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Gorgan
Gorgan
( pronunciation (help·info)) (Persian: گرگان‎;[2] formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)[3][4]) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.[5]

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Geography and climate 4 Demographics

4.1 Notable people

4.1.1 Historical figures 4.1.2 Contemporary figures

5 Culture and art 6 Entertainment locations 7 Education 8 Transportation 9 Sports 10 Sister cities 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Name[edit] The Modern Persian word Gorgān (گرگان) is derived from Middle Persian Gurgān (𐭢𐭥𐭫𐭢𐭠𐭭), itself from Old Persian Varkāna (𐎺𐎼𐎣𐎠𐎴), the Achaemenid satrapy southeast of Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
(encompassed all of the present day Golestan Province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province, and some southern parts of the modern-day Turkmenistan), which is reflected in Greek sources as Hyrcania
Hyrcania
(Ὑρκανία), Hyrcani or Hyrcana. The region is also mentioned in Avesta
Avesta
as Vəhrkāna (𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬁𐬥𐬀). The name is derived from the Proto-Iranian word *vrka-, meaning "wolf". In post-Islamic Persia the city was known as Jurjān (جرجان), the Arabized form of the Persian word. The Caspian form of the name is Wergen. In modern times and until 1937, the city used to be known as Astarābād (استرآباد), which means the town of horses. The area is famous for the local breed of horse. Astar is a cognate of Old Norse word for horse, Hestr. History[edit] Main article: Hyrcania There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. Some other important Neolithic
Neolithic
sites in the area are Yarim Tepe, Iran, and Sange Chaxmaq. Also, the nearby Shahroud
Shahroud
Plain has many such sites. The total number of confirmed Neolithic
Neolithic
sites on the Gorgan
Gorgan
Plain is now over 50.[6]

Historic wall of Gorgan
Gorgan
signs

According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania
Hyrcania
and site of the "royal palace".[7] The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.[8] Hyrcania
Hyrcania
became part of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
during the reign of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(559-530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC). The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.[9] Gurgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century. In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli.[10][11] The "Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan". Gurgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia
Parthia
(the Greater Khorasan) or the Tabaristan
Tabaristan
regions. Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty. Geography and climate[edit] The wide Dasht-e Gorgan
Gorgan
(Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 1,700 square kilometres (660 sq mi). Some 150 km (93 mi) east of Gorgan
Gorgan
is the Golestan National Park, home to a big portion of the fauna of Iran. Gorgan
Gorgan
has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz
Alborz
mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan
Gorgan
valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres (23.7 in).

Climate data for Gorgan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29 (84) 32.4 (90.3) 35 (95) 39 (102) 43 (109) 45 (113) 44 (111) 44 (111) 41.6 (106.9) 39 (102) 36 (97) 29.2 (84.6) 45 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 12.4 (54.3) 13.1 (55.6) 15.3 (59.5) 21.2 (70.2) 26.9 (80.4) 30.9 (87.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 29.9 (85.8) 24.8 (76.6) 18.8 (65.8) 14.3 (57.7) 22.74 (72.93)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 8.5 (47.3) 10.7 (51.3) 16.0 (60.8) 21.2 (70.2) 25.4 (77.7) 27.7 (81.9) 27.8 (82) 24.8 (76.6) 19.4 (66.9) 13.9 (57) 9.8 (49.6) 17.76 (63.96)

Average low °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 3.8 (38.8) 6.1 (43) 10.7 (51.3) 15.5 (59.9) 19.9 (67.8) 22.8 (73) 22.9 (73.2) 19.6 (67.3) 13.9 (57) 8.9 (48) 5.2 (41.4) 12.73 (54.9)

Record low °C (°F) −10 (14) −6 (21) −3.2 (26.2) 0 (32) 2.8 (37) 10 (50) 15 (59) 13 (55) 9 (48) 3 (37) −2 (28) −7 (19) −10 (14)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.0 (2.165) 55.8 (2.197) 79.4 (3.126) 52.8 (2.079) 44.1 (1.736) 33.4 (1.315) 22.2 (0.874) 27.3 (1.075) 38.9 (1.531) 66.1 (2.602) 68.5 (2.697) 57.5 (2.264) 601 (23.661)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.4 8.0 10.5 8.0 6.1 4.2 3.7 4.2 5.2 5.7 6.7 6.8 76.5

