The Info List - Greater Germany

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(German: Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland. Pan-Germanism
was highly influential in German politics in the 19th century during the unification of Germany
when the German Empire
German Empire
was proclaimed as a nation-state in 1871 but without Austria (Kleindeutsche Lösung/Lesser Germany),[1] and the first half of the 20th century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
and the German Empire. From the late 19th century, many Pan-Germanist thinkers, since 1891 organized in the Pan-German League, had adopted openly ethnocentric and racist ideologies, and ultimately gave rise to the foreign policy Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
pursued by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
under Austrian-born Adolf Hitler from 1938, one of the primary factors leading to the outbreak of World War II.[2][3][4][5] As a result of the disaster of World War II, Pan-Germanism
was mostly seen as a taboo ideology in the postwar period in both West and East Germany. Today, Pan-Germanism
is mostly limited to some nationalist groups in Germany
and Austria.


1 Etymology 2 Origins (before 1860) 3 The German Question 4 Pan-Germanism
in Austria 5 Pan-Germanism
in Scandinavia 6 1918 to 1945 7 History since 1945 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The word pan is a Greek word element meaning "all, every, whole, all-inclusive". The word "German" in this context derives from Latin "Germani" originally used by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
referring to tribes or a single tribe in northeastern Gaul. In the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
it acquired a loose meaning referring to the speakers of Germanic languages (alongside 'Almain' and 'Teuton') most of whom spoke dialects ancestral to modern German. In English, "Pan-German" was first attested in 1892. In German there exists a synonym "Alldeutsche Bewegung" which is a calque using German instead of Latin and Greek roots.[6] Origins (before 1860)[edit] Further information: 18th-century history of Germany, German Confederation, and Vormärz

The German Confederation
German Confederation
in 1820. Territories of the Prussian crown are blue, territories of the Austrian crown are yellow, and independent German Confederation
German Confederation
states are grey. The red border shows the limits of the Confederation. Note that both Prussia
and Austria controlled non- Confederation

Pan-Germanism's origins began with the birth of Romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars, with Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
and Ernst Moritz Arndt being early proponents. Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation, when the Holy Roman Empire was shattered into a patchwork of states following the end of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
with the Peace of Westphalia. Advocates of the Großdeutschland (Greater Germany) solution sought to unite all the German-speaking people in Europe, under leadership of the German Austrians from the Austrian Empire. Pan-Germanism
was widespread among the revolutionaries of 1848, notably among Richard Wagner and the Brothers Grimm.[4] Writers such as Friedrich List
Friedrich List
and Paul Anton Lagarde argued for German hegemony in Central and Eastern Europe, where German domination in some areas had begun as early as the 9th century AD with the Ostsiedlung, Germanic expansion into Slavic and Baltic lands. For the Pan-Germanists this movement was seen as a Drang nach Osten, in which Germans
would be naturally inclined to seek Lebensraum
by moving eastwards to reunite with the German minorities there. The Deutschlandlied
("Song of Germany"), written in 1841 by Hoffmann von Fallersleben, in its first stanza defines Deutschland as reaching "From the Meuse to the Memel / From the Adige
to the Belt", i.e. as including East Prussia
East Prussia
and South Tyrol. Reflecting upon the First Schleswig War
First Schleswig War
in 1848, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
noted that "by quarrelling amongst themselves, instead of confederating, Germans and Scandinavians, both of them belonging to the same great race, only prepare the way for their hereditary enemy, the Slav."[7] The German Question[edit] Main articles: German Question
German Question
and Unification of Germany

There is, in political geography, no Germany
proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, and each separately ruled by an independent sovereign with all the machinery of State. Yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans
into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. — The New York Times, 1 July 1866[8]

