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The grapefruit ( Citrus
Citrus
× paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit. Grapefruit
Grapefruit
is a hybrid originating in Barbados
Barbados
as an accidental cross between two introduced species, sweet orange (C. sinensis) and pomelo or shaddock (C. maxima), both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century.[1] When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit";[2] and frequently, it has been misidentified with the pomelo.[3] The grapefruit's name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to that of grapes.[4]

Contents

1 Description 2 History

2.1 Ruby Red 2.2 Star Ruby

3 Varieties 4 Production 5 Colors and flavors 6 Drug interactions 7 Nutritional properties 8 Grapefruit
Grapefruit
sweets 9 Other uses 10 Grapefruit
Grapefruit
relatives 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Description[edit]

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
growing in the grape-like clusters from which their name derives

The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they may reach 13–15 m (43–49 ft). The leaves are glossy, dark green, long (up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in)), and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and generally, an oblate spheroid in shape; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in). The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink, and red pulps of varying sweetness (generally, the redder varieties are the sweetest). The 1929 U.S. Ruby Red
Red
(of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.[5] History[edit] Main article: Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy § Oranges The genetic origin of the grapefruit is a hybrid mix.[6] One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange ( Citrus
Citrus
sinensis), itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin; the other was the Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima). One story of the fruit's origin is that a certain "Captain Shaddock"[7] brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the first fruit,[8] however, it probably originated as a naturally occurring hybrid between the two plants some time after they had been introduced there.[1]

                         Forbidden-Fruit-Tree The Trunk, Leaves, and Flowers of this Tree, very much resemble those of the Orange-tree. The Fruit, when ripe, is something longer and larger than the largest Orange; and exceeds, in the Delicacy of its Taste, the Fruit
Fruit
of every Tree in this or any of our neighbouring Islands. It hath somewhat of the Taste of a Shaddock; but far exceeds that, as well as the best Orange, in its delicious Taste and Flavour.

—Description from Hughes' 1750 Natural History of Barbados

The hybrid fruit, then called "the forbidden fruit", was first documented in 1750 by a Welshman, Rev. Griffith Hughes, who described specimens from Barbados
Barbados
in The Natural History of Barbados.[9][10] Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the "Seven Wonders of Barbados".[11] The grapefruit was brought to Florida by Count Odet Philippe
Odet Philippe
in 1823 in what is now known as Safety Harbor. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the Minneola tangelo
Minneola tangelo
(1931), and the oroblanco (1984). The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the nineteenth century.[7] Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to that of grapes.[4] Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus
Citrus
paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus
Citrus
× paradisi, the "×" identifying its hybrid origin.[12][13]

Kimball Atwood

An early pioneer in the American citrus industry was Kimball Atwood, a wealthy entrepreneur who founded the Atwood Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Company in the late nineteenth century. The Atwood Grove became the largest grapefruit grove in the world, with a yearly output of 80,000 boxes of fruit.[14] It was there that pink grapefruit was first discovered in 1906.[15] Ruby Red[edit] The 1929 Ruby Red
Red
patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. The Red
Red
grapefruit, starting with the Ruby Red, has even become a symbolic fruit of Texas, where white grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for decades.[citation needed] Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink.[16] The Rio Red
Red
variety is the current (2007) Texas
Texas
grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as "Reddest" and " Texas
Texas
Choice". The Rio Red
Red
is a mutation bred variety that was developed by treatment of bud sticks with thermal neutrons. Its improved attributes of mutant variety are fruit and juice color, deeper red, and wide adaptation.[17] Star Ruby[edit] The Star Ruby is the darkest of the red varieties. Developed from an irradiated Hudson grapefruit,[18] it has found limited commercial success because it is more difficult to grow than other varieties.[19][20] Varieties[edit] The varieties of Texas
Texas
and Florida grapefruit include: Oro Blanco, Ruby Red, Pink, Thompson, White
White
Marsh, Flame, Star Ruby, Duncan, and Pummelo
Pummelo
HB.[21]

Grapefruit

1750 Engraving of The Forbidden Fruit
Fruit
Tree by Georg Dionysius Ehret

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
in growth

Pink
Pink
grapefruit

Half peeled 'Indian' cultivar

Production[edit] China
China
is the top producer of grapefruit and pomelo. It is followed by The United States
United States
and Mexico.