Average relative humidity (%) 73 73 74 72 67 64 65 68 69 70 73 74 70.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.3 128.1 132.3 164.6 207.6 220.4 221.9 220.5 196.3 196.4 151.1 132.8 2,107.3

Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics

Demographics[edit] The population of the city has been 329,536 as of 2011. Majority of people in Gorgan
Gorgan
speak Persian. A big portion of the city are migrants from nearby regions, including Mazanderanis, Azeris, people from Semnan and Khorasan provinces, as well as some Turkmens, and a small population of Kazakhs. Gorgani, a dialect of Mazanderani language, was formerly spoken in the city, but it is extinct now, and only several of its words have remained in the accent of the Persian-speakers of the city. Notable people[edit] See also: List of people from Gorgan Historical figures[edit]

Bust of Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani

Picture showing Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi in pink clothes and Nader Shah Afshar on horseback.

House of Karen, an aristocratic feudal family first attested in the Arsacid era, belonged to the region of Hyrcania. Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Persian poet and the composer of Vis and Ramin. Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician Al-Masihi, 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi), 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician Mir Fendereski, philosopher, poet and mysti Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran Firishta, historian Sardar Rafie Yanehsari, Governor of Astarabad

Contemporary figures[edit]

Mohammad Reza Lotfi

Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Traditional Persian musician Nader Ebrahimi, author, poet, director, and researcher Maryam Zandi, photographer

Culture and art[edit] Gorgan
Gorgan
(as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in modern-day Uzbekistan.

Ceramic bowl from the Seljuk period

Ceramic compound vessel, 12-13th century, Gorgan,Abgineh Museum of Tehran

Farah Pahlavi
Farah Pahlavi
visiting Turkmen rugs in Gorgan

Baqeri House (fa), a traditional house built in Pahlavi era

Entertainment locations[edit]

Nahar Khoran
Nahar Khoran
Forest (ناهارخوران) Alangdare Forest (النگدره) Ziarat Village
Ziarat Village
(روستای زیارت) Hezarpich Hill (هزارپیچ) Emadiyyeh School Sorkhankalateh Hill (سرخنکلاته) Ismail Shirine Sorkhankalateh Qajar era underground bathroom, Sorkhankalateh

Nahar Khoran
Nahar Khoran
Forest

Alangdarreh Forest

Ziarat Village

Ziarat Waterfall, Ziarat Village

Cinemas

Capri Cinema (کاپری), Bahman Cinema (سینما بهمن), and Asr-e Jadid Cinema (سینما عصر جدید), formerly called Moulin-Rouge Cinema (سینما مولن‌روژ), are among the oldest cinemas in Gorgan. Education[edit]

Mirdamad Cultural Institute (MCI)

Islamic Azad University of Gorgan Golestan University of Medical Sciences[12] Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education

Transportation[edit]

Gorgan
Gorgan
Railway Station

There is an international airport near the city. Sports[edit] The main sport in Gorgan
Gorgan
is Basketball. Shahrdari Gorgan
Gorgan
competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League. Currently the main football team of Gorgan
Gorgan
is Etka Gorgan
Gorgan
F.C., which competes in the Azadegan League. Sister cities[edit]

Aktau, Kazakhstan[13] Samsun, Turkey
Turkey
(2006)

See also[edit]

Gorgan
Gorgan
International Airport al-Jurjani Gorgan-rud River Gurganj Gorgan
Gorgan
Gulf

References[edit]

^ https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1396/11/04/1637345 ^ Also Romanized as Gorgān, Gurgān, and Gurgan. Persian pronunciation: [goɾˈgɒn] ^ Also Romanized as Astarābād, Asterabad, and Esterabad. Persian pronunciation: [ʔæsˌtæɾɒːˈbɒːd] ^ Gorgan
Gorgan
can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3064853" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.  ^ Kourosh Roustaei (2017), Neolithic
Neolithic
developments in the Gorgan
Gorgan
Plain, south-east of the Caspian Sea. academia.edu ^ Arrian
Arrian
(1884). "Chapter XXV: March to Bactra.—Bessus Aided by Satibaezanes.". The Anabasis of Alexander. 3. Translated by E.J. Chinnock. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 191–193.  ^ electricpulp.com. "GORGAN v. Pre-Islamic history – Encyclopaedia Iranica".  ^ Bivar, A.D.H. "Gorgan" Encyclopædia Iranica online ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan (2010). Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2, Parts 5-8. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 892.  ^ Brosset, Marie-Felicite (1858). Histoire de la Géorgie depuis l'Antiquité jusqu'au XIXe siècle. France: imprimerie de l'Académie Impériale des sciences. pp. 468–472.  ^ "Golestan University of Medical Sciences- دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان - Golestan University of Medical Sciences - دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان". GOUMS. Retrieved 2013-01-26.  ^ KZ-Today Archived 2008-06-04 at the Wayback Machine. September 11, 2006