By the 1860s the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
had become the two most powerful states dominated by German-speaking élites. Both sought to expand their influence and territory. The Austrian Empire—like the Holy Roman Empire—was a multi-ethnic state, but the German-speaking people there did not have an absolute numerical majority; its re-shaping into the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
was one result of the growing nationalism of other ethnicities—especially the Hungarians. Under Prussian leadership Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
would ride on the coat-tails of nationalism to unite all of the northern German lands. After Bismarck excluded Austria
and the German Austrians from Germany
in the German war of 1866 and (following a few other events over the next few years), the unification of Germany, established the Prussian-dominated German Empire
German Empire
("Second Reich") in 1871 with the proclamation of Wilhelm I
Wilhelm I
as head of a union of German-speaking states, while disregarding millions of its non-German subjects who desired self-determination from German rule. After World War I
World War I
the Pan-Germanist philosophy changed drastically during the ascendancy of Adolf Hitler. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of Europe in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland (Greater Germany), where "German-speaking" was sometimes taken as synonymous with Germanic-speaking, to the inclusion of the Frisian- and Dutch-speaking populations of the Low Countries, and the Scandinavias.[9] Although Bismarck had excluded Austria
and the German Austrians from his creation of the Kleindeutschland
state in 1871, integrating the German Austrians nevertheless remained a strong desire for many people of both Austria
and Germany.[10] The most radical Austrian pan-German Georg Schönerer
Georg Schönerer
(1842–1921) and Karl Hermann Wolf (1862–1941) articulated Pan-Germanist sentiments in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[2] There was also a rejection of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
with the Away from Rome! movement (ca 1900 onwards) calling for German-speakers to identify with Lutheran
or Old Catholic
Old Catholic
churches.[5] The Pan-German Movement gained an institutional format in 1891, when Ernst Hasse, a professor at the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
and a member of the Reichstag, organized the Pan-German League, an ultra-nationalist[11] political-interest organization which promoted imperialism, anti-semitism, and support for ethnic German minorities in other countries.[12] The organization achieved great support among the educated middle and upper class; it promoted German nationalist consciousness, especially among ethnic Germans
outside Germany. In his three-volume work, "Deutsche Politik" (1905–07), Hasse called for German imperialist expansion in Europe. The Munich
professor Karl Haushofer, Ewald Banse, and Hans Grimm
Hans Grimm
(author of the novel Volk ohne Raum) preached similar expansionist policies. Pan-Germanism
in Austria[edit] Main article: German nationalism
German nationalism
in Austria

Georg Ritter von Schönerer
Georg Ritter von Schönerer
(left) and Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
(right) were the two most influential pan- Germans
in Austria
during the early 20th century.

After the Revolutions of 1848/49, in which the liberal nationalistic revolutionaries advocated the Greater German solution, the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
(1866) with the effect that Austria was now excluded from Germany, and increasing ethnic conflicts in the multinational Habsburg Monarchy, a German national movement evolved in Austria.[13] Led by the radical German nationalist
German nationalist
and anti-semite Georg von Schönerer, organisations such as the Pan-German Society demanded the annexation of all German-speaking territories of the Danube Monarchy to the German Empire, and fervently rejected Austrian patriotism and a pan-Austrian identity. Schönerer's völkisch and racist German nationalism
German nationalism
was an inspiration to Hitler's Nazi ideology.[14] In 1933, Austrian Nazis
and the national-liberal Greater German People's Party formed an action group, fighting together against the Austrofascist regime which imposed a distinct Austrian national identity and in accordance said that Austrians were "better Germans", while Kurt Schuschnigg
Kurt Schuschnigg
adopted a policy of appeasement towards Austrian-born Hitler's annexing of Austria
to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and called Austria
the "better German state", but he still struggled to keep Austria
independent.[15] With "Anschluss" of Austria
in 1938, the historic aim of Austria's German nationalists was achieved.[16] After the end of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the events of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the ideas of pan-Germanism and an Anschluss
fell out of favour due to their association with Nazism
and allowed Austrians to develop their own national identity. Nevertheless, such notions were revived with the German national camp in the Federation of Independents and the early Freedom Party of Austria.[17] Pan-Germanism
in Scandinavia[edit] The idea of including the North Germanic-speaking Scandinavians into a Pan-German state, sometimes referred to as Pan-Germanicism,[18] was promoted alongside mainstream pan-German ideas.[19] Jacob Grimm adopted Munch's anti-Danish Pan-Germanism
and argued that the entire peninsula of Jutland
had been populated by Germans
before the arrival of the Danes
and that thus it could justifiably be reclaimed by Germany, whereas the rest of Denmark
should be incorporated into Sweden. This line of thinking was countered by Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae, an archaeologist who had excavated parts of Danevirke, who argued that there was no way of knowing the language of the earliest inhabitants of Danish territory. He also pointed out that Germany
had more solid historical claims to large parts of France and England, and that Slavs—by the same reasoning—could annex parts of Eastern Germany. Regardless of the strength of Worsaae's arguments, pan-Germanism spurred on the German nationalists of Schleswig
and Holstein
and led to the First Schleswig War
First Schleswig War
in 1848. In turn, this likely contributed to the fact that Pan-Germanism
never caught on in Denmark
as much as it did in Norway.[20] Pan-Germanic tendencies were particularly widespread among the Norwegian independence movement. Prominent supporters included Peter Andreas Munch, Christopher Bruun, Knut Hamsun, Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.[4][21][22] Bjørnson, who wrote the lyrics for the Norwegian national anthem, proclaimed in 1901:

