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A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British East India Company
East India Company
or the Dutch East India
India
Company. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. There can also be non-political governors: high-ranking officials in private or similar governance such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply govern an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and other Commonwealth countries, there are prison governors ("wardens" in the United States), school governors and bank governors. The adjective pertaining to a governor is gubernatorial, from the Latin root gubernare.[1] The historical female form is governess, though female officials are referred to by the gender-neutral form governor (without the gender specific suffix) of the noun to avoid confusion with other meanings of the term.

Contents

1 Pre-Roman empires

1.1 Egypt 1.2 Pre- and Hellenistic satraps 1.3 In ancient Rome 1.4 Byzantium 1.5 Legacy

2 Holy Roman/ Habsburg Empires and successor states 3 Turkish rule 4 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth of Nations

4.1 Vice-regal governors

4.1.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
overseas territories 4.1.2 Australia 4.1.3 Canada 4.1.4 British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong
(1841–1997) 4.1.5 New Zealand 4.1.6 Within the United Kingdom 4.1.7 Within England

4.2 Elsewhere in the Commonwealth

4.2.1 India 4.2.2 Kenya 4.2.3 Malaysia 4.2.4 Nigeria 4.2.5 Pakistan 4.2.6 Papua New Guinea 4.2.7 Sri Lanka

5 Other colonial empires 6 Russia and former Soviet Union 7 Other European countries and empires

7.1 Austria 7.2 Benelux monarchies 7.3 France 7.4 Germany 7.5 Greece 7.6 Italy

8 Other modern Asian countries

8.1 Indonesia 8.2 Japan 8.3 People's Republic
Republic
of China 8.4 Philippines 8.5 Thailand

9 Other modern countries in North America

9.1 United States 9.2 Mexico

10 Other modern countries in South America

10.1 Brazil

11 Modern equivalents 12 Other meanings of the word 13 See also 14 References

Pre-Roman empires[edit] Though the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each administrated by a governor, was created by the Romans, the term governo has been a convenient term for historians to describe similar systems in antiquity. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial governments after their conquest by Rome. Egypt[edit]

In Pharaonic times, the governors of each of the various provinces in the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (called "nomes" by the Greeks, and whose names often alluded to local patterns of religious worship) are usually known by the Greek word.

Pre- and Hellenistic satraps[edit]

Media and Achaemenid Persia
Persia
introduced the satrapy, probably inspired by the Assyrian / Babylonian examples Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and equally Hellenistic diadoch kingdoms, mainly Seleucids
Seleucids
(greater Syria) and Lagids
Lagids
('Ptolemies' in Hellenistic Egypt) in later Persia, again under Iranian dynasties:

Parthia the Sassanid
Sassanid
dynasty dispensed with the office after Shapur I (who had still 7 of them), replacing them with petty vassal rulers, known as shahdars

In ancient Rome[edit] Main article: Roman Governor From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces, a governor was appointed each year to administer each of them. The core function of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management of taxation and the public spending in their area . Under the Republic
Republic
and the early Empire, however, a governor also commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies (the consulate or praetorship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles as governor (proconsul or propraetor). The first Emperor, Octavianus Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories; officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious governorships remained as before (in what have become known as "senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others, he retained the formal governorship himself, delegating the actual task of administration to appointees (usually with the title legatus Augusti). The legatus sometimes would appoint a prefect (later procurator), usually a man of equestrian rank, to act as his deputy in a subregion of the larger province: the infamous character of Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
in the Christian Gospels was a governor of this sort. A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a governor sui generis styled praefectus augustalis, a title evoking the religious cult of the Emperor. Emperors Diocletian (see Tetrarchy) and Constantine in the third and fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of the administration with two main features:

Provinces were divided up and became much more numerous (Italy itself, before the 'colonizing homeland', was brought into the system for the first time); they were then grouped into dioceses, and the dioceses in turn into four praetorian prefectures (originally each under a residing co-emperor); Military responsibilities were removed from governors and given to new officials called comes rei militaris (the comital title was also granted to many court and civilian administrative positions) or dux, later also magister militum.