Top eleven grapefruit (inc. pomelos) producers — 2012

Country Production (metric tons) Footnote

 People's Republic of China 3,800,000 F

 United States 1,046,890

 Mexico 415,471

 Thailand 328,000 F

 South Africa 304,559

 Israel 246,618

 Turkey 243,267

 Argentina 200,000 F

 India 200,000 F

 Sudan 196,000

 Ghana 192,000

 World 8,040,038 A

No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates); Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

Colors and flavors[edit]

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
mercaptan

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between varieties is by the flesh color of fruit they produce.[22] The most popular varieties currently cultivated are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour, to sweet and tart.[22] Grapefruit
Grapefruit
mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.[23] Drug interactions[edit] Main article: Grapefruit–drug interactions Grapefruit
Grapefruit
and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs and in many cases, to result in adverse direct and/or side effects (if dosage is not carefully adjusted.)[24] This happens in two very different ways. In the first, the effect is from bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin in both grapefruit flesh and peel that inhibits the CYP3A4
CYP3A4
enzyme, (among others from the P450 enzyme family responsible for metabolizing 90% of drugs). The action of the CYP3A4
CYP3A4
enzyme itself is to metabolize many medications.[25][26] If the drug's breakdown for removal is lessened, then the level of the drug in the blood may become too high or stay too long, leading to adverse effects.[26] On the other hand, some drugs must be broken down to become active, and inhibiting CYP3A4
CYP3A4
may lead to reduced drug effects. The other effect is that grapefruit can block the absorption of drugs in the intestine.[26] If the drug is not absorbed, then not enough of it is in the blood to have a therapeutic effect.[26] Each affected drug has either a specific increase of effect or decrease. One whole grapefruit, or a glass of 200 mL (6.8 US fl oz) of grapefruit juice may cause drug overdose toxicity.[27] Typically, drugs that are incompatible with grapefruit are so labeled on the container or package insert.[26] People taking drugs should ask their health care provider or pharmacist questions about grapefruit and drug interactions.[26] Nutritional properties[edit]

Grapefruit, raw, white, all areas

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 138 kJ (33 kcal)

Carbohydrates

8.41 g

Sugars 7.31 g

Dietary fiber 1.1 g

Fat

0.10 g

Protein

.8 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(3%) 0.037 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(2%) 0.020 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(2%) 0.269 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(6%) 0.283 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(3%) 0.043 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(3%) 10 μg

Choline

(2%) 7.7 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(40%) 33.3 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(1%) 0.13 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(1%) 12 mg

Iron

(0%) 0.06 mg

Magnesium

(3%) 9 mg

Manganese

(1%) 0.013 mg

Phosphorus

(1%) 8 mg

Potassium

(3%) 148 mg

Zinc

(1%) 0.07 mg

Other constituents

Water 90.48 g

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
is a rich source of vitamin C (>20% of the Daily Value, DV in a 100 gram serving),[22][28] contains the fiber pectin,[29] and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene.[22][30] Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol,[22][31] and there is evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties.[32] Grapefruit
Grapefruit
forms a core part of the "grapefruit diet", the theory being that the fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn fat.[33] Although grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives such as parabens.[34][35][36][37][38] There is a popular myth that grapefruits contain high amounts of spermidine, a simple polyamine that may be related to aging.[citation needed] The myth probably relies on the confusion between spermidine and putrescine. While citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very little spermidine.[39] Grapefruit juice
Grapefruit juice
contains about half the citric acid of lime or lemon juice (which contain about 47 g/l), and about two-and-a-half times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice.[40] Grapefruit
Grapefruit
sweets[edit] In Costa Rica, especially in Atenas, grapefruit are often cooked to remove their sourness, rendering them as sweets; they are also stuffed with dulce de leche, resulting in a dessert called toronja rellena (stuffed grapefruit).[citation needed] In Haiti, grapefruit is used primarily for its juice (jus de Chadèque), but also is used to make jam (confiture de Chadèque).[41][42] Other uses[edit] Grapefruit
Grapefruit
has also been investigated in cancer medicine pharmacodynamics. Its inhibiting effect on the metabolism of some drugs may allow smaller doses to be used, which can help to reduce costs.[43] Grapefruit
Grapefruit
relatives[edit] Main article: Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Grapefruit
Grapefruit
is a pummelo backcross, a hybrid of pummelo × sweet orange, with sweet orange itself being a pummelo × mandarin hybrid. The grapefruit is a parent to many hybrids:

A Tangelo
Tangelo
is any hybrid of a tangerine and either a pomelo or a grapefruit

'Minneola': Duncan grapefruit × Dancy tangerine[44] 'Orlando' (formerly 'Take'): Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine(pollen parent)[45]