I'm a Pan-Germanist, I'm a Teuton, and the greatest dream of my life is for the South Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and the North Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and their brothers in diaspora to unite in a fellow confederation.[4]

In the 20th century the German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich that would include most of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
of Europe within it under the leadership of Germany, including peoples such as the Danes, the Dutch, the Swedes, the Norwegians, and the Flemish within it.[23] Anti-German Scandinavism
surged in Denmark
in the 1930s and 1940s in response to the pan-Germanic ambitions of Nazi Germany.[24] 1918 to 1945[edit] Further information: Areas annexed by Nazi Germany, Völkisch movement, Heim ins Reich, Generalplan Ost, and Greater Germanic Reich

Administrative division of Nazi Germany, following the annexing of Austria, Sudetenland
and others to form the Greater German Reich as of 1944.

Map showing Nazi German plans, given to Sudeten Germans
during the Sudeten Crisis
Sudeten Crisis
as part of an intimidation process. Re-published in the British socialist newspaper Daily Worker on 29 October 1938.

Boundaries of the planned "Greater Germanic Reich" based on various, only partially systematised target projections (e.g. Generalplan Ost) from state administration and the SS leadership sources.[25]

World War I
World War I
became the first attempt to carry out the Pan-German ideology in practice, and the Pan-German movement argued forcefully for an expansionist imperialism.[26] Following the defeat in World War I, influence of German-speaking elites over Central and Eastern Europe was greatly limited. At the Treaty of Versailles, Germany
was substantially reduced in size. Austria-Hungary
was split up. A Rump-Austria, which to a certain extent corresponded to the German-speaking areas of Austria-Hungary
(a complete split into language groups was impossible due to multi-lingual areas and language-exclaves) adopted the name "German Austria" (German: Deutschösterreich) in hope for union with the Germany. Union with Germany
and the name "German Austria" was forbidden by the Treaty of St. Germain and the name had to be changed back to Austria. It was in the post- World War I
World War I
period that the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, under the influence of the stab-in-the-back myth, first took up German nationalist
German nationalist
ideas in his Mein Kampf.[26] Hitler met Heinrich Class in 1918, and Class provided Hitler with support for the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler and his National Socialist friends shared most of the basic pan-German visions with the Pan-German League, but nonetheless differences in political style led the two groups to open rivalry. The German Workers Party
German Workers Party
of Bohemia cut its ties to the pan-German movement, which was seen as being too dominated by the upper classes, and joined forces with the German Workers Party
German Workers Party
led by Anton Drexler, which later became the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi party) that was to be headed by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
from 1921.[27] Nazi propaganda also used the political slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One people, one Reich, one leader"), in order to enforce pan-German sentiment in Austria
for an "Anschluss". The Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
