christianity, where bishops spoke and wrote in Punic, and even Emperor Septimius Severus was noted by his local accent. Roman settlers and Romanized populations converted to Christianity. The region produced figures such as Christian Church writer Tertullian
Tertullian
(c. 155 – c. 202); and Christian Church martyrs or leading figures such as Perpetua
Perpetua
and Felicity (martyrs, c. 200 CE); St. Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage
Carthage
(+ 258); St. Monica ; her son the philosopher St. Augustine , Bishop of Hippo I (+ 430) (1); and St. Julia of Carthage
Carthage
(5th century).

The domination of Christianity ended when Arab invasions brought Islam in 647. Carthage
Carthage
fell in 698 and the remainder of the region followed in subsequent decades. Gradual Islamization proceeded, although surviving letters showed correspondence from regional Christians to Rome up until the 12th century. Christianity was still a living faith. Although there were a fair number of conversions after the conquest Muslims did not become a majority until some time late in the 9th century and became vast majority during the 10th (Staying Roman, Jonathan Conant, pp. 362–368, 2012). Christian bishoprics and dioceses continued to be active, with relations continuing with Rome. As late as Pope Benedict VII (974-983) reign, a new Archbishop of Carthage
Carthage
was consecrated. Evidence of Christianity in the region then faded through the 10th century. However, by the end of the 11th century only two bishops were left in Carthage
Carthage
and Hippo Regius. Pope Gregory VII, 1073–85, consecrated a new bishop for Hippo. Christianty seems to have suffered several shocks that lead to its demise. First many upper-class urban-swelling Latin-speaking Christians left for Europe
Europe
after the Muslim conquest. The second were large scale conversions to Islam in the 9th century. Many Christians of a much reduced community left in the mid-11th century. Finally the small remnant were evacuated to Sicily in the 12th by the Normans. The Latin-African language lingered on a while longer.

From the end of the 7th century the region's peoples began their total conversion to Islam which took more than 400 years. There is a small but thriving Jewish community, as well as a small Christian community. Most Muslims follow the Sunni Maliki
Maliki
school. Small Ibadi communities remain in some areas. A strong tradition of venerating marabouts and saints' tombs is found throughout regions inhabited by Berbers. Any map of the region demonstrates the tradition by the proliferation of " Sidi
Sidi
"s, showing places named after the marabouts. Like some other religious traditions, this has substantially decreased over the 20th century. A network of zaouias traditionally helped proliferate basic literacy and knowledge of Islam in rural regions. Christian family from Kabylia
Kabylia
.

There are communities of Christians mostly Roman Catholics and Protestant in Algeria
Algeria
(100,000-380,000), Mauritania
Mauritania
(6,500), Morocco (~380,000), Libya
Libya
(170,000), and Tunisia
Tunisia
(25,000). Most of the Roman Catholics in Greater Maghreb are of French , Spanish, and Italian descent who immigrated during the colonial era, while some are foreign missionaries or immigrant worker. There is also a Christian communities of Berber or Arab descent in Greater Maghreb countries, mostly converted during the modern era or under and after French colonialism . Prior to independence, Algeria
Algeria
was home to 1.4 million Pied-Noir (mostly Catholic
Catholic
), and Morocco
Morocco
was home to half a million Europeans , and Tunisia
Tunisia
was home to 255,000 Europeans , and Libya was home to 145,000 Europeans . In religion, most of pieds-noirs in Maghreb are Roman Catholic
Catholic
Christians . Due to the exodus of the pieds-noirs in the 1960s there are more North African Christians of Berber or Arab descent live in France
France
than in Greater Maghreb.

Recently, the Protestant community of Berber or Arab descent has experienced significant growth, and conversions to Christianity, especially to Evangelicalism , is common in Algeria
Algeria
, especially in the Kabylie
Kabylie
, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria
Algeria
. The number of the Moroccans
Moroccans
who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 40,000 -150,000. International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian Muslims who convert to Christianity . A 2015 study estimate some 1,500 believers in Christ from a Muslim background living in the Libya.

MAGHREBI TRADERS IN JEWISH HISTORY

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad
Baghdad
became increasingly hostile to Jews, some Jewish traders emigrated to the Maghreb, especially Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia. Over the following two or three centuries, such Jewish traders became known as the Maghribis, a distinctive social group who traveled throughout the Mediterranean world. They passed this identification on from father to son. Their tight-knit pan- Maghreb community had the ability to use social sanctions as a credible alternative to legal recourse, which was weak at the time anyway. This unique institutional alternative permitted the Maghribis to very successfully participate in Mediterranean trade.