Fairchild is a Clementine
Clementine
× Orlando hybrid

'Seminole': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine[45] 'Thornton': tangerine × grapefruit, unspecified[45] 'Ugli': mandarin × grapefruit, probable (wild seedling)[45] 'Nova' is a second-generation hybrid: Clementine
Clementine
× Orlando tangelo cross[45]

The Oroblanco
Oroblanco
and Melogold
Melogold
grapefruits are hybrids between pummelo ( Citrus
Citrus
maxima) and the grapefruit

The grapefruit's cousins include:

Common sweet orange: pummelo × mandarin hybrid Bitter orange: a different pummelo × mandarin hybrid Mandelos: pummelo × mandarine ( Citrus
Citrus
maxima) Hyuganatsu
Hyuganatsu
may also be a pumelo hybrid

See also[edit]

Food portal

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
knife Grapefruit
Grapefruit
spoon Grapefruit–drug interactions Naringenin

References[edit]

^ a b Carrington, Sean; Fraser, HenryC (2003). "Grapefruit". A~Z of Barbados
Barbados
Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-333-92068-6. One of many citrus species grown in Barbados. This fruit is believed to have originated in Barbados
Barbados
as a natural cross between sweet orange (C. sinesis) and Shaddock (C. grandis), both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century. The grapefruit first appeared as an illustration entitled "The Forbidden Fruit
Fruit
Tree" in The Natural History of Barbados
Barbados
(1750) by Rev. Griffith Hughes. This accords with the scientific name which literally is "citrus of paradise". The fruit seems to have been fairly commonly available around that time, since George Washington in his Barbados
Barbados
Journal (1750-1751) mentions "the Forbidden Fruit" as one of the local fruit available at a dinner party he attended. The plant was later described in the 1837 Flora of Jamaica as the Barbados Grapefruit. The historical arguments and experimental work on leaf enzymes and oils from possible parents all support a Barbadian origin for the fruit.  ^ Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL: J. F. Morton. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. OCLC 16947184.  ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie R.; Lu Z.; Zhou Z. (July 2010). "The Origin of Cultivated Citrus
Citrus
as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 135 (4): 341. Retrieved 27 February 2013.  ^ a b "How did the grapefruit get its name?" Library of Congress. Science Reference Service, Everyday Mysteries. Retrieved August 2, 2009. ^ Texas
Texas
grapefruit history Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine., TexaSweet. Retrieved 2 July 2008. ^ Xiaomeng, Rangjin, Zhenhua, and Zhiqin, Li, Xie, Lu, and Zhou. "Genetic origin of cultivated citrus determined: Researchers find evidence of origins of orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, other citrus species". Science Daily. Retrieved 21 September 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Kumamoto, J.; Scora, R. W.; Lawton, H. W.; Clerx, W. A. (1987-01-01). "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus
Citrus
paradisi (Rutaceae)". Economic Botany. 41 (1): 97–107. doi:10.1007/BF02859356. ISSN 0013-0001.  ^ Grapefruit: a fruit with a bit of a complex in Art Culinaire (Winter, 2007) ^ "World Wide Words: Grapefruit". World Wide Words. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ Admin (2010). "Welchman Hall Gully, Barbados". Barbados
Barbados
National Trust. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. The Development of the Gully - The Gully was once part of a plantation owned by a Welshman called General William Asygell Williams over 200 years ago. Hence the name "Welchman Hall" gully. It was this man who first developed the gully with exotic trees and an orchard. Interestingly, the grapefruit is originally from Barbados
Barbados
and is rumoured to have started in Welchman Hall Gully.  ^ Barbados
Barbados
Seven Wonders: The Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Tree. Abstract ^ Texas
Texas
Citrus: Puzzling Beginnings. Article Archived 2007-01-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ University of Florida: IFAS Extension; The Grapefruit. "Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-28.  ^ "Manatee County a big part of citrus history". HeraldTribune.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ "Grapefruit". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ William J Broad (28 August 2007). "Useful Mutants, Bred With Radiation". New York Times.  ^ "MVD". mvgs.iaea.org. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ Ahloowalia, B.S.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K. (2004). "Global impact of mutation-derived varieties". Euphytica. 135 (2): 187–204. doi:10.1023/B:EUPH.0000014914.85465.4f. Retrieved 2017-02-23.  ^ Sauls, Julian W. (1998). "Home fruit Production-Grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection. "Star Ruby grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Go Florida Grapefruit". Go Florida Grapefruit. Archived from the original on 2011-09-10. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ a b c d e The World's Healthiest Foods; Grapefruit. The George Mateljan Foundation. Article ^ A. Buettner; P. Schieberle (1999). "Characterization of the Most Odor-Active Volatiles in Fresh, Hand-Squeezed Juice of Grapefruit ( Citrus
