The GIUDICATI (judicatus in Latin ; judicadu, logu or rennu in Sardinian ) were independent states that took power in Sardinia between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. They were sovereign states with summa potestas , each ruled by a king called judge (judike in Sardinian).
* 1 Historical causes of the advent of the giudicati
* 1.1 The birth of the four giudicati
* 2 Governments
* 2.1 The Corona de Logu and the central council * 2.2 Judges * 2.3 The giudical chancellery
* 2.4 Local administration
* 2.4.1 Curadorias
* 2.5 Law
* 3 Giudical army
* 4 Culture
* 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Language
* 5 Pisan-Genoese and Aragonese interference and end of the giudicati * 6 Notes * 7 Bibliography
HISTORICAL CAUSES OF THE ADVENT OF THE GIUDICATI
For more details on this topic, see Byzantine Sardinia .
After 705, with the rapid expansion of Islam , Muslim pirates from North Africa began to raid the island and encountered no effective opposition by the Byzantine army . In 815, Sardinian ambassadors required military assistance from the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious .
In 807, 810-812, and 821-822 the Arabs of Spain and North Africa
tried to invade the island but the Sardinians resisted several
attacks. This defence was so effective that in a letter in 851, Pope
Leo IV asked the Iudex Provinciae (judge of the province) of Sardinia,
THE BIRTH OF THE FOUR GIUDICATI
The almost total absence of historical sources does not allow
certainty surrounding the date of the passage from Byzantine central
authority to self-government in Sardinia. It is believed that at some
point the Iudex Provinciae, perhaps the praeses , of
The first incontrovertible source that cites the existence of four
giudicati is the epistle sent by
Pope Gregory VII
The known medieval giudicati were:
Giudicato of Cagliari
Each of the four States had fortified borders to protect their political and commercial interests, as well their own laws, administration and emblems.
The administrative organization of the giudicati differed significantly from the feudal forms existing in the rest of medieval Europe as their institutions were closer to those of the territories of the Byzantine Empire, although with local peculiarities that some scholars consider of Nuragic derivation.
In the international context of the Middle Ages , the giudicati were characterized by semi-democratic institutions such as the Coronas de curatorias which in turn elected their own representatives to the parliamentary assizes called Corona de Logu.
THE CORONA DE LOGU AND THE CENTRAL COUNCIL
The central government and the entire Judiciary were ruled substantially by the judge. The king did not have possession of the land nor was he the repository of sovereignty since this was formally held by the Corona de Logu, a council of elders (representatives of the administrative districts - Curadorias) and high priests. They appointed the ruler and attributed the supreme power to him, while maintaining the power to ratify acts and agreements related to the entire kingdom.
During su Collectu (coronation ceremony) in the capital, a representative of each curadorias, members of the high clergy, the castle lords, two representatives of the capital elected by delegates from jurados Coronas de curatoria, came together. Then the judex was crowned with a mixed-elected hereditary system following the direct male line and, only in the alternative, the female line.
The judge ruled on the basis of a covenant with the people (the
bannus-consensus). The sovereign could be dethroned and even, in cases
of serious acts of tyranny and oppression, executed legitimately by
the same people, without this prejudging the inheritance of the title
within the same ruling dynasty.
Marianus IV of Arborea
The judge was not an absolute ruler of feudal tradition, at least in form: he could not declare war or sign a peace treaty without the consent of the Corona de Logu. However, that was composed primarily of his aristocracy's relatives and, therefore, linked by common interests.
The succession to the throne was dynastic but in some case there was the possibility of election by the Corona De Logu.
THE GIUDICAL CHANCELLERY
In the government of the territory, the Judge was assisted by the Chancellery. The sovereign authority was in fact formalized with the drafting of official acts called bullata paper, written by the statal chancellor, usually a bishop or at least a senior member of the clergy, assisted by other officials called majores.
The territory of various giudicati was divided into curadorias, administrative districts of varying sizes formed by urban and rural villages, dependent on a capital which housed the curadore. These administrators, aided especially by jurados (judges) and a council the Corona de curatoria, represented the judicial authority locally and tended to the public property of the Crown.
