A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to
govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level
of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations,
governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent
state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the
individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems,
with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power,
while others having a complete control over the entire government.
Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials
acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been
granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the
East India Company
East India Company or the Dutch East
India Company. These
companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed
There can also be non-political governors: high-ranking officials in
private or similar governance such as commercial and non-profit
management, styled governor(s), who simply govern an institution, such
as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the
United Kingdom and
other Commonwealth countries, there are prison governors ("wardens" in
the United States), school governors and bank governors.
The adjective pertaining to a governor is gubernatorial, from the
Latin root gubernare. The historical female form is governess,
though female officials are referred to by the gender-neutral form
governor (without the gender specific suffix) of the noun to avoid
confusion with other meanings of the term.
1 Pre-Roman empires
1.2 Pre- and Hellenistic satraps
1.3 In ancient Rome
2 Holy Roman/ Habsburg Empires and successor states
3 Turkish rule
British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations
4.1 Vice-regal governors
United Kingdom overseas territories
British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong (1841–1997)
4.1.5 New Zealand
4.1.6 Within the United Kingdom
4.1.7 Within England
4.2 Elsewhere in the Commonwealth
4.2.6 Papua New Guinea
4.2.7 Sri Lanka
5 Other colonial empires
6 Russia and former Soviet Union
7 Other European countries and empires
7.2 Benelux monarchies
8 Other modern Asian countries
Republic of China
9 Other modern countries in North America
9.1 United States
10 Other modern countries in South America
11 Modern equivalents
12 Other meanings of the word
13 See also
Though the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each
administrated by a governor, was created by the Romans, the term
governo has been a convenient term for historians to describe similar
systems in antiquity. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity
were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial
governments after their conquest by Rome.
In Pharaonic times, the governors of each of the various provinces in
the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (called "nomes" by the Greeks,
and whose names often alluded to local patterns of religious worship)
are usually known by the Greek word.
Pre- and Hellenistic satraps
Media and Achaemenid
Persia introduced the satrapy, probably inspired
by the Assyrian / Babylonian examples
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and equally Hellenistic diadoch kingdoms, mainly
Seleucids (greater Syria) and
Lagids ('Ptolemies' in Hellenistic
in later Persia, again under Iranian dynasties:
Sassanid dynasty dispensed with the office after Shapur I (who had
still 7 of them), replacing them with petty vassal rulers, known as
In ancient Rome
Main article: Roman Governor
From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces, a governor
was appointed each year to administer each of them. The core function
of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management
of taxation and the public spending in their area .
Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor also
commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were
all men who had served in senior magistracies (the consulate or
praetorship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles
as governor (proconsul or propraetor). The first Emperor, Octavianus
Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories;
officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the
provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious
governorships remained as before (in what have become known as
"senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others, he retained the
formal governorship himself, delegating the actual task of
administration to appointees (usually with the title legatus Augusti).
The legatus sometimes would appoint a prefect (later procurator),
usually a man of equestrian rank, to act as his deputy in a subregion
of the larger province: the infamous character of
Pontius Pilate in
the Christian Gospels was a governor of this sort.
A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary,
where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh.
The Emperor was represented there by a governor sui generis styled
praefectus augustalis, a title evoking the religious cult of the
Emperors Diocletian (see Tetrarchy) and Constantine in the third and
fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of
the administration with two main features:
Provinces were divided up and became much more numerous (Italy itself,
before the 'colonizing homeland', was brought into the system for the
first time); they were then grouped into dioceses, and the dioceses in
turn into four praetorian prefectures (originally each under a
Military responsibilities were removed from governors and given to new
officials called comes rei militaris (the comital title was also
granted to many court and civilian administrative positions) or dux,
later also magister militum.
The prestigious governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the
title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to
the Emperor; the praefectus augustalis in Alexandria and the comes
Orientis in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise, the
governors of provinces had various titles, some known as consularis,
some as correctorwhile others as praeses. Apart from Egypt and the
East (Oriens – viz greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a
governor known as a vicarius. The prefectures were directed by
praefecti praetorio (greatly transformed in their functions from their
role in the early Empire).
This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse
of the empire in the West, and in the East, the breakdown of order
with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that
stage, a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos. It was a role
leading the themes which replaced provinces at this point, involving a
return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been
the practice under the
Republic and the early Empire.