GEOGRAPHY

ECOREGIONS

The Maghreb is divided into a Mediterranean climate region in the north, and the arid Sahara
Sahara
in the south. The Maghreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature, and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and animals. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several distinct ecoregions in the Maghreb.

MEDITERRANEAN MAGHREB

Dwarf fan palm , grown in Maghreb countries

The portions of the Maghreb between the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea , along with coastal Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica in Libya, are home to Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub . These ecoregions share many species of plants and animals with other portions of Mediterranean Basin . The southern extent of the Mediterranean Maghreb corresponds with the 100 mm isohyet , or the southern range of the European Olive
Olive
(Olea europea) and Esparto
Esparto
Grass (Stipa tenacissima).

* Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands (Spain), Western Sahara) * Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
(Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) * Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests
(Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) * Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Spain) * Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe (Morocco)

SAHARAN MAGHREB

The Sahara
Sahara
extends across northern Africa
Africa
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. Its central part is hyper-arid and supports little plant or animal life, but the northern portion of the desert receives occasional winter rains, while the strip along the Atlantic coast receives moisture from marine fog, which nourishes a greater variety of plants and animals. The northern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet, which is also the northern range of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera).

* North Saharan steppe and woodlands : This ecoregion lies along the northern edge of the Sahara, next to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregions of the Mediterranean Maghreb and Cyrenaica. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
proper to the south. It covers 1,675,300 square km (646,800 square miles) in Algeria
Algeria
, Egypt
Egypt
, Libya
Libya
, Mauritania, Morocco
Morocco
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Western Sahara. * Atlantic coastal desert
Atlantic coastal desert
: The Atlantic coastal desert
Atlantic coastal desert
occupies a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, where fog generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens , succulents , and shrubs. It covers 39,900 square kilometres (15,400 sq mi) in Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. * Sahara
Sahara
desert : This ecoregion covers the hyper-arid central portion of the Sahara
Sahara
where rainfall is minimal and sporadic. Vegetation is rare, and this ecoregion consists mostly of sand dunes (erg ), stone plateaus (hamada ), gravel plains (reg ), dry valleys (wadi ), and salt flats. It covers 4,639,900 square km (1,791,500 square miles) of Algeria, Chad
Chad
, Egypt, Libya, Mali
Mali
, Mauritania, Niger
Niger
, and Sudan
Sudan
. * Saharan halophytics : Seasonally flooded saline depressions in the Maghreb are home to halophytic , or salt-adapted, plant communities. The Saharan halophytics cover 54,000 square km (20,800 square miles), including Tunisian salt lakes
Tunisian salt lakes
of central Tunisia, Chott Melghir
Chott Melghir
in Algeria, and other areas of Egypt, Algeria, Mauritania, and Western Sahara.

CULTURE

Traditional Maghrebi cuisine Further information: Moroccan cuisine Further information: Algerian cuisine
Algerian cuisine
Further information: Tunisian cuisine

The countries of the Maghreb share many cultural traditions. Among these is a culinary tradition that Habib Bourguiba defined as Western Arab, where couscous is the staple food, as opposed to Eastern Arab where white rice is the staple food. In terms of food, similarities beyond the starches are found throughout the Arab world.

GENETICS OF THE MAGHREB POPULATION

The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Maghreb population seems to be mainly modulated by geography, The Y-DNA Haplogroups E1b1b and J make up the vast majority of the genetic markers of the populations of the Maghreb. Haplogroup E1b1b is the most widespread among Maghrebi groups, especially the downstream lineage of E1b1b1b1a , which is typical of the indigenous Berbers of North-West Africa. Haplogroup J is more indicative of Middle East
Middle East
origins, and has its highest distribution among populations in Arabia and the Levant. Due to the distribution of E-M81 (E1b1b1b1a), which has reached its highest documented levels in the world at 95-100% in some populations of the Maghreb, it has often been termed the "Berber marker" in the scientific literature. The second most common marker, Haplogroup J especially J1 which is typically Middle Eastern and originates in the Arabian peninsula can reach frequencies of up to 35% in the region. Its highest density is founded in the Arabian Peninsula . Haplogroup R1 , which is a Eurasian marker has also been observed in the Maghreb, though with lower frequency. The Y-DNA Haplogroups shown above are observed in both Arabs and Berber-speakers.