The curadore appointed for each village was part of the curadorias a majore de Bidda (the modern equivalent of a mayor ) with administrative and judicial powers, and direct responsibility for the successful actions of land management.
The Sardinian giudical armies were composed of troops made up of soldiers and free citizens, subject to periodic rotation. In an emergency forced conscription was used. The elite corps was made up of so-called bujakesos, chosen riders who served under the command of the janna de Majore, the commander in charge of the security of the sovereign. The main armaments were the sword, chain mail , the shield, the helmet, and the birrudu, a weapon similar to the ancient verutum , the Roman javelin.
The militias of the ground and the infantry (birrudos) used a shorter version of this same weapon. Besides the use of spears and shields, another common weapon was the leppa , a sword with a bone handle and curved blade, between 50 and 70 cm long which was still in use, in a more contained dimension, until the end of nineteenth century. In Sardinia a type of longbow was made, and over time the use of the crossbow spread.
In case of conflict judges often use mercenary troops, such as the dreaded Genoese crossbowmen .
Christianity spread throughout most of the island in the early
centuries, excluding much of the
The Sardinian Church was an autocephalous institution for five centuries, independent from both the Byzantine and the Roman Curia . In the eleventh century, after the schism of 1054, the judikes, according to Pope Alexander II , began a policy for the development of Western monasticism on the island, with the aim of a wider dissemination of culture but also of new techniques for cultivating the land. The immigration of monastics to the island was fueled by donated funds, and local churches were built by the giudical aristocracy. However, there were still strong ties with the Eastern liturgy. In 1092 a papal bull expressly abolished the autonomy and autocephaly of the Church of Sardinia, which was placed under the primacy of the Archbishop of Pisa .
The first act of donation was made in 1064 by Barisone I of Torres
who gave the
Benedictine monks of
Monte Cassino a large area of its
territory with churches (including the Byzantine church of Nostra
Segnora de Mesumundu ), not far from the then capital of Ardara . For
several centuries afterwards representatives of many religious orders
including the monks of the
Abbey of Montecassino , the
Vallombrosians , the
Byzantine Greek was used as an administrative language during the Byzantine period, but fell into disuse. Latin , which had long been the language of the native population, developed into the Sardinian language and became the official language. It was also used in legal and administrative documents such as the condaghe , municipal statutes, and the laws of the kingdoms such as the Carta de Logu .
PISAN-GENOESE AND ARAGONESE INTERFERENCE AND END OF THE GIUDICATI
In red the Sardinian territories controlled directly by
From the second half of the thirteenth century the autonomous
existence of the giudicati of Logudoro, Gallura and Calari ended due
to the diplomatic maneuvers of
Arborea lasted longer and, between 1323 and 1326, participated in an
alliance with the
Crown of Aragon at the conquest of the Pisan
Sardinia (the former giudicati of Gallura and Calari).
However, threatened by the Aragonese claims of suzerainty and
consolidation of the rest of the island, in 1353 the Giudicato of
Marianus IV of Arborea
Giudicato of Arborea
* ^ Solmi , p. 58. * ^ Solmi , p. 60. * ^ Solmi , p. 59. * ^ Giuseppe Meloni, L’origine dei Giudicati * ^ Francesco Cesare Casula, La politica religiosa del giudicato di Torres, ne I Cistercensi in Sardegna, Nuoro, 1990 * ^ Francesco Cesare Casula, La politica religiosa del giudicato di Torres, ne I Cistercensi in Sardegna, Nuoro, 1990 * ^ Cherchi Paba F., La Chiesa Greca, Cagliari, 1962
* Ortu G.G., La Sardegna dei Giudici, Nuoro, 2005 ISBN 88-89801-02-6
* Birocchi I. e Mattone A. (a cura di), La Carta de logu d'Arborea
nella storia del diritto medievale e moderno, Roma-Bari, 2004. ISBN
* AA.VV., Storia dei sardi e della Sardegna, II-III Voll., Milano,
* A. Solmi - Studi storici sulle istituzioni della Sardegna nel