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gorgan.

v t e

Golestan Province

Capital

Gorgan

Counties and cities

Aliabad County

Aliabad-e Katul Fazelabad

Aqqala
Aqqala
County

Aqqala Anbar Olum

Azadshahr
Azadshahr
County

Azadshahr Neginshahr Now Deh Khanduz

Bandar-e Gaz
Bandar-e Gaz
County

Bandar-e Gaz Now Kandeh

Galikash
Galikash
County

Galikash

Gonbad-e Qabus County

Gonbad-e Qabus Incheh Borun

Gorgan
Gorgan
County

Gorgan Sarkhon Kalateh

Kalaleh
Kalaleh
County

Kalaleh

Kordkuy
Kordkuy
County

Kordkuy

Maraveh Tappeh
Maraveh Tappeh
County

Maraveh Tappeh

Minudasht
Minudasht
County

Minudasht

Ramian
Ramian
County

Ramian Daland Khan Bebin

Torkaman County

Bandar Torkaman Gomishan Siminshahr

Sights

Alma Gol Lake Alangdareh Ashuradeh Great Wall of Gorgan Golestan National Park Gonbad-e Qabus Tower ShirAbad Waterfall Kaboud-val Naharkhoran Gomishan
Gomishan
lake Voshmgir dam Miankaleh peninsula Makhtum Quli Farghi's mausoleum Radkan Dome

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Golestan Province

v t e

Gorgan
Gorgan
County

Capital

Gorgan

Districts

Central

Cities

Gorgan

Rural Districts and villages

Anjirabad

Amirabad Ebrahimabad Fakhrabad va Golnad Tariki Fath Bagh Karimabad Lamlang Mamai Mohammadabad Owja Bon Qaleh Mahmud Sadabad Shir Aliabad Sistani Mahalleh Soleyman Tappeh Tushan Zangian

Estarabad-e Jonubi (South Estarabad)

Ahangar Mahalleh Bagh-e Golbon Chahar Bagh Dar Asiab Do Dangeh Esfahan Kalateh Eslamabad-e Jelin Feyzabad Jelin-e Olya Jelin-e Sofla Kheyrat Kui Sadaf Maryamabad Nahar Khvoran Nasrabad Nowmal Qarnabad Shahkuh-e Sofla Siahtalu Tuskastan Valikabad Ziarat

Roshanabad

Alfan Chalaki Esbu Mahalleh Hashemabad Heydarabad Kafshgiri Kalu Kola Sangian Kolajan-e Qajar Kolajan-e Sadat Laldevin Lamsak Now Chaman Nowdijeh Qalandar Mahalleh Sadan Sar Kalateh-ye Kafshgiri Seyyed Miran Shamushak-e Olya Shamushak-e Sofla Takhshi Mahalleh Varsan Yalu Yisi Mahalleh

Baharan

Cities

Sarkhon Kalateh

Rural Districts and villages

Estarabad-e Shomali (North Estarabad)

Aliabad-e Kenar Shahr Alu Kalateh Atra Chal Chahar Chenar Chuplani Darvishabad Fujerd Kamalabad Kamasi Marzan Kalateh Masumabad Mir Mahalleh Now Deh-e Sharif Rostam Kalateh-ye Sadat Shamsabad Soltanabad Turang Tappeh

Qoroq

Baluchabad Bolbol Tappeh Chenar Qeshlaq Genareh Guzan-e Fars Hoseynabad-e Malek Jafarabad Jahan Tigh Jahanabad-e Olya Jahanabad-e Sofla Mianabad-e Malek Now Deh-e Malek Qoliabad Qoroq Taqiabad Teymurabad Toqor

.