("Back Home to the Reich") initiative was a policy pursued by the Nazis
which attempted to convince the ethnic Germans living outside of Nazi germany
Nazi germany
(such as in Austria
and Sudetenland) that they should strive to bring these regions "home" into a Greater Germany. This notion also led the way for an even more expansive state to be envisioned, the Greater Germanic Reich, which Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
tried to establish.[28] This pan-Germanic empire was expected to assimilate practically all of Germanic Europe into an enormously expanded Greater Germanic Reich. Territorially speaking, this encompassed the already-enlarged Reich itself (consisting of pre-1938 Germany
plus the areas annexed into the Großdeutsche Reich), the Netherlands, Belgium, areas in north-eastern France considered to be historically and ethnically Germanic, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, at least the German-speaking Switzerland, and Liechtenstein.[29] The most notable exception was the predominantly Anglo-Saxon United Kingdom, which was not projected as having to be reduced to a German province but to instead become an allied seafaring partner of the Germans.[30] The eastern Reichskommissariats in the vast stretches of Ukraine and Russia were also intended for future integration, with plans for them stretching to the Volga
or even beyond the Urals. They were deemed of vital interest for the survival of the German nation, as it was a core tenet of national-socialist ideology that it needed "living space" (Lebensraum), creating a "pull towards the East" (Drang nach Osten) where that could be found and colonized, in a model that the Nazis explicitly derived from the American Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
in the Far West and its clearing of native inhabitants. History since 1945[edit] See also: Flight and expulsion of Germans
(1944–1950), Expulsion of Germans
after World War II, Former eastern territories of Germany, and Reunification of Germany The defeat of Germany
in World War II
World War II
brought about the decline of Pan-Germanism, much as World War I
World War I
had led to the demise of Pan-Slavism.[citation needed] Parts of Germany
itself were devastated, and the country was divided, firstly into Soviet, French, American, and British zones and then into West Germany
West Germany
and East Germany. To add to the disaster, Germany
suffered even larger territorial losses than it did in the First World War, with huge portions of eastern Germany directly annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Poland. The scale of the Germans' defeat was unprecedented; Pan-Germanism
became taboo because it had been tied to racist concepts of the "master race" and Nordicism by the Nazi party. However, the reunification of Germany
in 1990 revived the old debates.[31] See also[edit]

portal Austria
portal Switzerland portal Liechtenstein
portal Luxembourg portal Netherlands
portal Belgium
portal Norway
portal Sweden
portal Denmark
portal Iceland

Up to and during 18th century

Germanic peoples Germania Peace of Westphalia Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation

19th century

German nationalism Alldeutscher Verband Völkisch movement Pan-nationalism German question
German question
(with Großdeutsche Lösung) Scandinavism Irredentism Romantic nationalism Folklore

20th century

German reunification
German reunification
(with German unity) Nazi Germany Greater Germanic Reich Anschluss Versailles Treaty Ethnic nationalism Expansionism