Citrus
paradisi Macfayden)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (12): 5189–5193. doi:10.1021/jf990071l. PMID 10606593.  ^ Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JM (March 2013). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". CMAJ. 185 (4): 309–16. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. PMC 3589309 . PMID 23184849.  ^ Renee, Janet. "Does Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Inhibit Liver Enzymes?". sfgate.com. SF Gate. Retrieved 6 April 2017.  ^ a b c d e f Mitchell, Steve (19 February 2016). "Why Grapefruit
Grapefruit
and Medication Can Be a Dangerous Mix". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 4 May 2016.  ^ Bailey, D. G.; Dresser, G.; Arnold, J. M. O. (2012). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit
Forbidden fruit
or avoidable consequences?". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 185 (4): 309–316. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 3589309 . PMID 23184849.  ^ Fellers PJ, Nikdel S, Lee HS (August 1990). "Nutrient content and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice products". J Am Diet Assoc. 90 (8): 1079–84. PMID 2380455.  ^ Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, Baumgartner TG, Rice RW (September 1988). "The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle". Clin Cardiol. 11 (9): 589–94. doi:10.1002/clc.4960110902. PMID 3229016.  ^ Lee HS (May 2000). "Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (5): 1507–11. doi:10.1021/jf9907236. PMID 10820051.  ^ Platt R (2000). "Current concepts in optimum nutrition for cardiovascular disease". Prev Cardiol. 3 (2): 83–7. doi:10.1111/j.1520-037X.2000.80364.x. PMID 11834923.  ^ Armando C, Maythe S, Beatriz NP (1997). " Antioxidant
Antioxidant
activity of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils". J Sci Food Agric. 77 (4): 463–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:4<463::AID-JSFA62>3.0.CO;2-1.  ^ WMUR Ch. 9: New Hampshire news, weather, sports and entertainment. Researchers Put Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Diet To Test: Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Compound Lowers Cholesterol, Helps Regulate Insulin. June 11, 2003. Article Archived 2007-05-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sakamoto S, Sato K, Maitani T, Yamada T (1996). "[Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS]". Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku (in Japanese) (114): 38–42. PMID 9037863.  ^ von Woedtke T, Schlüter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Jülich WD (June 1999). "Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained". Pharmazie. 54 (6): 452–6. PMID 10399191.  ^ Takeoka G, Dao L, Wong RY, Lundin R, Mahoney N (July 2001). "Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (7): 3316–20. doi:10.1021/jf010222w. PMID 11453769.  ^ Takeoka GR, Dao LT, Wong RY, Harden LA (September 2005). "Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (19): 7630–6. doi:10.1021/jf0514064. PMID 16159196.  ^ Ganzera M, Aberham A, Stuppner H (May 2006). "Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3768–72. doi:10.1021/jf060543d. PMID 16719494.  ^ Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta (2011). "Polyamines in foods: development of a food database". Food Nutr Res. 55: 5572. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5572. PMC 3022763 . PMID 21249159.  ^ Penniston KL, Nakada SY, Holmes RP, Assimos DG (2008). "Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid
Acid
in Lemon
Lemon
Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit
Fruit
Juice Products" (PDF). Journal of Endourology. 22 (3): 567–570. doi:10.1089/end.2007.0304. PMC 2637791 . PMID 18290732.  ^ Monrose, Gregory Salomon (ed.). "Standardisation d'une formulation de confiture de chadèque et évaluation des paramètres physico-chimiques, microbiologiques et sensoriels". Université d'Etat d' Haiti
Haiti
(UEH / FAMV) - Ingenieur Agronome 2009 (via Memoire Online). Retrieved 5 June 2017.  (in French) ^ Bidault, Blandine; Gattegno, Isabelle, eds. (1984). Le point sur la transformation des fruits tropicaux. Paris: Groupe de recherche et d'echanges technologiques (GRET). p. 46.  access-date= requires url= (help) (in French) ^ "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/tangelo.html ^ a b c d e "Tangelo". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 

External links[edit]

Look up grapefruit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citrus
Citrus
paradisi.

Data related to Citrus
Citrus
paradisi at Wikispecies Grapefruit
Grapefruit
from "Fruits of warm climates" by Julia F. Morton. https://web.archive.org/web/20150525230639/http://www.properhealthyliving.com/14-amazing-health-benefits-of-grapefruit-juice/

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q41350 EoL: 582202 EPPO: CIDPA GBIF: 3190168 GRIN: 10772 IPNI: 772019-1 ITIS: 28887 NCBI: 37656 Plant List: tro-50119435 PLANTS: CIPA3

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