The prestigious governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to the Emperor; the praefectus augustalis in Alexandria and the comes Orientis in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise, the governors of provinces had various titles, some known as consularis, some as correctorwhile others as praeses. Apart from Egypt and the East (Oriens – viz greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a governor known as a vicarius. The prefectures were directed by praefecti praetorio (greatly transformed in their functions from their role in the early Empire). Byzantium[edit] This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East, the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage, a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos. It was a role leading the themes which replaced provinces at this point, involving a return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been the practice under the Republic
Republic
and the early Empire. Legacy[edit] While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered, and would again be very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the Christian Church. Holy Roman/ Habsburg Empires and successor states[edit]

Reichskommissar

Turkish rule[edit] In the Ottoman Empire, all Pashas (generals) administered a province of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as Mutessaryf ; Vali or Wāli
Wāli
which was often maintained and revived in the oriental successor states; Beilerbei (rendered as Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under individual governors) and Dey) British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth of Nations[edit]

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Further information: Governor-general, Governor-in-chief, Deputy Governor, Official Secretary to the Governor, and Administrator of the Government

Flag of the Governor
Governor
of Hong Kong, 1959–1997

In the British Empire, a governor was originally an official appointed by the British monarch (or the cabinet) to oversee one of his colonies and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration. A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained a more responsible government vested in such institutions as an Executive Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further stage of self-government, Legislative Councils or Assemblies, in which the Governor
Governor
often had a role. Today, crown colonies of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power. Because of the different constitutional histories of the former colonies of the United Kingdom, the term "Governor" now refers to officials with differing amounts of power. Administrators, Commissioners and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors. (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of Ambassadors between Commonwealth states). Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors' residences.

The term can also be used in a more generic sense, especially for compound titles which include it: Governor-general
Governor-general
and Lieutenant-governor.

Vice-regal governors[edit] United Kingdom
United Kingdom
overseas territories[edit] In the United Kingdom's remaining overseas territories, the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the advice of elected local representatives). The Governor's chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony. In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an Administrator or Commissioner, or the position is held ex officio by a High Commissioner. Australia[edit] Main article: Governors of the Australian states In Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen, as head of the state government. It is not a political office but a ceremonial one. Each state governor is appointed by the Queen of Australia
Australia
on the advice of the Premier, who is the political chief executive of the state government (until 1986, state governors were appointed by the Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the advice of the British Government). State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used. The Territories of Australia
Australia
other than the ACT have Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-general. The Governor-General is the representative of and appointed by the Queen of Australia
Australia
at a federal level on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia. As with the Governors-General of Australia
Australia
and other Commonwealth Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the advice of a government minister. Canada[edit] In Canada, there are governors at the federal and provincial levels of government who, within their jurisdictions, act as representatives of the Queen of Canada, who is Canada's Head of State. The federal governor is the Governor
Governor
General of Canada, and the governor of each province is the Lieutenant Governor. The Governor
Governor
General is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, whereas the lieutenant governors are appointed by the Governor
Governor
General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The role of the Governor
Governor
General and of the lieutenant governors in Canada
Canada
is largely ceremonial, although they do retain the authority to exercise reserve powers in exceptional circumstances. Each of the three territories is headed by a commissioner appointed by the Prime Minister. Unlike provincial lieutenant governors, they are not representatives of the Queen, but rather are representatives of the federal government. British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong
(1841–1997)[edit] In the colonial period of Hong Kong, the governor was the representative of the Sovereign from 1843, which was the year that the authorities and duties of the post were officially defined by the Hong Kong Letters Patent and the Royal Instructions, until the handover of Hong Kong to the PRC government in 1997. Each governor was appointed by the monarch and possessed significant powers such as the power of appointing lawmakers in the Legislative Council, the power to grant land, the power of veto over bills and motions, the power of pardon, etc. At the same time, the governor was also the head of the colonial cabinet, the chairman of the Executive Council, the President
President
of the Legislative Council (until 1993), as well as the commander-in-chief of the British Forces in Hong Kong. New Zealand[edit] The Governor-General of New Zealand
New Zealand
is always the Governor
Governor
of the Ross Dependency, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the Realm of New Zealand. Within the United Kingdom[edit] Within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
itself, there was a position of Governor
Governor
of Northern Ireland from 1922 until the suspension of the devolved Parliament of Northern Ireland
Parliament of Northern Ireland
in 1973. Within England[edit] From the 16th century until 1995, there was a Governor
Governor
of the Isle of Wight, part of England. Since the reign of Henry VIII, the monarch has borne the title of Supreme Governor
Governor
of the Church of England. Elsewhere in the Commonwealth[edit] India[edit] Main article: Governors of states of India In India, each state has a ceremonial Governor
Governor
appointed by the President
President
of India. These Governors are different from the Governors who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire (as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1947. A Governor
Governor
is the head of a state in India. Generally, a Governor
Governor
is appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956, one Governor
Governor
can be appointed for more than one state. Kenya[edit] Since the 2010 Kenyan Constitution, leaders of the 47 Counties use the title of "Governor". They are elected every five years by the registered voters of the county. Governors are the chief executive officers of the Counties and are akin to the National Government's President. They oversee an appointed committee of executives who manage a range of portfolios such as:[2]

