The GRAPEFRUIT (
Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree
known for its sour to semi-sweet somewhat bitter fruit .
a hybrid originating in
Barbados as an accidental cross between two
introduced species, sweet orange (C. sinensis) and pomelo or shaddock
(C. maxima), both of which were introduced from Asia in the
seventeenth century. When found, it was named the “forbidden fruit
”; and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo.
The grapefruit's name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree,
which often appear similar to grapes .
* 1 Description
* 2 History
* 2.1 Ruby
* 2.2 Star Ruby
* 3 Varieties
* 4 Production
* 5 Colors and flavors
* 6 Drug interactions
* 7 Nutritional properties
* 9 Other uses
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
Grapefruit growing in the grape-like clusters from which their
The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters
(16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 m (43–49 ft). The
leaves are glossy dark green, long (up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in)) and
thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers . The fruit
is yellow-orange skinned and generally an oblate spheroid in shape; it
ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in). The flesh is
segmented and acidic , varying in color depending on the cultivars ,
which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness
(generally, the redder varieties are sweeter). The 1929 US Ruby Red
(of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent .
Citrus taxonomy § Oranges
One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange (Citrus
sinensis), itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin; the other was the
Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima). One story of the fruit's origins is
that a certain "Captain Shaddock" brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and
bred the first fruit. However, it probably originated as a naturally
occurring hybrid between the two plants some time after they had been
The Trunk, Leaves, and Flowers of this Tree, very much resemble
those of the Orange-tree.
The Fruit, when ripe, is something longer and larger than the largest
Orange; and exceeds, in the Delicacy of its Taste, the
Fruit of every
Tree in this or any of our neighbouring Islands.
It hath somewhat of the Taste of a Shaddock; but far exceeds that, as
well as the best Orange, in its delicious Taste and Flavour.
—Description from Hughes' 1750 Natural History of Barbados.
The hybrid fruit, then called "the forbidden fruit", was first
documented in 1750 by a Welshman , Rev.
Griffith Hughes , who
described specimens from
Barbados in The Natural History of Barbados.
Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the "Seven Wonders of
The grapefruit was brought to Florida by Count
Odet Philippe in 1823
in what is now known as
Safety Harbor . Further crosses have produced
the tangelo (1905), the
Minneola tangelo (1931), and the oroblanco
The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the 19th
century. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the
tree, which often appear similar to grapes . Botanically, it was not
distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the
Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the
1940s. This led to the official name being altered to
paradisi, the "×" identifying its hybrid origin. Kimball Chase
An early pioneer in the American citrus industry was Kimball Chase
Atwood , a wealthy entrepreneur who founded the Atwood
in the late 19th century. The Atwood Grove became the largest
grapefruit grove in the world, with a yearly output of 80,000 boxes of
fruit. It was there that pink grapefruit was first discovered in
The 1929 Ruby
Red patent was associated with real commercial success,
which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink
Red grapefruit, starting with the Ruby Red, has even
become a symbolic fruit of
Texas , where white “inferior”
grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for
decades. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were
developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink. The
Red variety is the current (2007)
Texas grapefruit with registered
trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as
"Reddest" and "
Texas Choice". The Rio
Red is a mutation bred variety
which was developed by treatment of bud sticks with thermal neutrons.
Its improved attributes of mutant variety are fruit and juice color,
deeper red, and wide adaptation.
The Star Ruby is the darkest of the red varieties. Developed from an
irradiated Hudson grapefruit, it has found limited commercial success
because it is more difficult to grow than other varieties.
The varieties of
Texas and Florida grapefruit include: Oro Blanco,
Ruby Red, Pink, Thompson,
White Marsh, Flame, Star Ruby, Duncan, and
1750 Engraving of The Forbidden
Fruit Tree by
Georg Dionysius Ehret
Georg Dionysius Ehret
Grapefruit in growth
Half peeled 'Indian' cultivar
Grapefruit and pomelo output in 2005
China is the top producer of grapefruit and pomelo followed by The
United States and
TOP ELEVEN GRAPEFRUIT (INC. POMELOS) PRODUCERS — 2012
PRODUCTION (METRIC TONS )
People\'s Republic of
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, *
= Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A =
Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations:
Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division
COLORS AND FLAVORS
Grapefruit comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between
varieties is by the flesh color of fruit they produce. The most
popular varieties cultivated today are red , white , and pink hues,
referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of
flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour to sweet and tart.