While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in
the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered, and would again be
very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the
Holy Roman/ Habsburg Empires and successor states
In the Ottoman Empire, all Pashas (generals) administered a province
of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as
Mutessaryf ; Vali or
Wāli which was often maintained and revived
in the oriental successor states; Beilerbei (rendered as
Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under
individual governors) and Dey)
British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations
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Further information: Governor-general, Governor-in-chief, Deputy
Governor, Official Secretary to the Governor, and Administrator of the
Flag of the
Governor of Hong Kong, 1959–1997
In the British Empire, a governor was originally an official appointed
by the British monarch (or the cabinet) to oversee one of his colonies
and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration.
A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained a more
responsible government vested in such institutions as an Executive
Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further
stage of self-government, Legislative Councils or Assemblies, in which
Governor often had a role.
Today, crown colonies of the
United Kingdom continue to be
administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power.
Because of the different constitutional histories of the former
colonies of the United Kingdom, the term "Governor" now refers to
officials with differing amounts of power.
Administrators, Commissioners and High Commissioners exercise similar
powers to Governors. (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be
confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of
Ambassadors between Commonwealth states).
Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors'
The term can also be used in a more generic sense, especially for
compound titles which include it:
United Kingdom overseas territories
In the United Kingdom's remaining overseas territories, the governor
is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an
active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the advice
of elected local representatives). The Governor's chief responsibility
is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony.
In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an
Administrator or Commissioner, or the position is held ex officio by a
Main article: Governors of the Australian states
In Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative
of the Queen, as head of the state government. It is not a political
office but a ceremonial one. Each state governor is appointed by the
Australia on the advice of the Premier, who is the political
chief executive of the state government (until 1986, state governors
were appointed by the Queen of the
United Kingdom on the advice of the
British Government). State Governors have emergency reserve powers but
these are rarely used. The Territories of
Australia other than the ACT
have Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally
by the Governor-general. The Governor-General is the representative of
and appointed by the Queen of
Australia at a federal level on the
advice of the Prime Minister of Australia.
As with the Governors-General of
Australia and other Commonwealth
Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the
advice of a government minister.
In Canada, there are governors at the federal and provincial levels of
government who, within their jurisdictions, act as representatives of
the Queen of Canada, who is Canada's Head of State. The federal
governor is the
Governor General of Canada, and the governor of each
province is the Lieutenant Governor. The
Governor General is appointed
by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, whereas
the lieutenant governors are appointed by the
Governor General on the
advice of the Prime Minister. The role of the
Governor General and of
the lieutenant governors in
Canada is largely ceremonial, although
they do retain the authority to exercise reserve powers in exceptional
Each of the three territories is headed by a commissioner appointed by
the Prime Minister. Unlike provincial lieutenant governors, they are
not representatives of the Queen, but rather are representatives of
the federal government.
British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong (1841–1997)
In the colonial period of Hong Kong, the governor was the
representative of the Sovereign from 1843, which was the year that the
authorities and duties of the post were officially defined by the Hong
Kong Letters Patent and the Royal Instructions, until the handover of
Hong Kong to the PRC government in 1997. Each governor was appointed
by the monarch and possessed significant powers such as the power of
appointing lawmakers in the Legislative Council, the power to grant
land, the power of veto over bills and motions, the power of pardon,
etc. At the same time, the governor was also the head of the colonial
cabinet, the chairman of the Executive Council, the
President of the
Legislative Council (until 1993), as well as the commander-in-chief of
the British Forces in Hong Kong.
The Governor-General of
New Zealand is always the
Governor of the Ross
Dependency, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the Realm of New
Within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom itself, there was a position of
Northern Ireland from 1922 until the suspension of the devolved
Parliament of Northern Ireland
Parliament of Northern Ireland in 1973.
From the 16th century until 1995, there was a
Governor of the Isle of
Wight, part of England. Since the reign of Henry VIII, the monarch has
borne the title of Supreme
Governor of the Church of England.
Elsewhere in the Commonwealth
Main article: Governors of states of India
In India, each state has a ceremonial
Governor appointed by the
President of India. These Governors are different from the Governors
who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire
(as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1947.
Governor is the head of a state in India. Generally, a
appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment,
Governor can be appointed for more than one state.
Since the 2010 Kenyan Constitution, leaders of the 47 Counties use the
title of "Governor". They are elected every five years by the
registered voters of the county.