^ Timothy Kirk (8 August 2002). Nazism
and the Working Class in Austria: Industrial Unrest and Political Dissent in the 'National Community'. Cambridge University Press. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-521-52269-4.  ^ a b " Pan-Germanism
(German political movement) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-01-24.  ^ Origins and Political Character of Nazi Ideology Hajo Holborn Political Science Quarterly Vol. 79, No. 4 (Dec. 1964), p.550 ^ a b c d "Slik ble vi germanersvermere – magasinet". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 2012-01-24.  ^ a b Mees, Bernard (2008). The Science of the Swastika. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9776-18-0.  ^ http://www.etymonline.com (pan-, German) ^ Marx, Karl (1994). The Eastern Question. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 90. ISBN 0-7146-1500-5. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ "The Situation of Germany" (PDF). The New York Times. 1 July 1866. Retrieved 2017-08-21.  ^ Nationalism and Globalisation: Conflicting Or Complementary. D. Halikiopoulou. p51. ^ "Das politische System in Österreich (The Political System in Austria)" (PDF) (in German). Vienna: Austrian Federal Press Service. 2000. p. 24. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ Eric J. Hobsbawm (1987). The age of empire, 1875–1914. Pantheon Books. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-394-56319-0. Retrieved 22 March 2011.  ^ Drummond, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Pan-German League". In Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. Contemporary world issues. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 528–529. ISBN 9781851094394. Retrieved 2016-07-15.  ^ Bauer, Kurt (2008), Nationalsozialismus: Ursprünge, Anfänge, Aufstieg und Fall (in German), Böhlau Verlag, p. 41  ^ Wladika, Michael (2005), Hitlers Vätergeneration: Die Ursprünge des Nationalsozialismus in der k.u.k. Monarchie (in German), Böhlau Verlag, p. 157  ^ Morgan, Philip (2003). Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 0-415-16942-9.  ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998), A history of eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, p. 355  ^ Pelinka, Anton (2000), "Jörg Haiders "Freiheitliche" – ein nicht nur österreichisches Problem", Liberalismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart (in German), Königshausen & Neumann, p. 233  ^ Thomas Pedersen. Germany, France, and the integration of Europe: a realist interpretation. Pinter, 1998. P. 74 ^ Ian Adams. Political Ideology Today. Manchester, England, UK: Manchester University Press, 1993. P. 95. ^ Rowly-Conwy, Peter (2013). "THE CONCEPT OF PREHISTORY AND THE INVENTION OF THE TERMS 'PREHISTORIC' AND 'PREHISTORIAN': THE SCANDINAVIAN ORIGIN, 1833–1850". European Journal of Archaeology. 9 (1): 103–130. doi:10.1177/1461957107077709.  ^ NRK (20 January 2005). "Drømmen om Norge". NRK.no. Retrieved 2012-01-24.  ^ Larson, Philip E. (1999). Ibsen in Skien and Grimstad: His education, reading, and early works (PDF). Skien: The Ibsen House and Grimstad Town Museum. p. 143.  ^ Germany: The Long Road West: Volume 2: 1933–1990. Digital version. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. ^ Stephen Barbour, Cathie Carmichael. Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 111. ^ "Utopia: The ' Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
of the German Nation'". München – Berlin: Institut für Zeitgeschichte. 1999.  ^ a b World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1 Cyprian Blamires ABC-CLIO, 2006. pp. 499–501 ^ Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1, Richard S. Levy, 529–530, ABC-CLIO 2005 ^ Elvert 1999, p. 325. ^ Rich 1974, pp. 401–402. ^ Strobl 2000, pp. 202–208. ^ Zeilinger, Gerhard (16 June 2011). "Straches "neue" Heimat und der Boulevardsozialismus". Der Standard (in German). Retrieved 28 June 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Kleineberg, A.; Marx Chr.; Knobloch E.; Lelgemann D.: Germania
und die Insel Thule. Die Entschlüsselung von Ptolemaios'"Atlas der Oikumene". WBG 2010. ISBN 978-3-534-23757-9. Jackisch, Barry Andrew. 'Not a Large, but a Strong Right': The Pan-German League, Radical Nationalism, and Rightist Party Politics in Weimar Germany, 1918–1939. Bell and Howell Information and Learning Company: Ann Arbor. 2000. Wertheimer, Mildred. The Pan-German League, 1890–1914. Columbia University Press: New York. 1924. Chickering, Roger. We Men Who Feel Most German: Cultural Study of the Pan-German League, 1886–1914. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. 1984.

v t e

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War 1866 Austro-Prussian War / Peace of Prague 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War 1871 Treaty of Versailles


Baron von Stein Charles I of Württemberg Christian IX of Denmark Eduard von Simson Franz I of Austria Franz Joseph I of Austria Frederick William III of Prussia Frederick William IV of Prussia Friedrich Daniel Bassermann Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust Heinrich von Gagern Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gustav Droysen Archduke John of Austria John of Saxony Karl August von Hardenberg Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich Ludwig II of Bavaria Napoleon III
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v t e

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v t e

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See also

Ostsiedlung Partitions of Poland Flight and expulsion of Germans

v t e

Germanic peoples


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spear Migration Period
Migration Period

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List of ancient Germanic peoples Portal:Ancient Germanic culture

v t e

Ethnic nationalism


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Authority control

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