Grapefruit mercaptan , a sulfur -containing terpene , is one of the
substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of
grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with
numerous drugs and in many cases result in adverse direct and/or side
effects (if dosage is not carefully adjusted.)
This happens in two very different ways. In the first it is
postulated that the bioactivation effect is from bergamottin , a
natural furanocoumarin in both grapefruit flesh and peel that
CYP3A4 enzyme , (among others from the
family responsible for metabolizing 90% of drugs). The action of this
CYP3A4 enzyme itself ""inhibits"" the metabolism of many medications
with the double negative inhibition actually increasing the drug's
effects and side-effects. If the drug's breakdown for removal is
lessened, then the level of the drug in the blood can become too high
or stay too long, leading to adverse effects .
The other effect is that grapefruit can block the absorption of drugs
in the intestine. If the drug is not absorbed, then not enough of it
is in the blood to have a therapeutic effect. Each affected drug has
either a specific increase of effect or decrease.
One whole grapefruit, or a glass of 200 mL (6.8 US fl oz) of
grapefruit juice can cause drug overdose toxicity.
Drugs which are
incompatible with grapefruit are typically labeled on the container or
package insert . People taking drugs can ask their health care
provider or pharmacist questions about grapefruit / drug interactions.
Grapefruit, raw, white, all areas
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
138 kJ (33 kcal)
(3%) 0.037 mg
(2%) 0.020 mg
(2%) 0.269 mg
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5)
(6%) 0.283 mg
(3%) 0.043 mg
(3%) 10 μg
(2%) 7.7 mg
(40%) 33.3 mg
(1%) 0.13 mg
(1%) 12 mg
(0%) 0.06 mg
(3%) 9 mg
(1%) 0.013 mg
(1%) 8 mg
(3%) 148 mg
(1%) 0.07 mg
Link to USDA Database entry
* μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
* IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Grapefruit is a rich source (>20% of the
Daily Value , DV in a 100
gram serving) of vitamin C , contains the fiber pectin , and the
pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene .
Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol , and there is
evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties.
a core part of the "grapefruit diet ", the theory being that the
fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn
Although grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a plant-based
preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have
shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE
preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic
preservatives such as parabens .
There is a popular myth that grapefruits contain high amounts of
spermidine , a simple polyamine that may be related to aging. The myth
probably relies on the confusion between spermidine and putrescine .
While citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very
Costa Rica , especially in
Atenas , grapefruit are often cooked to
remove their sourness, rendering them as sweets ; they are also
stuffed with dulce de leche , resulting in a dessert called toronja
rellena (stuffed grapefruit). In
Haiti , grapefruit is used primarily
for its juice (jus de Chadèque), but is also used to make jam
(confiture de Chadèque).
Grapefruit has also been investigated in cancer medicine
pharmacodynamics . Its inhibiting effect on the metabolism of some
drugs may allow smaller doses to be used, which can help to reduce
Grapefruit is a pummelo backcross , a hybrid of pummelo × sweet
orange , with sweet orange itself being a pummelo × mandarin hybrid.
The grapefruit is itself a parent to many hybrids:
Tangelo is any hybrid of a tangerine and either a pomelo or a
* 'Minneola ': Duncan grapefruit × Dancy tangerine
* 'Orlando' (formerly 'Take'): Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine
* Fairchild is a
Clementine × Orlando hybrid
* 'Seminole': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine
* 'Thornton': tangerine × grapefruit, unspecified
* 'Ugli ': mandarin × grapefruit, probable (wild seedling)
* 'Nova' is a second-generation hybrid:
Clementine × Orlando
Melogold grapefruits are hybrids between
Citrus maxima) and the grapefruit.