Governors are the chief executive officers of the Counties and are
akin to the National Government's President. They oversee an appointed
committee of executives who manage a range of portfolios such as:
County health services
Cultural activities, public entertainment and public amenities
Animal control and welfare
Trade development and regulations
County planning and development
Pre-primary education, village polytechnics, home craft centres and
Implementation of specific national government policies on natural
resources and environmental conservation
County public works and services
Fire station services and disaster management
Control of drugs and pornography
Ensuring and coordinating the participation of communities and
locations in governance at the local level and assisting communities
and locations to develop the administrative capacity for the effective
exercise of the functions and powers and participation in governance
at the local level
In Malaysia, each of the four non-monarchical states (Penang, Malacca,
Sabah and Sarawak) has a ceremonial
Governor styled Yang di-Pertua
Negeri, appointed to a renewable four-year term by the Yang di-Pertuan
Agong, the federal King of
Malaysia on the advice of the Prime
Minister after consulting the state governments. Each of these
states has a separate head of government called the Ketua Menteri or
Chief Minister. The four
Yang di-Pertua Negeri are members of the
Conference of Rulers, however they cannot participate in the election
of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, discussions related to the privileges of
the Malay rulers and matters concerning the observance of Islam.
Nigeria (once a colony governed by a single British
independence), each State has a
Governor who is popularly elected by
the citizens of the State. The
Governor is both the head of State and
head of Government for his/her State and thus plays an active role in
the day-to-day administration of the State and can also be impeached
by the elected state legislature.
See also: Provincial Governors of Pakistan
In Pakistan, each of the four provinces has a
Governor who is
appointed by the President. The governor is the representative of the
president in their province and is the ceremonial head of the province
whereas the chief minister is the head of the provincial government.
The governor exercises powers similar to the president's, in their
Papua New Guinea
In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as
governors since August 1995. Previously they were called premiers.
Governor of Ceylon and Provincial Governors of Sri
The provincial councils of the 9 provinces of
Sri Lanka are headed by
governors, as representatives of the President. Prior to 1948, in
Ceylon (former name for Sri Lanka), the
Governor of Ceylon was the
head of the British Colony.
Other colonial empires
European powers other than the United Kingdom, with colonies in Asia,
Africa and elsewhere, gave their top representatives in their colonies
the title of governor. Those representatives could be from chartered
companies that ruled the colonies. In some of these colonies, there
are still officials called governors.
Danish colonial empire
Empire of Japan
French colonial empire
German colonial empire
Swedish overseas colonies
Russia and former Soviet Union
In the Russian Empire, Governorate (Guberniya) and Governorate-General
were the main units of territorial and administrative subdivision
since the reforms of Peter the Great. These were governed by a
A special case was the
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone, which was
governed as a concession granted by Imperial
China to the Russian
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad Society' (in Russian Obshchestvo Kitayskoy
Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi; established on 17 December 1896 in St.
Petersburg, later moved to Vladivostok), which built 1,481 km of
tracks (Tarskaya – Hilar –
Harbin – Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3
November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new
capital city, Harbin; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern
Railroad (CER) across northeast
China was assumed by Russia (first
under Priamur governor).
On July 1, 1903, the
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad was opened and given
authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: Upravleniye KVZhD),
vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, with the
additional quality of Governors of the
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone
(in Harbin; as such being August 12, 1903 – July 1, 1905
subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see
Lüshunkou). The post continued to function despite various political
changes until after World War II.
Some of the administrative subdivisions of Russia are headed by
governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of
administration. From 1991 to 2005, they were elected by popular vote
and from 2005 to 2012, they were appointed by the federal president
and confirmed by the province's legislature. After the debate,
State Duma in April 2012, the direct elections of
governors were expected to be restored.
Other European countries and empires
Landeshauptmann (German for "state captain" or "state governor",
literally 'country headman'; plural Landeshauptleute or
Landeshauptmänner as in
Styria till 1861; Landeshauptfrau is the
female form) is an official title in German for certain political
offices equivalent to a Governor. It has historical uses, both
administrative and colonial, and is now used in federal
Austria and in
South Tyrol, a majority German-speaking province of Italy adjacent to
In the Netherlands, the government-appointed heads of the provinces
were known as Gouverneur from 1814 until 1850, when their title was
changed to King's (or Queen's) Commissioner. In the southern province
of Limburg, however, the commissioner is still informally called
In the Dutch crown's Caribbean Overseas territories (Aruba, Curaçao
and Sint Maarten), the style
Governor is still used, alongside the
political head of government.
In Belgium, each of the ten provinces has a Governor, appointed by the
regional government. He represents not only the regional, but also the
federal government in the province. He controls the local governments
and is responsible for law and order, security and emergency action.