The Maghreb Y chromosome pool (including both Arab and Berber populations) may be summarized for most of the populations as follows where only two haplogroups E1b1b and J comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes:

HAPLOGROUP MARKER SAHARA/MAURITANIA MOROCCO ALGERIA TUNISIA LIBYA

N

189 760 156 601 -

A

- 0.26 - - -

B

0.53 0.66 - 0.17 -

C

- - - - -

DE

- - - - -

E1A M33 5.29 2.76 0.64 0.5 -

E1B1A M2 6.88 3.29 5.13 0.67 -

E1B1B1 M35 - 4.21 0.64 1.66 -

E1B1B1A M78 - 0.79 1.92 - -

E1B1B1A1 V12 - 0.26 0.64 - -

E1B1B1A1B V32 - - - - -

E1B1B1A2 V13 - 0.26 0.64 - -

E1B1B1A3 V22 - 1.84 1.28 3 -

E1B1B1A4 V65 - 3.68 1.92 3.16 -

E1B1B1B M81 55.56 67.37 44.23 62.73 -

E1B1B1C M34 11.11 0.66 1.28 1.16 -

F M89 - 0.26 3.85 2.66 -

G M201 - 0.66 - 0.17 -

H M69 - - - - -

I

- 0.13 - 0.17 -

J1

13.23 6.32 21.79 16.64 -

J2

- 1.32 4.49 2.83 -

K

- 0.53 0.64 0.33 -

L

- - - - -

N

- - - - -

O

- - - - -

P, R

- 0.26 - 0.33 -

Q

- - 0.64 - -

R1A1

- - 0.64 0.5 -

R1B M343 - - - - -

R1B1A V88 6.88 0.92 2.56 1.83 -

R1B1B M269 0.53 3.55 7.04 0.33 -

R2

- - - - -

T M70 - - - 1.16 -

ECONOMY

MAGHREB COUNTRIES BY GDP (PPP)

LIST BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2013) LIST BY THE WORLD BANK (2013) LIST BY THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK (2013)

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

44 Algeria
Algeria
285,541

58 Morocco
Morocco
179,240

70 Tunisia
Tunisia
108,430

81 Libya
Libya
70,386

148 Mauritania
Mauritania
8,241

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

34 Algeria
Algeria
421,626

55 Morocco
Morocco
241,757

70 Libya
Libya
132,695

75 Tunisia
Tunisia
120,755

143 Mauritania
Mauritania
11,835

RANK COUNTRY GDP (PPP)

45 Algeria
Algeria
284,700

58 Morocco
Morocco
180,000

68 Tunisia
Tunisia
108,400

81 Libya
Libya
73,600

151 Mauritania
Mauritania
8,204

MEDIEVAL REGIONS

* Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(currently Tunisia
Tunisia
, East Algeria
Algeria
and West Libya
Libya
) * Djerid * Sous
Sous
* M\'zab * Draa Valley * Hodna * Rif
Rif
* Maghreb al-Awsat (Central Maghreb - currently Northern Algeria) * Maghreb al-Aqsa (Western Maghreb - currently Morocco) * Maghreb al-Adna (Eastern Maghreb - currently Libya
Libya
and Tunisia) * Tamesna * Tripolitania
Tripolitania

SEE ALSO

* Africa
Africa
portal * Francophonie portal

* Arab Maghreb Union * Barbary Coast * Berber people * History of Algeria
Algeria
* History of Libya
Libya
* History of Mauritania
Mauritania
* History of Morocco
Morocco
* History of Tunisia
Tunisia
* History of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
* Maghreb French * Maghreb toponymy * Maghrebi script
Maghrebi script
* Maghrebi Arabic * Mashriq
Mashriq
* Moors * Mughrabi (other) * Plazas de soberanía
Plazas de soberanía
* Tamazgha
Tamazgha

NOTES AND REFERENCES

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Spain
to Tunisia, and represents a homogeneous cultural entity", Titus Burckhardt , "Moorish culture in Spain". Suhail Academy. 1997, p.7 * ^ Elisee Reclus , Africa, edited by A. H. Keane
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(Country Study). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Helen Chapan Metz, ed. December 1993. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain . * ^ Kjeilen, Tore. "Algeria". LookLex Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ The World Factbook - Morocco * ^ Fr Andrew Phillips. "The Last Christians Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2013. * ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 * ^ Rising numbers of Christians in Islamic countries could pose threat to social order Archived 2016-03-20 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe
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Internationale, 7 mai 2001 * ^ Lucien Oulahbib, Le monde arabe existe-t-il ?, page 12, 2005, Editions de Paris, Paris. * ^ Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011) * ^ A B International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain . Cite error: Invalid tag; name "report" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ). * ^ Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census * ^ House-Churches\' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco
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Are Praying in Secret * ^ Morocco: No more hiding for Christians * ^ Osservatorio Internazionale: "La tentazione di Cristo" Archived 2014-09-05 at Archive.is April 2010 * ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015. * ^ Avner Greif (June 1993). "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders\' Coalition" (PDF). American Economic Association in its jou