The grapefruit's cousins include:
* Common sweet orange : pummelo × mandarin hybrid
Bitter orange : a different pummelo × mandarin hybrid
* Mandelos : pummelo × mandarine (
Citrus maxima ).
Hyuganatsu may also be a pumelo hybrid
* Food portal
* ^ A B Carrington, Sean; Fraser, HenryC (2003). "Grapefruit". A~Z
Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 90–91. ISBN
0-333-92068-6 . One of many citrus species grown in Barbados. This
fruit is believed to have originated in
Barbados as a natural cross
between sweet orange (C. sinesis) and Shaddock (C. grandis), both of
which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century. The
grapefruit first appeared as an illustration entitled 'The Forbidden
Fruit Tree' in the Rev. Griffith Hughes' The Natural History of
Barbados (1750). This accords with the scientific name which literally
is 'citrus of paradise'. The fruit was obviously fairly common around
that time since George Washington in his
Barbados Journal (1750-1751)
mentions 'the Forbidden Fruit' as one of the local fruit available at
a dinner party he attended. The plant was later described in the 1837
Flora of Jamaica as the
Barbados Grapefruit. The historical arguments
and experimental work on leaf enzymes and oils from possible parents
all support a Barbadian origin for the fruit.
* ^ Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of
Miami, FL : J. F. Morton. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0 . OCLC
16947184 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie R.; Lu Z.; Zhou Z. (July 2010). "The Origin
Citrus as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and
Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism
Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural
Science. 135 (4): 341. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
* ^ A B "How did the grapefruit get its name?" Library of Congress
. Science Reference Service, Everyday Mysteries. Retrieved August 2,
Texas grapefruit history, TexaSweet. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
* ^ Kumamoto, J.; Scora, R. W.; Lawton, H. W.; Clerx, W. A.
(1987-01-01). "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on
the origin of the grapefruit,
Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae)". Economic
Botany. 41 (1): 97–107. ISSN 0013-0001 . doi :10.1007/BF02859356 .
* ^ Grapefruit: a fruit with a bit of a complex in Art Culinaire
* ^ "World Wide Words: Grapefruit". World Wide Words. Retrieved
* ^ Admin. (2010). "Welchman Hall Gully, Barbados". Barbados
National Trust . Archived from the original on 16 August 2010.
Retrieved 11 July 2010. The Development of the Gully - The Gully was
once part of a plantation owned by a Welshman called General William
Asygell Williams over 200 years ago. Hence the name "Welchman Hall"
gully. It was this man who first developed the gully with exotic trees
and an orchard. Interestingly, the grapefruit is originally from
Barbados and is rumoured to have started in Welchman Hall Gully.
Barbados Seven Wonders: The
Grapefruit Tree. Abstract
* ^ "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the
origin of the grapefruit,
Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae)". Economic
Texas Citrus: Puzzling Beginnings. Article Archived 2007-01-25
Wayback Machine .
* ^ University of Florida: IFAS Extension; The Grapefruit. "Fact
* ^ "Manatee County a big part of citrus history".
HeraldTribune.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
* ^ "Grapefruit". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
* ^ William J Broad (28 August 2007). "Useful Mutants, Bred With
Radiation". New York Times.
* ^ "The Benefits of Grapefruit, the "
Fruit of Paradise"".
www.findatopdoc.com. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
* ^ "MVD". mvgs.iaea.org. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
* ^ Ahloowalia, B.S.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K. (2004).
"Global impact of mutation-derived varieties". Euphytica. 135 (2):
187–204. doi :10.1023/B:EUPH.0000014914.85465.4f . Retrieved
* ^ Sauls, Julian W. (1998). "Home fruit Production-Grapefruit".
Citrus Variety Collection. "Star Ruby grapefruit". Retrieved
* ^ "Go Florida Grapefruit". Go Florida Grapefruit. Archived from
the original on 2011-09-10. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
* ^ A B C D E The World's Healthiest Foods; Grapefruit. The George
Mateljan Foundation. Article
* ^ A. Buettner; P. Schieberle (1999). "Characterization of the
Most Odor-Active Volatiles in Fresh, Hand-Squeezed Juice of Grapefruit
Citrus paradisi Macfayden)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (12):
5189–5193. PMID 10606593 . doi :10.1021/jf990071l .