The national capital of Brussels, which is not part of a province,
also has a governor with nearly the same competences.
During the Ancien Régime in France, the representative of the king in
his provinces and cities was the "gouverneur". Royal officers chosen
from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of
provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly
military positions in charge of defense and policing. Provincial
governors – also called "Lieutenant Generals" – also had
the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and
municipal bodies. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles
VI. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an
ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class
governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle, they
were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at
the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their
heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of
their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th
century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led
Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of
intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century
the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed.
Until 1933, the term
Landeshauptmann (state governor) was used in
Prussia for the head of government of a province, In the modern-day
states of Germany, the counterpart to
Landeshauptmann is the
Ministerpräsident (minister-president). In the present German states
of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia
there are – and earlier in more German states there were –
sub-state administrative regions called in German: Regierungsbezirk,
which is sometimes translated into English as governorate. Thus its
respective head, in German: Regierungspräsident, is also translated
as governor. Since in analogy to the American terminology, the heads
of the German states are – besides the translation of their German
appellation as Minister-
President (German: Ministerpräsident) –
also translated as governors, using the term governor in both cases is
ambiguous and somewhat confusing.
Ioannis Kapodistrias was the first (and, with the exception of the
short tenure of his younger brother Augustinos Kapodistrias, the only)
head of state of Greece to bear the title of governor.
The essentially maritime empire of the Venetian republic, comprising
Terra Firma, other Adriatic (mainly Istria and Dalmatia) and further
Mediterranean (mainly Greek) possessions, used different styles, such
as (castelleno e) provveditore (generale) or baile.
In today's Italy, the official name of a head of a
Italian subnational entity) is Presidente della Giunta regionale
President of the regional executive council), but since 2000, when a
constitutional reform decided the direct election of the president by
the people, it has been usual to call him/her governatore/governatrice
In the various Italian provinces (former principalities and
city-states) that became amalgamated as the Papal States, the Holy See
exerted temporal power via its Legates and Delegates, including some
Avignon and the surrounding southern French Comtat Venaissin,
the home of the Popes during their 'Babylonian exile', and retained
centuries after, but never incorporated into the Papal States, Legates
and Vice-legates were appointed.
The sovereign modern remnant of the formerly large Papal States, the
tiny Vatican City State, is now a mere enclave in Rome, the capital of
Italian Republic. As it is too small to have further administrative
territorial divisions, it is the equivalent of a Prime Minister,
Mayor all rolled into one post, styled the
Other modern Asian countries
In Indonesia, the title gubernur refers to the highest ranking
executive of a Provincial Government. The
Governor and the Vice
Governor are elected by a direct vote from the people as a couple, so
Governor is responsible to the provincial residents. The governor
has a term of five years to work in office and can be re-elected for
another single period. In case of death, disability, or resignation,
Governor would stand in.
Governor is inaugurated by the President, or by the
Indonesian minister of home affairs in the name of the President. In
Governor is the representative of central government in
the province, and is responsible to the President. The Governor's
authority is regulated within the Indonesian Act Number 32 of the year
2004 and the Governmental Ordinance Number 19 of the year 2010.
Governor has the tasks and the authorities to lead
governmental services in the province, based upon the policies that
have been made together with the Provincial Parliament. The Governor
is not the superordinate of regents or mayors, but he/she is only to
guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of city/municipal and
regency governments. In other parts, municipal and regency governments
have the rights to manage each governance affairs based on autonomy
principle and assistantship duties.
In Japan, the title "Governor" (知事, chiji) refers to the
highest ranking executive of a
Prefectural Government. The
elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four
years. There is no restriction on the number of terms a person may
serve as governor. The governor holds considerable power within the
prefecture, including the ability to veto ordinances that have been
passed by the prefecture assembly, as well as control of the
prefecture's budget and the power to dissolve the prefecture assembly.
The governor can be subjected to a recall referendum. A total of one
to four vice governors are appointed by the governor with the approval
of the assembly. In the case of the governor's death, disability, or
resignation, a vice governor would stand in as governor or acting
See List of governors of
Japan for a list of the current governors.
Republic of China
Republic of China)
In the People's
Republic of China, the title "Governor" (Chinese:
省长; pinyin: shěngzhǎng) refers to the highest ranking executive
of a provincial government. The
Governor is usually placed second in
the provincial power hierarchy, below the Secretary of the provincial
Communist Party of
China (CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as
the highest ranking Party official in the province. Governors are
elected by the provincial congresses and approved by the provincial
party chief. All governors are not locals in the provinces
which they govern.