Agriculture County health services Cultural activities, public entertainment and public amenities County Transport Animal control and welfare Trade development and regulations County planning and development Pre-primary education, village polytechnics, home craft centres and childcare facilities Implementation of specific national government policies on natural resources and environmental conservation County public works and services Fire station services and disaster management Control of drugs and pornography Ensuring and coordinating the participation of communities and locations in governance at the local level and assisting communities and locations to develop the administrative capacity for the effective exercise of the functions and powers and participation in governance at the local level

Malaysia[edit] In Malaysia, each of the four non-monarchical states (Penang, Malacca, Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak) has a ceremonial Governor
Governor
styled Yang di-Pertua Negeri, appointed to a renewable four-year term by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the federal King of Malaysia
Malaysia
on the advice of the Prime Minister after consulting the state governments.[3] Each of these states has a separate head of government called the Ketua Menteri or Chief Minister. The four Yang di-Pertua Negeri are members of the Conference of Rulers, however they cannot participate in the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, discussions related to the privileges of the Malay rulers and matters concerning the observance of Islam. Nigeria[edit] In Nigeria
Nigeria
(once a colony governed by a single British Governor
Governor
before independence), each State has a Governor
Governor
who is popularly elected by the citizens of the State. The Governor
Governor
is both the head of State and head of Government for his/her State and thus plays an active role in the day-to-day administration of the State and can also be impeached by the elected state legislature. Pakistan[edit] See also: Provincial Governors of Pakistan In Pakistan, each of the four provinces has a Governor
Governor
who is appointed by the President. The governor is the representative of the president in their province and is the ceremonial head of the province whereas the chief minister is the head of the provincial government. The governor exercises powers similar to the president's, in their respective province. Papua New Guinea[edit] In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as governors since August 1995. Previously they were called premiers. Sri Lanka[edit] Main articles: Governor of Ceylon and Provincial Governors of Sri Lanka The provincial councils of the 9 provinces of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
are headed by governors, as representatives of the President. Prior to 1948, in Ceylon (former name for Sri Lanka), the Governor of Ceylon was the head of the British Colony. Other colonial empires[edit] European powers other than the United Kingdom, with colonies in Asia, Africa and elsewhere, gave their top representatives in their colonies the title of governor. Those representatives could be from chartered companies that ruled the colonies. In some of these colonies, there are still officials called governors. See:

Danish colonial empire Dutch Empire Empire of Japan French colonial empire German colonial empire Italian empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Swedish overseas colonies