* ^ Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JM (March 2013).
"Grapefruit-medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable
consequences?" . CMAJ. 185 (4): 309–16. PMC 3589309 . PMID
23184849 . doi :10.1503/cmaj.120951 .
* ^ Renee, Janet. "Does
Grapefruit Inhibit Liver Enzymes?".
sfgate.com. SF Gate. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F Mitchell, Steve (19 February 2016). "Why Grapefruit
and Medication Can Be a Dangerous Mix". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 4
* ^ Bailey, D. G.; Dresser, G.; Arnold, J. M. O. (2012).
Forbidden fruit or avoidable
consequences?" . Canadian Medical Association Journal. 185 (4):
309–316. ISSN 0820-3946 . PMC 3589309 . PMID 23184849 . doi
* ^ Fellers PJ, Nikdel S, Lee HS (August 1990). "Nutrient content
and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice
products". J Am Diet Assoc. 90 (8): 1079–84. PMID 2380455 .
* ^ Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, Baumgartner TG, Rice RW
(September 1988). "The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at
risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle".
Clin Cardiol. 11 (9): 589–94. PMID 3229016 . doi
* ^ Lee HS (May 2000). "Objective measurement of red grapefruit
juice color". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (5): 1507–11. PMID 10820051 .
doi :10.1021/jf9907236 .
* ^ Platt R (2000). "Current concepts in optimum nutrition for
cardiovascular disease". Prev Cardiol. 3 (2): 83–7. PMID 11834923 .
doi :10.1111/j.1520-037X.2000.80364.x .
* ^ Armando C, Maythe S, Beatriz NP (1997). "
of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils". J Sci Food Agric. 77
(4): 463–7. doi :10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:43.0.CO;2-1 .
* ^ WMUR Ch. 9: New Hampshire news, weather, sports and
entertainment. Researchers Put
Grapefruit Diet To Test: Grapefruit
Compound Lowers Cholesterol, Helps Regulate Insulin. June 11, 2003.
* ^ Sakamoto S, Sato K, Maitani T, Yamada T (1996). "". Eisei
Shikenjo Hokoku (in Japanese) (114): 38–42. PMID 9037863 .
* ^ von Woedtke T, Schlüter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Jülich WD
(June 1999). "Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed
extract and its relation to preservative substances contained".
Pharmazie. 54 (6): 452–6. PMID 10399191 .
* ^ Takeoka G, Dao L, Wong RY, Lundin R, Mahoney N (July 2001).
"Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed
extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (7): 3316–20. PMID 11453769 . doi
* ^ Takeoka GR, Dao LT, Wong RY, Harden LA (September 2005).
"Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed
extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (19): 7630–6. PMID 16159196 . doi
* ^ Ganzera M, Aberham A, Stuppner H (May 2006). "Development and
validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of
18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54
(11): 3768–72. PMID 16719494 . doi :10.1021/jf060543d .
* ^ Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve,
Agneta (2011). "Polyamines in foods: development of a food database" .
Food Nutr Res. 55: 5572. PMC 3022763 . PMID 21249159 . doi
* ^ Monrose, Gregory Salomon (ed.). "Standardisation d\'une
formulation de confiture de chadèque et évaluation des paramètres
physico-chimiques, microbiologiques et sensoriels". Université d'Etat
Haiti (UEH / FAMV) - Ingenieur Agronome 2009 (via Memoire Online).
Retrieved 5 June 2017. (in French)
* ^ Bidault, Blandine; Gattegno, Isabelle, ed. (1984). Le point sur
la transformation des fruits tropicaux. Paris: Groupe de recherche et
d'echanges technologiques (GRET). p. 46. access-date= requires url=
(help )CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link ) (in French)
* ^ "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
* ^ Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of warm
climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
* ^ A B C D E "Tangelo". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
Look up GRAPEFRUIT in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.