The title can be also used while referring to a County Governor
During both the Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as
during the Japanese Occupation of World War II, the chief executive of
the colony was called the Governor-General of the Philippines.
Republic of the Philippines, the title "Governor" (Gobernador
or Punong Lalawigan in Filipino), refers to the highest ranking
executive of a Philippine province. The governor is elected by a
direct vote from the people and has a fixed term of three years. A
governor can serve only up to a maximum of three consecutive terms. He
may however be suspended by either the
Ombudsman or the President,
through the Secretary of Department of Interior and Local Government.
He may be removed by the
President if found guilty of an
administrative case or a criminal act during his tenure. He may be
subjected to a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, the voters elect
the governor of their choice. In case of death, disability,
resignation, forced removal or suspension, vice governor, elected
separately in the same election for governor, succeeds as governor, or
acting governor, as the case may be.
In the Autonomous Region on Muslim Mindanao, a Regional
Governor are elected by a block vote similar to the
United States President.
In Thailand, the title "Governor"
(ผู้ว่าราชการ Phuwa Ratcha Gaan in Thai)
refers to the administrator of each Thai province, who is appointed by
the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The only exception is the specially
governed district of Bangkok, whose governor is elected by its
population, thus making him or her equivalent to a mayor.
Other modern countries in North America
Governor (United States)
In the United States, the title "Governor" refers to the chief
executive of each state or insular territory. Governors retain
sovereign police power, are not subordinate to the federal authorities
except by laws provided by the enumerated powers section of the
federal constitution, and serve as the political and ceremonial head
of the state. Nearly three-fourths of the states (36) hold
gubernatorial elections in the same years as midterm elections (2
years off set from presidential elections). Eleven states hold them in
the same years as presidential elections (
Vermont and New Hampshire
hold elections every two years in every even numbered year), while the
remaining five hold them in odd numbered years (two in the year after
a presidential election, three in the year before).
In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways,
depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colonies of
Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the
ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British
Board of Trade
Board of Trade was often the primary decision maker.
Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the
and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on
rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In
proprietary colonies, such as the
Province of Carolina before it
became a crown colony (and was divided into North and South),
governors were chosen by the
Lords Proprietor who controlled the
colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven
Thirteen Colonies evicted (with varying levels of violence)
royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut
and Rhode Island) had corporate charters;
Jonathan Trumbull was governor before and during the war period, while
in Rhode Island,
Joseph Wanton was removed from office in
1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort.
Before achieving statehood, many of the fifty states were territories.
Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were
appointed by the
President and confirmed by the Senate rather than
elected by the resident population.
Main article: List of Mexican state governors
In the United Mexican States, governor refers to the elected chief and
head of each of the nation's thirty one Free and Sovereign States with
the official Spanish title being Gobernador. Mexican governors are
directly elected by the citizens of each state for a six-year term and
cannot be re-elected.
Other modern countries in South America
Many of the South American republics (such as
Chile and Argentina)
have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices
similar in nature to
U.S. state governors.
Main article: List of current state governors in Brazil
Until the 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces, now
called States, were styled as presidents (presidentes), later
governors (governadores) and intervators (interventores; appointed by
the federal government). By 1945, only the term governors was used.
As a generic term,
Governor is used for various 'equivalent' officers
governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles
Commissioner (not the Ambassadors exchanged within the
This also applies to non-western or antique culture
Other meanings of the word
The word governor can also refer to an administrator or supervisor
(individually or collectively, see Board of Governors); the Governor
of a national bank often holds ministerial rank.
Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Governor of the Bank of Canada
Governor of the Bank of England
Governor of the National Bank of Romania
List of governors of national banks of Serbia and Yugoslavia
Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company
^ The Mavens' Word of the Day
^ "Functions of County Government". Commission on Revenue Allocation.
^ "Appointment Of Persons To Important Posts". Malaysian Monarchy.
^ "Gubernatorial elections to return to Russia this autumn".
Pravda.ru. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
^ Duden; Definition of Landeshauptmann, in German. 
^ "Liu Weiping elected governor of Gansu province". Chinadaily.com.cn.
2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
^ "Zhou Qiang re-elected governor of Hunan Province".
Chinadaily.com.cn. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
^ "Local Government in Asia and the Pacific – China". Unescap.org.
1997-07-01. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
^ Zhiyue Bo (2007). China's elite politics: political transition and
power balancing. Series on contemporary China. World Scientific.
p. 385. ISBN 9789812700414.