This complex of ancient monuments includes the three pyramid
complexes known as the Great Pyramids, the massive sculpture known as
Great Sphinx , several cemeteries, a workers' village and an
industrial complex. It is located in the
The pyramids, which have historically loomed large as emblems of
* 1 Pyramids and Sphinx
* 1.1 Khufu\'s pyramid complex * 1.2 Khafre\'s pyramid complex * 1.3 Menkaure\'s pyramid complex * 1.4 Sphinx * 1.5 Tomb of Queen Khentkaus I
* 2 Construction
* 2.1 Purpose
* 3 Workers\' village
* 4 Cemeteries
* 4.1 West Field * 4.2 East Field * 4.3 Cemetery GIS * 4.4 Central Field * 4.5 South Field * 4.6 Tombs of the pyramid builders
PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX
Views, Objects: Egypt. Gizeh . View 05: Sphinx and Pyramids.,
n.d., New York.
The Pyramids of
KHUFU\'S PYRAMID COMPLEX
KHAFRE\'S PYRAMID COMPLEX
Khafre’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx
temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king’s pyramid. The
valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre. Several were found in
a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were
found during successive excavations by Sieglin (1909–10), Junker,
Reisner, and Hassan. Khafre’s complex contained five boat-pits and a
subsidiary pyramid with a serdab . :19–26 Khafre's pyramid appears
larger than the adjacent
MENKAURE\'S PYRAMID COMPLEX
Menkaure’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure . During the 5th dynasty , a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure . The king’s pyramid has three subsidiary or queen’s pyramids. :26–35 Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.
The Sphinx dates from the reign of king
Khafre . During the New
TOMB OF QUEEN KHENTKAUS I
Main article: Khentkaus I
Khentkaus I was buried in Giza. Her tomb is known as LG 100 and G 8400 and is located in the Central Field, near the valley temple of Menkaure . The pyramid complex of Queen Khentkaus includes: her pyramid, a boat pit, a valley temple and a pyramid town. :288–289
Main article: Egyptian pyramid construction techniques
Most construction theories are based on the idea that the pyramids were built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. The disagreements center on the method by which the stones were conveyed and placed and how possible the method was.
In building the pyramids, the architects might have developed their techniques over time. They would select a site on a relatively flat area of bedrock—not sand—which provided a stable foundation. After carefully surveying the site and laying down the first level of stones, they constructed the pyramids in horizontal levels, one on top of the other.
For the Great
To ensure that the pyramid remained symmetrical, the exterior casing stones all had to be equal in height and width. Workers might have marked all the blocks to indicate the angle of the pyramid wall and trimmed the surfaces carefully so that the blocks fit together. During construction, the outer surface of the stone was smooth limestone; excess stone has eroded as time has passed.
The pyramids of
The work of quarrying, moving, setting, and sculpting the huge amount
of stone used to build the pyramids might have been accomplished by
several thousand skilled workers, unskilled laborers and supporting
workers. Bakers, carpenters, water carriers, and others were also
needed for the project. Along with the methods utilized to construct
the pyramids, there is also wide speculation regarding the exact
number of workers needed for a building project of this magnitude.
When Greek historian
Without carbon dating, using only pottery shards, seal impressions,
and stratigraphy to date the site, the team further concludes; "The
picture that emerges is that of a planned settlement, some of the
world's earliest urban planning, securely dated to the reigns of two
As the pyramids were constructed, the mastabas for lesser royals were constructed around them. Near the pyramid of Khufu, the main cemetery is G 7000 which lies in the East Field located to the east of the main pyramid and next to the Queen’s pyramids. These cemeteries around the pyramids were arranged along streets and avenues. Cemetery G 7000 was one of the earliest and contained tombs of wives, sons and daughters of these 4th dynasty rulers. On the other side of the pyramid in the West Field, the royals sons Wepemnofret and Hemiunu were buried in Cemetery G 1200 and Cemetery G 4000 respectively. These cemeteries were further expanded during the 5th and 6th dynasty .
The West Field is located to the west of
Cemeteries in the West Field at
Abu Bakr Excavations the 5th and 6th dynasty (1949–53)
Cemetery G 1000 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Stone built mastabas
Cemetery G 1100 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1300 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1400 the 5th dynasty or later Reisner (1903–05) Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1500
Reisner (1931?) Only one mastaba (G 1601)
Cemetery G 1600 the 5th dynasty or later Reisner (1931) Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1900
Reisner (1931) Only one mastabas (G 1903)
Cemetery G 2000
the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1905–06)
Cemetery G 2100 the 4th and 5th dynasty and later Reisner (1931) G 2100 belongs to Merib, a King’s (grand-)Son and G2101 belongs to a 5th dynasty king’s daughter.