Russia and former Soviet Union[edit] In the Russian Empire, Governorate (Guberniya) and Governorate-General were the main units of territorial and administrative subdivision since the reforms of Peter the Great. These were governed by a Governor
Governor
and Governor-general
Governor-general
respectively. A special case was the Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Zone, which was governed as a concession granted by Imperial China
China
to the Russian ' Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Society' (in Russian Obshchestvo Kitayskoy Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi; established on 17 December 1896 in St. Petersburg, later moved to Vladivostok), which built 1,481 km of tracks (Tarskaya – Hilar – Harbin
Harbin
– Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3 November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new capital city, Harbin; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern Railroad (CER) across northeast China
China
was assumed by Russia (first under Priamur governor). On July 1, 1903, the Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad
was opened and given authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: Upravleniye KVZhD), vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, with the additional quality of Governors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad
Chinese Eastern Railroad
Zone (in Harbin; as such being August 12, 1903 – July 1, 1905 subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see Lüshunkou). The post continued to function despite various political changes until after World War II. Some of the administrative subdivisions of Russia are headed by governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of administration. From 1991 to 2005, they were elected by popular vote and from 2005 to 2012, they were appointed by the federal president and confirmed by the province's legislature. After the debate, conducted by State Duma
State Duma
in April 2012, the direct elections of governors were expected to be restored.[4] Other European countries and empires[edit] Austria[edit] A Landeshauptmann
Landeshauptmann
(German for "state captain" or "state governor", literally 'country headman'; plural Landeshauptleute or Landeshauptmänner as in Styria
Styria
till 1861; Landeshauptfrau is the female form) is an official title in German for certain political offices equivalent to a Governor. It has historical uses, both administrative and colonial, and is now used in federal Austria
Austria
and in South Tyrol, a majority German-speaking province of Italy adjacent to Tyrol. Benelux monarchies[edit]

In the Netherlands, the government-appointed heads of the provinces were known as Gouverneur from 1814 until 1850, when their title was changed to King's (or Queen's) Commissioner. In the southern province of Limburg, however, the commissioner is still informally called Governor. In the Dutch crown's Caribbean Overseas territories (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten), the style Governor
Governor
is still used, alongside the political head of government. In Belgium, each of the ten provinces has a Governor, appointed by the regional government. He represents not only the regional, but also the federal government in the province. He controls the local governments and is responsible for law and order, security and emergency action. The national capital of Brussels, which is not part of a province, also has a governor with nearly the same competences.

France[edit] During the Ancien Régime in France, the representative of the king in his provinces and cities was the "gouverneur". Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. Provincial governors – also called "Lieutenant Generals" – also had the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and municipal bodies. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles VI. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle, they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. Germany[edit] Until 1933, the term Landeshauptmann
Landeshauptmann
(state governor) was used in Prussia
Prussia
for the head of government of a province,[5] In the modern-day states of Germany, the counterpart to Landeshauptmann
Landeshauptmann
is the Ministerpräsident (minister-president). In the present German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia there are – and earlier in more German states there were – sub-state administrative regions called in German: Regierungsbezirk, which is sometimes translated into English as governorate. Thus its respective head, in German: Regierungspräsident, is also translated as governor. Since in analogy to the American terminology, the heads of the German states are – besides the translation of their German appellation as Minister- President
President
(German: Ministerpräsident) – also translated as governors, using the term governor in both cases is ambiguous and somewhat confusing. Greece[edit] Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
was the first (and, with the exception of the short tenure of his younger brother Augustinos Kapodistrias, the only) head of state of Greece to bear the title of governor. Italy[edit]