Cemetery G 2200
Late 4th or early 5th dynasty
Cemetery G 2300 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Reisner (1911–13) Includes mastabas of Vizier Senedjemib-Inti and his family.
Cemetery G 2400 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Reisner (1911–13)
Cemetery G 2500
Cemetery G 3000 6th dynasty Fisher and Eckley Case Jr (1915)
Cemetery G 4000 4th dynasty and later Junker and Reisner (1931) Includes tomb of the Vizier Hemiunu
Cemetery G 6000 5th dynasty Reisner (1925–26)
Steindorff Cemetery 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Steindorff (1903–07)
Junker Cemetery (East) Late Old Kingdom Junker
The East Field is located to the east of Khufu’s pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000. This cemetery was a burial place for some of the family members of Khufu. The cemetery also includes mastabas from tenants and priests of the pyramids dated to the 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty. :179–216
Cemeteries G 7000 – Royalty :179–208 TOMB NUMBER OWNER COMMENTS
G 7560 Akhethotep and Meritites II Meritites is a daughter of Khufu
G 7660 Kaemsekhem Son of Kawab, a grandson of Khufu, served as Director of the Palace
Main article: Cemetery GIS
This cemetery dates from the time of Menkaure (Junker) or earlier (Reisner), and contains several stone-built mastabas dating from as late as the 6th dynasty . Tombs from the time of Menkaure include the mastabas of the royal chamberlain Khaemnefert, the King’s son Khufudjedef was master of the royal largesse, and an official named Niankhre. :216–228
Main article: Central Field,
The Central Field contains several burials of royal family members. The tombs range in date from the end of the 4th dynasty to the 5th dynasty or even later. :230–293
Central Field – Royalty :230–293 TOMB NUMBER OWNER COMMENTS
G 8140 Niuserre Son of Khafre , Vizier in the 5th dynasty
G 8130 Niankhre King’s Son, probably 5th dynasty
G 8080 (LG 92) Iunmin King’s Son, end of 4th dynasty
G 8260 Babaef Son of Khafre , end of 4th dynasty
G 8460 Ankhmare King’s son and Vizier, end of 4th dynasty
G 8408 Bunefer King’s daughter and Queen, end of 4th dynasty or 5th dynasty
G 8978 Khamerernebty I King’s daughter and Queen, middle to end of 4th dynasty. Also known as the Galarza Tomb
Tombs dating from the
Saite and later period were found near the
Khafre and the
Great Sphinx . These tombs include the tomb
of a commander of the army named Ahmose and his mother Queen
Nakhtubasterau, who was the wife of
The South Field includes some mastabas dating from the 2nd dynasty and 3rd dynasty . One of these early dynastic tombs is referred to as the Covington tomb. Other tombs date from the late Old Kingdom (5th and 6th dynasty). The south section of the field contains several tombs dating from the Saite period and later. :294–297
TOMBS OF THE PYRAMID BUILDERS
In 1990, tombs belonging to the pyramid workers were discovered alongside the pyramids with an additional burial site found nearby in 2009. Although not mummified, they had been buried in mud-brick tombs with beer and bread to support them in the afterlife. The tombs' proximity to the pyramids and the manner of burial supports the theory that they were paid laborers who took great pride in their work and were not slaves, as was previously thought. The commonly held belief of slaves building the pyramids was likely to have been popularized by Hollywood films based on the original archaeological and anthropological opinion that they could not have been built without forced labor. Evidence from the tombs indicates that a workforce of 10,000 laborers working in three-month shifts took around 30 years to build a pyramid. Most of the workers appear to have come from poor families. Farms supplied the laborers with 21 cattle and 23 sheep daily. Specialists such as architects, masons, metalworkers and carpenters, were permanently employed by the king to fill positions that required the most skill.
The sides of all three of the
* ^ Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes.
* ^ Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller
Pedro Tafur in
1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur,
Andanças e viajes).
* ^ A B C D E F G H Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery,
Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001
(1997). ISBN 0-8021-3935-3
* ^ Shafer, Byron E.; Dieter Arnold (2005). Temples of Ancient
Egypt. I.B. Tauris. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1-85043-945-5 .
* ^ Arnold, Dieter; Nigel Strudwick; Helen Strudwick (2002). The
encyclopaedia of ancient Egyptian architecture. I.B. Tauris. p. 126.
ISBN 978-1-86064-465-8 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Porter, Bertha and Moss,
Rosalind L. B. . Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian
Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Volume III. Memphis. Part
I. Abû Rawâsh to Abûṣîr. 2nd edition, revised and augmented by
Jaromír Málek, The Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. PDF from The Giza
Archives, 29,5 MB Retrieved February 10, 2017.
* ^ Riddle of the Sphinx Retrieved 6 November 2010.
* ^ "
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