The essentially maritime empire of the Venetian republic, comprising Terra Firma, other Adriatic (mainly Istria and Dalmatia) and further Mediterranean (mainly Greek) possessions, used different styles, such as (castelleno e) provveditore (generale) or baile. In today's Italy, the official name of a head of a Regione
Regione
(the Italian subnational entity) is Presidente della Giunta regionale ( President
President
of the regional executive council), but since 2000, when a constitutional reform decided the direct election of the president by the people, it has been usual to call him/her governatore/governatrice (governor). In the various Italian provinces (former principalities and city-states) that became amalgamated as the Papal States, the Holy See exerted temporal power via its Legates and Delegates, including some Cardinals Also in Avignon
Avignon
and the surrounding southern French Comtat Venaissin, the home of the Popes during their 'Babylonian exile', and retained centuries after, but never incorporated into the Papal States, Legates and Vice-legates were appointed. The sovereign modern remnant of the formerly large Papal States, the tiny Vatican City State, is now a mere enclave in Rome, the capital of Italian Republic. As it is too small to have further administrative territorial divisions, it is the equivalent of a Prime Minister, Governor
Governor
and Mayor
Mayor
all rolled into one post, styled the Governor
Governor
of Vatican City.

Other modern Asian countries[edit] Indonesia[edit] In Indonesia, the title gubernur refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provincial Government. The Governor
Governor
and the Vice Governor
Governor
are elected by a direct vote from the people as a couple, so the Governor
Governor
is responsible to the provincial residents. The governor has a term of five years to work in office and can be re-elected for another single period. In case of death, disability, or resignation, Vice Governor
Governor
would stand in. The elected Governor
Governor
is inaugurated by the President, or by the Indonesian minister of home affairs in the name of the President. In addition, the Governor
Governor
is the representative of central government in the province, and is responsible to the President. The Governor's authority is regulated within the Indonesian Act Number 32 of the year 2004 and the Governmental Ordinance Number 19 of the year 2010. Principally, the Governor
Governor
has the tasks and the authorities to lead governmental services in the province, based upon the policies that have been made together with the Provincial Parliament. The Governor is not the superordinate of regents or mayors, but he/she is only to guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of city/municipal and regency governments. In other parts, municipal and regency governments have the rights to manage each governance affairs based on autonomy principle and assistantship duties. Japan[edit] Main article: Governor
Governor
(Japan) In Japan,[6] the title "Governor" (知事, chiji) refers to the highest ranking executive of a Prefectural Government. The Governor
Governor
is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four years. There is no restriction on the number of terms a person may serve as governor. The governor holds considerable power within the prefecture, including the ability to veto ordinances that have been passed by the prefecture assembly, as well as control of the prefecture's budget and the power to dissolve the prefecture assembly. The governor can be subjected to a recall referendum. A total of one to four vice governors are appointed by the governor with the approval of the assembly. In the case of the governor's death, disability, or resignation, a vice governor would stand in as governor or acting governor. See List of governors of Japan
Japan
for a list of the current governors. People's Republic
Republic
of China[edit] Main article: Governor
Governor
(People's Republic
Republic
of China) In the People's Republic
Republic
of China, the title "Governor" (Chinese: 省长; pinyin: shěngzhǎng) refers to the highest ranking executive of a provincial government. The Governor
Governor
is usually placed second in the provincial power hierarchy, below the Secretary of the provincial Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as the highest ranking Party official in the province. Governors are elected by the provincial congresses and approved by the provincial party chief.[7][8][9] All governors are not locals in the provinces which they govern.[10] The title can be also used while referring to a County Governor (县长). Philippines[edit] During both the Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as during the Japanese Occupation of World War II, the chief executive of the colony was called the Governor-General of the Philippines. In the Republic
Republic
of the Philippines, the title "Governor" (Gobernador or Punong Lalawigan in Filipino), refers to the highest ranking executive of a Philippine province. The governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and has a fixed term of three years. A governor can serve only up to a maximum of three consecutive terms. He may however be suspended by either the Ombudsman
Ombudsman
or the President, through the Secretary of Department of Interior and Local Government. He may be removed by the President
President
if found guilty of an administrative case or a criminal act during his tenure. He may be subjected to a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, the voters elect the governor of their choice. In case of death, disability, resignation, forced removal or suspension, vice governor, elected separately in the same election for governor, succeeds as governor, or acting governor, as the case may be. In the Autonomous Region on Muslim Mindanao, a Regional Governor
Governor
and Regional Vice Governor
Governor
are elected by a block vote similar to the United States
United States
President. Thailand[edit] In Thailand, the title "Governor" (ผู้ว่าราชการ Phuwa Ratcha Gaan in Thai) refers to the administrator of each Thai province, who is appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The only exception is the specially governed district of Bangkok, whose governor is elected by its population, thus making him or her equivalent to a mayor. Other modern countries in North America[edit] United States[edit] Main article: Governor
Governor
(United States) In the United States, the title "Governor" refers to the chief executive of each state or insular territory. Governors retain sovereign police power, are not subordinate to the federal authorities except by laws provided by the enumerated powers section of the federal constitution, and serve as the political and ceremonial head of the state. Nearly three-fourths of the states (36) hold gubernatorial elections in the same years as midterm elections (2 years off set from presidential elections). Eleven states hold them in the same years as presidential elections ( Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire hold elections every two years in every even numbered year), while the remaining five hold them in odd numbered years (two in the year after a presidential election, three in the year before). In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways, depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colonies of Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British colonies, the Board of Trade
Board of Trade
was often the primary decision maker. Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In proprietary colonies, such as the Province of Carolina before it became a crown colony (and was divided into North and South), governors were chosen by the Lords Proprietor who controlled the colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
evicted (with varying levels of violence) royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had corporate charters; Connecticut
Connecticut
Governor Jonathan Trumbull
Jonathan Trumbull
was governor before and during the war period, while in Rhode Island, Governor
Governor
Joseph Wanton
Joseph Wanton
was removed from office in 1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort. Before achieving statehood, many of the fifty states were territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the President
President
and confirmed by the Senate rather than elected by the resident population. Mexico[edit] Main article: List of Mexican state governors In the United Mexican States, governor refers to the elected chief and head of each of the nation's thirty one Free and Sovereign States with the official Spanish title being Gobernador. Mexican governors are directly elected by the citizens of each state for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected. Other modern countries in South America[edit] Many of the South American republics (such as Chile
Chile
and Argentina) have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices similar in nature to U.S. state
U.S. state
governors. Brazil[edit] Main article: List of current state governors in Brazil Until the 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces, now called States, were styled as presidents (presidentes), later governors (governadores) and intervators (interventores; appointed by the federal government). By 1945, only the term governors was used. Modern equivalents[edit] As a generic term, Governor
Governor
is used for various 'equivalent' officers governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles such as:

colonial High Commissioner (not the Ambassadors exchanged within the Commonwealth)

This also applies to non-western or antique culture Other meanings of the word[edit] The word governor can also refer to an administrator or supervisor (individually or collectively, see Board of Governors); the Governor of a national bank often holds ministerial rank.

Federal Reserve Board of Governors Governor
Governor
of the Bank of Canada Governor
Governor
of the Bank of England Governor
Governor
of the National Bank of Romania List of governors of national banks of Serbia and Yugoslavia Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company

See also[edit]

Bey Lieutenant governor Viceroy Voivode

References[edit]

^ The Mavens' Word of the Day ^ "Functions of County Government". Commission on Revenue Allocation. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ "Appointment Of Persons To Important Posts". Malaysian Monarchy. Retrieved 2011-04-13.  ^ "Gubernatorial elections to return to Russia this autumn". Pravda.ru. Retrieved 25 April 2012.  ^ Duden; Definition of Landeshauptmann, in German. [1] ^ 地方自治法 ^ "Liu Weiping elected governor of Gansu province". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-07-17.  ^ "Zhou Qiang re-elected governor of Hunan Province". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2012-07-17.  ^ "Local Government in Asia and the Pacific – China". Unescap.org. 1997-07-01. Retrieved 2012-07-17.  ^ Zhiyue Bo (2007). China's elite politics: political transition and power balancing. Series on contemporary China. World Scientific. p. 385. ISBN 9789812700414. 

Authority control

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